Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Support Vector Machine (SVM) Related Abstracts

14 A Proposed Optimized and Efficient Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Naveed Khan, Abdulaziz Alsadhan


In recent years intrusions on computer network are the major security threat. Hence, it is important to impede such intrusions. The hindrance of such intrusions entirely relies on its detection, which is primary concern of any security tool like Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Therefore, it is imperative to accurately detect network attack. Numerous intrusion detection techniques are available but the main issue is their performance. The performance of IDS can be improved by increasing the accurate detection rate and reducing false positive. The existing intrusion detection techniques have the limitation of usage of raw data set for classification. The classifier may get jumble due to redundancy, which results incorrect classification. To minimize this problem, Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) can be applied to transform raw features into principle features space and select the features based on their sensitivity. Eigen values can be used to determine the sensitivity. To further classify, the selected features greedy search, back elimination, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) can be used to obtain a subset of features with optimal sensitivity and highest discriminatory power. These optimal feature subset used to perform classification. For classification purpose, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) used due to its proven ability in classification. The Knowledge Discovery and Data mining (KDD’99) cup dataset was considered as a benchmark for evaluating security detection mechanisms. The proposed approach can provide an optimal intrusion detection mechanism that outperforms the existing approaches and has the capability to minimize the number of features and maximize the detection rates.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Local Binary Pattern (LBP), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP)

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13 Curvelet Features with Mouth and Face Edge Ratios for Facial Expression Identification

Authors: A. Houacine, S. Kherchaoui


This paper presents a facial expression recognition system. It performs identification and classification of the seven basic expressions; happy, surprise, fear, disgust, sadness, anger, and neutral states. It consists of three main parts. The first one is the detection of a face and the corresponding facial features to extract the most expressive portion of the face, followed by a normalization of the region of interest. Then calculus of curvelet coefficients is performed with dimensionality reduction through principal component analysis. The resulting coefficients are combined with two ratios; mouth ratio and face edge ratio to constitute the whole feature vector. The third step is the classification of the emotional state using the SVM method in the feature space.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM), facial expression identification, curvelet coefficient, recognition system

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12 Automatic Seizure Detection Using Weighted Permutation Entropy and Support Vector Machine

Authors: Noha Seddik, Sherine Youssef, Mohamed Kholeif


The automated epileptic seizure detection research field has emerged in the recent years; this involves analyzing the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals instead of the traditional visual inspection performed by expert neurologists. In this study, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) that uses Weighted Permutation Entropy (WPE) as the input feature is proposed for classifying normal and seizure EEG records. WPE is a modified statistical parameter of the permutation entropy (PE) that measures the complexity and irregularity of a time series. It incorporates both the mapped ordinal pattern of the time series and the information contained in the amplitude of its sample points. The proposed system utilizes the fact that entropy based measures for the EEG segments during epileptic seizure are lower than in normal EEG.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM), electroencephalogram (EEG), epileptic seizure detection, weighted permutation entropy (WPE)

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11 A Comparative Study on ANN, ANFIS and SVM Methods for Computing Resonant Frequency of A-Shaped Compact Microstrip Antennas

Authors: Ahmet Kayabasi, Ali Akdagli


In this study, three robust predicting methods, namely artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used for computing the resonant frequency of A-shaped compact microstrip antennas (ACMAs) operating at UHF band. Firstly, the resonant frequencies of 144 ACMAs with various dimensions and electrical parameters were simulated with the help of IE3D™ based on method of moment (MoM). The ANN, ANFIS and SVM models for computing the resonant frequency were then built by considering the simulation data. 124 simulated ACMAs were utilized for training and the remaining 20 ACMAs were used for testing the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models. The performance of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM models are compared in the training and test process. The average percentage errors (APE) regarding the computed resonant frequencies for training of the ANN, ANFIS and SVM were obtained as 0.457%, 0.399% and 0.600%, respectively. The constructed models were then tested and APE values as 0.601% for ANN, 0.744% for ANFIS and 0.623% for SVM were achieved. The results obtained here show that ANN, ANFIS and SVM methods can be successfully applied to compute the resonant frequency of ACMAs, since they are useful and versatile methods that yield accurate results.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN), a-shaped compact microstrip antenna, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

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10 The Optimum Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) Contribution to Iranian Traditional Music Genre Classification by Instrumental Features

Authors: M. Abbasi Layegh, S. Haghipour, K. Athari, R. Khosravi, M. Tafkikialamdari


An approach to find the optimum mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) for the Radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh, which is the principal emblem and the heart of Persian music, performed by most famous Iranian masters on two Iranian stringed instruments ‘Tar’ and ‘Setar’ is proposed. While investigating the variance of MFCC for each record in themusic database of 1500 gushe of the repertoire belonging to 12 modal systems (dastgâh and âvâz), we have applied the Fuzzy C-Mean clustering algorithm on each of the 12 coefficient and different combinations of those coefficients. We have applied the same experiment while increasing the number of coefficients but the clustering accuracy remained the same. Therefore, we can conclude that the first 7 MFCCs (V-7MFCC) are enough for classification of The Radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh. Classical machine learning algorithms such as MLP neural networks, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) have been employed. Finally, it can be realized that SVM shows a better performance in this study.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Gaussian mixture model (GMM), radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh, Gushe, mel frequency cepstral coefficients, fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm, k-nearest neighbors (KNN), hidden markov model (HMM)

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9 The Accuracy of Parkinson's Disease Diagnosis Using [123I]-FP-CIT Brain SPECT Data with Machine Learning Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Lavanya Madhuri Bollipo, K. V. Kadambari


Objective: To discuss key issues in the diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD), To discuss features influencing PD progression, To discuss importance of brain SPECT data in PD diagnosis, and To discuss the essentiality of machine learning techniques in early diagnosis of PD. An accurate and early diagnosis of PD is nowadays a challenge as clinical symptoms in PD arise only when there is more than 60% loss of dopaminergic neurons. So far there are no laboratory tests for the diagnosis of PD, causing a high rate of misdiagnosis especially when the disease is in the early stages. Recent neuroimaging studies with brain SPECT using 123I-Ioflupane (DaTSCAN) as radiotracer shown to be widely used to assist the diagnosis of PD even in its early stages. Machine learning techniques can be used in combination with image analysis procedures to develop computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for PD. This paper addressed recent studies involving diagnosis of PD in its early stages using brain SPECT data with Machine Learning Techniques.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Parkinson disease (PD), dopamine transporter, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

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8 Transformer Fault Diagnostic Predicting Model Using Support Vector Machine with Gradient Decent Optimization

Authors: R. O. Osaseri, A. R. Usiobaifo


The power transformer which is responsible for the voltage transformation is of great relevance in the power system and oil-immerse transformer is widely used all over the world. A prompt and proper maintenance of the transformer is of utmost importance. The dissolved gasses content in power transformer, oil is of enormous importance in detecting incipient fault of the transformer. There is a need for accurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil in order to facilitate the prompt maintenance and reducing the cost and error minimization. Study on fault prediction and diagnostic has been the center of many researchers and many previous works have been reported on the use of artificial intelligence to predict incipient failure of transformer faults. In this study machine learning technique was employed by using gradient decent algorithms and Support Vector Machine (SVM) in predicting incipient fault diagnosis of transformer. The method focuses on creating a system that improves its performance on previous result and historical data. The system design approach is basically in two phases; training and testing phase. The gradient decent algorithm is trained with a training dataset while the learned algorithm is applied to a set of new data. This two dataset is used to prove the accuracy of the proposed model. In this study a transformer fault diagnostic model based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) and gradient decent algorithms has been presented with a satisfactory diagnostic capability with high percentage in predicting incipient failure of transformer faults than existing diagnostic methods.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Support Vector Machine (SVM), diagnostic model, gradient decent, transformer fault

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7 Diagnosis of Alzheimer Diseases in Early Step Using Support Vector Machine (SVM)

Authors: Faouzi Benzarti, Amira Ben Rabeh, Hamid Amiri, Mouna Bouaziz


Alzheimer is a disease that affects the brain. It causes degeneration of nerve cells (neurons) and in particular cells involved in memory and intellectual functions. Early diagnosis of Alzheimer Diseases (AD) raises ethical questions, since there is, at present, no cure to offer to patients and medicines from therapeutic trials appear to slow the progression of the disease as moderate, accompanying side effects sometimes severe. In this context, analysis of medical images became, for clinical applications, an essential tool because it provides effective assistance both at diagnosis therapeutic follow-up. Computer Assisted Diagnostic systems (CAD) is one of the possible solutions to efficiently manage these images. In our work; we proposed an application to detect Alzheimer’s diseases. For detecting the disease in early stage we used the three sections: frontal to extract the Hippocampus (H), Sagittal to analysis the Corpus Callosum (CC) and axial to work with the variation features of the Cortex(C). Our method of classification is based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The proposed system yields a 90.66% accuracy in the early diagnosis of the AD.

Keywords: Hippocampus, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Alzheimer Diseases (AD), Computer Assisted Diagnostic(CAD), Corpus Callosum (CC), cortex

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6 Comparison of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine Classifications for Electromyography Signals Acquired at Five Positions of Elbow Joint

Authors: Saad Malik, Amna Khan, Zareena Kausar


Bio Mechatronics has extended applications in the field of rehabilitation. It has been contributing since World War II in improving the applicability of prosthesis and assistive devices in real life scenarios. In this paper, classification accuracies have been compared for two classifiers against five positions of elbow. Electromyography (EMG) signals analysis have been acquired directly from skeletal muscles of human forearm for each of the three defined positions and at modified extreme positions of elbow flexion and extension using 8 electrode Myo armband sensor. Features were extracted from filtered EMG signals for each position. Performance of two classifiers, support vector machine (SVM) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been compared by analyzing the classification accuracies. SVM illustrated classification accuracies between 90-96%, in contrast to 84-87% depicted by LDA for five defined positions of elbow keeping the number of samples and selected feature the same for both SVM and LDA.

Keywords: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), electromyography, classification accuracies, Myo armband sensor

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5 Hybrid Approach for Country’s Performance Evaluation

Authors: C. Slim


This paper presents an integrated model, which hybridized data envelopment analysis (DEA) and support vector machine (SVM) together, to class countries according to their efficiency and performance. This model takes into account aspects of multi-dimensional indicators, decision-making hierarchy and relativity of measurement. Starting from a set of indicators of performance as exhaustive as possible, a process of successive aggregations has been developed to attain an overall evaluation of a country’s competitiveness.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM), artificial neural networks (ANN), data envelopment analysis (DEA), Aggregations, indicators of performance

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4 Myanmar Consonants Recognition System Based on Lip Movements Using Active Contour Model

Authors: T. Thein, S. Kalyar Myo


Human uses visual information for understanding the speech contents in noisy conditions or in situations where the audio signal is not available. The primary advantage of visual information is that it is not affected by the acoustic noise and cross talk among speakers. Using visual information from the lip movements can improve the accuracy and robustness of automatic speech recognition. However, a major challenge with most automatic lip reading system is to find a robust and efficient method for extracting the linguistically relevant speech information from a lip image sequence. This is a difficult task due to variation caused by different speakers, illumination, camera setting and the inherent low luminance and chrominance contrast between lip and non-lip region. Several researchers have been developing methods to overcome these problems; the one is lip reading. Moreover, it is well known that visual information about speech through lip reading is very useful for human speech recognition system. Lip reading is the technique of a comprehensive understanding of underlying speech by processing on the movement of lips. Therefore, lip reading system is one of the different supportive technologies for hearing impaired or elderly people, and it is an active research area. The need for lip reading system is ever increasing for every language. This research aims to develop a visual teaching method system for the hearing impaired persons in Myanmar, how to pronounce words precisely by identifying the features of lip movement. The proposed research will work a lip reading system for Myanmar Consonants, one syllable consonants (င (Nga)၊ ည (Nya)၊ မ (Ma)၊ လ (La)၊ ၀ (Wa)၊ သ (Tha)၊ ဟ (Ha)၊ အ (Ah) ) and two syllable consonants ( က(Ka Gyi)၊ ခ (Kha Gway)၊ ဂ (Ga Nge)၊ ဃ (Ga Gyi)၊ စ (Sa Lone)၊ ဆ (Sa Lain)၊ ဇ (Za Gwe) ၊ ဒ (Da Dway)၊ ဏ (Na Gyi)၊ န (Na Nge)၊ ပ (Pa Saug)၊ ဘ (Ba Gone)၊ ရ (Ya Gaug)၊ ဠ (La Gyi) ). In the proposed system, there are three subsystems, the first one is the lip localization system, which localizes the lips in the digital inputs. The next one is the feature extraction system, which extracts features of lip movement suitable for visual speech recognition. And the final one is the classification system. In the proposed research, Two Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (2D-DCT) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with Active Contour Model (ACM) will be used for lip movement features extraction. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used for finding class parameter and class number in training set and testing set. Then, experiments will be carried out for the recognition accuracy of Myanmar consonants using the only visual information on lip movements which are useful for visual speech of Myanmar languages. The result will show the effectiveness of the lip movement recognition for Myanmar Consonants. This system will help the hearing impaired persons to use as the language learning application. This system can also be useful for normal hearing persons in noisy environments or conditions where they can find out what was said by other people without hearing voice.

Keywords: Feature Extraction, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), lip reading, lip localization, Active Contour Model (ACM), Two Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform (2D-DCT)

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3 Music Genre Classification Based on Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Features

Authors: Soyon Kim, Edward Kim


In order to retrieve information from the massive stream of songs in the music industry, music search by title, lyrics, artist, mood, and genre has become more important. Despite the subjectivity and controversy over the definition of music genres across different nations and cultures, automatic genre classification systems that facilitate the process of music categorization have been developed. Manual genre selection by music producers is being provided as statistical data for designing automatic genre classification systems. In this paper, an automatic music genre classification system utilizing non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is proposed. Short-term characteristics of the music signal can be captured based on the timbre features such as mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC), decorrelated filter bank (DFB), octave-based spectral contrast (OSC), and octave band sum (OBS). Long-term time-varying characteristics of the music signal can be summarized with (1) the statistical features such as mean, variance, minimum, and maximum of the timbre features and (2) the modulation spectrum features such as spectral flatness measure, spectral crest measure, spectral peak, spectral valley, and spectral contrast of the timbre features. Not only these conventional basic long-term feature vectors, but also NMF based feature vectors are proposed to be used together for genre classification. In the training stage, NMF basis vectors were extracted for each genre class. The NMF features were calculated in the log spectral magnitude domain (NMF-LSM) as well as in the basic feature vector domain (NMF-BFV). For NMF-LSM, an entire full band spectrum was used. However, for NMF-BFV, only low band spectrum was used since high frequency modulation spectrum of the basic feature vectors did not contain important information for genre classification. In the test stage, using the set of pre-trained NMF basis vectors, the genre classification system extracted the NMF weighting values of each genre as the NMF feature vectors. A support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier. The GTZAN multi-genre music database was used for training and testing. It is composed of 10 genres and 100 songs for each genre. To increase the reliability of the experiments, 10-fold cross validation was used. For a given input song, an extracted NMF-LSM feature vector was composed of 10 weighting values that corresponded to the classification probabilities for 10 genres. An NMF-BFV feature vector also had a dimensionality of 10. Combined with the basic long-term features such as statistical features and modulation spectrum features, the NMF features provided the increased accuracy with a slight increase in feature dimensionality. The conventional basic features by themselves yielded 84.0% accuracy, but the basic features with NMF-LSM and NMF-BFV provided 85.1% and 84.2% accuracy, respectively. The basic features required dimensionality of 460, but NMF-LSM and NMF-BFV required dimensionalities of 10 and 10, respectively. Combining the basic features, NMF-LSM and NMF-BFV together with the SVM with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel produced the significantly higher classification accuracy of 88.3% with a feature dimensionality of 480.

Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM), mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC), music genre classification, non-negative matrix factorization (NMF)

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2 Sound Analysis of Young Broilers Reared under Different Stocking Densities in Intensive Poultry Farming

Authors: Kaiying Wang, Xiaoyang Zhao


The choice of stocking density in poultry farming is a potential way for determining welfare level of poultry. However, it is difficult to measure stocking densities in poultry farming because of a lot of variables such as species, age and weight, feeding way, house structure and geographical location in different broiler houses. A method was proposed in this paper to measure the differences of young broilers reared under different stocking densities by sound analysis. Vocalisations of broilers were recorded and analysed under different stocking densities to identify the relationship between sounds and stocking densities. Recordings were made continuously for three-week-old chickens in order to evaluate the variation of sounds emitted by the animals at the beginning. The experimental trial was carried out in an indoor reared broiler farm; the audio recording procedures lasted for 5 days. Broilers were divided into 5 groups, stocking density treatments were 8/m², 10/m², 12/m² (96birds/pen), 14/m² and 16/m², all conditions including ventilation and feed conditions were kept same except from stocking densities in every group. The recordings and analysis of sounds of chickens were made noninvasively. Sound recordings were manually analysed and labelled using sound analysis software: GoldWave Digital Audio Editor. After sound acquisition process, the Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC) was extracted from sound data, and the Support Vector Machine (SVM) was used as an early detector and classifier. This preliminary study, conducted in an indoor reared broiler farm shows that this method can be used to classify sounds of chickens under different densities economically (only a cheap microphone and recorder can be used), the classification accuracy is 85.7%. This method can predict the optimum stocking density of broilers with the complement of animal welfare indicators, animal productive indicators and so on.

Keywords: Poultry farming, Support Vector Machine (SVM), broiler, stocking density, sound monitoring, Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCC)

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1 Prediction of Formation Pressure Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Abdulmalek Ahmed


Formation pressure is the main function that affects drilling operation economically and efficiently. Knowing the pore pressure and the parameters that affect it will help to reduce the cost of drilling process. Many empirical models reported in the literature were used to calculate the formation pressure based on different parameters. Some of these models used only drilling parameters to estimate pore pressure. Other models predicted the formation pressure based on log data. All of these models required different trends such as normal or abnormal to predict the pore pressure. Few researchers applied artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict the formation pressure by only one method or a maximum of two methods of AI. The objective of this research is to predict the pore pressure based on both drilling parameters and log data namely; weight on bit, rotary speed, rate of penetration, mud weight, bulk density, porosity and delta sonic time. A real field data is used to predict the formation pressure using five different artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as; artificial neural networks (ANN), radial basis function (RBF), fuzzy logic (FL), support vector machine (SVM) and functional networks (FN). All AI tools were compared with different empirical models. AI methods estimated the formation pressure by a high accuracy (high correlation coefficient and low average absolute percentage error) and outperformed all previous. The advantage of the new technique is its simplicity, which represented from its estimation of pore pressure without the need of different trends as compared to other models which require a two different trend (normal or abnormal pressure). Moreover, by comparing the AI tools with each other, the results indicate that SVM has the advantage of pore pressure prediction by its fast processing speed and high performance (a high correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a low average absolute percentage error of 0.14%). In the end, a new empirical correlation for formation pressure was developed using ANN method that can estimate pore pressure with a high precision (correlation coefficient of 0.998 and average absolute percentage error of 0.17%).

Keywords: Support Vector Machine (SVM), artificial neural networks (ANN), formation pressure, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Fuzzy Logic (FL), Functional Networks (FN), Radial Basis Function (RBF)

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