Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

surface characterization Related Abstracts

5 Topographic and Thermal Analysis of Plasma Polymer Coated Hybrid Fibers for Composite Applications

Authors: Hande Yavuz, Grégory Girard, Jinbo Bai


Manufacturing of hybrid composites requires particular attention to overcome various critical weaknesses that are originated from poor interfacial compatibility. A large number of parameters have to be considered to optimize the interfacial bond strength either to avoid flaw sensitivity or delamination that occurs in composites. For this reason, surface characterization of reinforcement phase is needed in order to provide necessary data to drive an assessment of fiber-matrix interfacial compatibility prior to fabrication of composite structures. Compared to conventional plasma polymerization processes such as radiofrequency and microwave, dielectric barrier discharge assisted plasma polymerization is a promising process that can be utilized to modify the surface properties of carbon fibers in a continuous manner. Finding the most suitable conditions (e.g., plasma power, plasma duration, precursor proportion) for plasma polymerization of pyrrole in post-discharge region either in the presence or in the absence of p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate as well as the characterization of plasma polypyrrole coated fibers are the important aspects of this work. Throughout the current investigation, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) are used to characterize plasma treated hybrid fibers (CNT-grafted Toray T700-12K carbon fibers, referred as T700/CNT). TGA results show the trend in the change of decomposition process of deposited polymer on fibers as a function of temperature up to 900 °C. Within the same period of time, all plasma pyrrole treated samples began to lose weight with relatively fast rate up to 400 °C which suggests the loss of polymeric structures. The weight loss between 300 and 600 °C is attributed to evolution of CO2 due to decomposition of functional groups (e.g. carboxyl compounds). With keeping in mind the surface chemical structure, the higher the amount of carbonyl, alcohols, and ether compounds, the lower the stability of deposited polymer. Thus, the highest weight loss is observed in 1400 W 45 s pyrrole+pTSA.H2O plasma treated sample probably because of the presence of less stable polymer than that of other plasma treated samples. Comparison of the AFM images for untreated and plasma treated samples shows that the surface topography may change on a microscopic scale. The AFM image of 1800 W 45 s treated T700/CNT fiber possesses the most significant increase in roughening compared to untreated T700/CNT fiber. Namely, the fiber surface became rougher with ~3.6 fold that of the T700/CNT fiber. The increase observed in surface roughness compared to untreated T700/CNT fiber may provide more contact points between fiber and matrix due to increased surface area. It is believed to be beneficial for their application as reinforcement in composites.

Keywords: Thermal Stability, surface roughness, hybrid fibers, surface characterization

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4 Effect of the Polymer Modification on the Cytocompatibility of Human and Rat Cells

Authors: P. Slepicka, N. Slepickova Kasalkova, V. Svorcik, L. Bacakova


Tissue engineering includes combination of materials and techniques used for the improvement, repair or replacement of the tissue. Scaffolds, permanent or temporally material, are used as support for the creation of the "new cell structures". For this important component (scaffold), a variety of materials can be used. The advantage of some polymeric materials is their cytocompatibility and possibility of biodegradation. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable,  semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer. PLLA can be fully degraded into H2O and CO2. In this experiment, the effect of the surface modification of biodegradable polymer (performed by plasma treatment) on the various cell types was studied. The surface parameters and changes of the physicochemical properties of modified PLLA substrates were studied by different methods. Surface wettability was determined by goniometry, surface morphology and roughness study were performed with atomic force microscopy and chemical composition was determined using photoelectron spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties were studied in relation to cytocompatibility of human osteoblast (MG 63 cells), rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), and human stem cells (ASC) of the adipose tissue in vitro. A fluorescence microscopy was chosen to study and compare cell-material interaction. Important parameters of the cytocompatibility like adhesion, proliferation, viability, shape, spreading of the cells were evaluated. It was found that the modification leads to the change of the surface wettability depending on the time of modification. Short time of exposition (10-120 s) can reduce the wettability of the aged samples, exposition longer than 150 s causes to increase of contact angle of the aged PLLA. The surface morphology is significantly influenced by duration of modification, too. The plasma treatment involves the formation of the crystallites, whose number increases with increasing time of modification. On the basis of physicochemical properties evaluation, the cells were cultivated on the selected samples. Cell-material interactions are strongly affected by material chemical structure and surface morphology. It was proved that the plasma treatment of PLLA has a positive effect on the adhesion, spreading, homogeneity of distribution and viability of all cultivated cells. This effect was even more apparent for the VSMCs and ASCs which homogeneously covered almost the whole surface of the substrate after 7 days of cultivation. The viability of these cells was high (more than 98% for VSMCs, 89-96% for ASCs). This experiment is one part of the basic research, which aims to easily create scaffolds for tissue engineering with subsequent use of stem cells and their subsequent "reorientation" towards the bone cells or smooth muscle cells.

Keywords: Plasma Treatment, surface characterization, poly(L-lactic acid), cytocompatibility, human osteoblast, rat vascular smooth muscle cells, human stem cells

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3 Surface Characterization of Zincblende and Wurtzite Semiconductors Using Nonlinear Optics

Authors: Hendradi Hardhienata, Tony Sumaryada, Sri Setyaningsih


Current progress in the field of nonlinear optics has enabled precise surface characterization in semiconductor materials. Nonlinear optical techniques are favorable due to their nondestructive measurement and ability to work in nonvacuum and ambient conditions. The advance of the bond hyperpolarizability models opens a wide range of nanoscale surface investigation including the possibility to detect molecular orientation at the surface of silicon and zincblende semiconductors, investigation of electric field induced second harmonic fields at the semiconductor interface, detection of surface impurities, and very recently, study surface defects such as twin boundary in wurtzite semiconductors. In this work, we show using nonlinear optical techniques, e.g. nonlinear bond models how arbitrary polarization of the incoming electric field in Rotational Anisotropy Spectroscopy experiments can provide more information regarding the origin of the nonlinear sources in zincblende and wurtzite semiconductor structure. In addition, using hyperpolarizability consideration, we describe how the nonlinear susceptibility tensor describing SHG can be well modelled using only few parameter because of the symmetry of the bonds. We also show how the third harmonic intensity feature shows considerable changes when the incoming field polarization angle is changed from s-polarized to p-polarized. We also propose a method how to investigate surface reconstruction and defects in wurtzite and zincblende structure at the nanoscale level.

Keywords: surface characterization, bond model, rotational anisotropy spectroscopy, effective hyperpolarizability

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2 Surface Morphology and Wetting Behavior of the Aspidiotus spp. Scale Covers

Authors: Meril Kate Mariano, Billy Joel Almarinez Divina Amalin, Jose Isagani Janairo


The scale insects Aspidiotus destructor and Aspidiotus rigidus exhibit notable scale covers made of wax which provides protection against water loss and is capable to resist wetting, thus making them a desirable model for biomimetic designs. Their waxy covers enable them to infest mainly leaves of coconut trees despite the harsh wind and rain. This study aims to describe and compare the micro morphological characters on the surfaces of their scale covers consequently, how these micro structures affect their wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope was used for the surface characterization while an optical contact angle meter was employed in the wetting measurement. The scale cover of A. destructor is composed of multiple overlapping layers of wax that is arranged regularly while that of A. rigidus is composed of a uniform layer of wax with much more prominent wax ribbons irregularly arranged compared to the former. The protrusions found on the two organisms are formed by the wax ribbons that differ in arrangement with their height being A. destructor (3.57+1.29) < A. rigidus (4.23+1.22) and their density A. destructor (15+2.94) < A. rigidus (18.33+2.64). These morphological measurements could affect the contact angle (CA θ) measurement of A. destructor (102.66+9.78°) < A. rigidus (102.77 + 11.01°) wherein the assessment that the interaction of the liquid to the microstructures of the substrate is a large factor in the wetting properties of the insect scales is realized. The calculated surface free energy of A. destructor (38.47 mJ/m²) > A. rigidus (31.02 mJ/m²) shows inverse proportionality with the CA measurement. The dispersive interaction between the surface and liquid is more prevalent compared to the polar interaction for both Aspidiotus species, which was observed using the Fowkes method. The results of this study have possible applications to be a potential biomimetic design for various industries such as textiles and coatings.

Keywords: biomimetics, Contact angle, surface characterization, Aspidiotus spp, wetting behavior

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1 The Impact of Electrospinning Parameters on Surface Morphology and Chemistry of PHBV Fibers

Authors: Urszula Stachewicz, Mateusz M. Marzec, Andrzej Bernasik, Lukasz Kaniuk


Electrospinning is one of the commonly used methods to produce micro- or nano-fibers. The properties of electrospun fibers allow them to be used to produce tissue scaffolds, biodegradable bandages, or purification membranes. The morphology of the obtained fibers depends on the composition of the polymer solution as well as the processing parameters. Interesting properties such as high fiber porosity can be achieved by changing humidity during electrospinning. Moreover, by changing voltage polarity in electrospinning, we are able to alternate functional groups at the surface of fibers. In this study, electrospun fibers were made of natural, thermoplastic polyester – PHBV (poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydrovaleric acid). The fibrous mats were obtained using both positive and negative voltage polarities, and their surface was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Ulvac-Phi, Chigasaki, Japan). Furthermore, the effect of the humidity on surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Merlin Gemini II, Zeiss, Germany). Electrospun PHBV fibers produced with positive and negative voltage polarity had similar morphology and the average fiber diameter, 2.47 ± 0.21 µm and 2.44 ± 0.15 µm, respectively. The change of the voltage polarity had a significant impact on the reorientation of the carbonyl groups what consequently changed the surface potential of the electrospun PHBV fibers. The increase of humidity during electrospinning causes porosity in the surface structure of the fibers. In conclusion, we showed within our studies that the process parameters such as humidity and voltage polarity have a great influence on fiber morphology and chemistry, changing their functionality. Surface properties of polymer fiber have a significant impact on cell integration and attachment, which is very important in tissue engineering. The possibility of changing surface porosity allows the use of fibers in various tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. Acknowledgment: This study was conducted within 'Nanofiber-based sponges for atopic skin treatment' project., carried out within the First TEAM programme of the Foundation for Polish Science co-financed by the European Union under the European Regional Development Fund, project no POIR.04.04.00-00- 4571/18-00.

Keywords: surface characterization, cells integration, electrospun fiber, PHBV

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