Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Supply Chain Related Abstracts

73 An Integrated Supply Chain Management to Manufacturing Industries

Authors: Kittipong Tissayakorn, Fumio Akagi, Yu Song


Manufacturers have been exploring innovative strategies to achieve and sustain competitive advantages as they face a new era of intensive global competition. Such strategy is known as Supply Chain Management (SCM), which has gained a tremendous amount of attention from both researchers and practitioners over the last decade. Supply chain management (SCM) is considered as the most popular operating strategy for improving organizational competitiveness in the twenty-first century. It has attracted a lot of attention recently due to its role involving all of the activities in industrial organizations, ranging from raw material procurement to final product delivery to customers. Well-designed supply chain systems can substantially improve efficiency and product quality, and eventually enhance customer satisfaction and profitability. In this paper, a manufacturing engineering perspective on supply chain integration is presented. Research issues discussed include the product and process design for the supply chain, design evaluation of manufacturing in the supply chain, agent-based techniques for supply chain integration, intelligent information for sharing across the supply chain, and a development of standards for product, process, and production data exchange to facilitate electronic commerce. The objective is to provide guidelines and references for manufacturing engineers and researchers interested in supply chain integration.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain, Supply Chain Integration, manufacturing industries

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72 Improving Order Quantity Model with Emergency Safety Stock (ESS)

Authors: Yousef Abu Nahleh, Alhasan Hakami, Arun Kumar, Fugen Daver


This study considers the problem of calculating safety stocks in disaster situations inventory systems that face demand uncertainties. Safety stocks are essential to make the supply chain, which is controlled by forecasts of customer needs, in response to demand uncertainties and to reach predefined goal service levels. To solve the problem of uncertainties due to the disaster situations affecting the industry sector, the concept of Emergency Safety Stock (ESS) was proposed. While there exists a huge body of literature on determining safety stock levels, this literature does not address the problem arising due to the disaster and dealing with the situations. In this paper, the problem of improving the Order Quantity Model to deal with uncertainty of demand due to disasters is managed by incorporating a new idea called ESS which is based on the probability of disaster occurrence and uses probability matrix calculated from the historical data.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Emergency Safety Stocks, safety stocks, Order Quantity Model

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71 Optimization of Multi Commodities Consumer Supply Chain: Part 1-Modelling

Authors: Zeinab Haji Abolhasani, Romeo Marian, Lee Luong


This paper and its companions (Part II, Part III) will concentrate on optimizing a class of supply chain problems known as Multi- Commodities Consumer Supply Chain (MCCSC) problem. MCCSC problem belongs to production-distribution (P-D) planning category. It aims to determine facilities location, consumers’ allocation, and facilities configuration to minimize total cost (CT) of the entire network. These facilities can be manufacturer units (MUs), distribution centres (DCs), and retailers/end-users (REs) but not limited to them. To address this problem, three major tasks should be undertaken. At the first place, a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINP) mathematical model is developed. Then, system’s behaviors under different conditions will be observed using a simulation modeling tool. Finally, the most optimum solution (minimum CT) of the system will be obtained using a multi-objective optimization technique. Due to the large size of the problem, and the uncertainties in finding the most optimum solution, integration of modeling and simulation methodologies is proposed followed by developing new approach known as GASG. It is a genetic algorithm on the basis of granular simulation which is the subject of the methodology of this research. In part II, MCCSC is simulated using discrete-event simulation (DES) device within an integrated environment of SimEvents and Simulink of MATLAB® software package followed by a comprehensive case study to examine the given strategy. Also, the effect of genetic operators on the obtained optimal/near optimal solution by the simulation model will be discussed in part III.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Simulation, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, discrete event system

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70 Information Technology Impacts on the Supply Chain Performance: Case Study Approach

Authors: Kajal Zarei


Supply chain management is becoming an increasingly important issue in many businesses today. In such circumstances, a number of reasons such as management deficiency in different segments of the supply chain, lack of streamlined processes, resistance to change the current systems and technologies, and lack of advanced information system have paved the ground to ask for innovative research studies. To this end, information technology (IT) is becoming a major driver to overcome the supply chain limitations and deficiencies. The emergence of IT has provided an excellent opportunity for redefining the supply chain to be more effective and competitive. This paper has investigated the IT impact on two-digit industry codes in the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) that are operating in four groups of the supply chains. Firstly, the primary fields of the supply chain were investigated, and then paired comparisons of different industry parts were accomplished. Using experts' ideas and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the status of industrial activities in Kurdistan Province in Iran was determined. The results revealed that manufacturing and inventory fields have been more important compared to other fields of the supply chain. In addition, IT has had greater impact on food and beverage industry, chemical industry, wood industry, wood products, and production of basic metals. The results indicated the need to IT awareness in supply chain management; in other words, IT applications needed to be developed for the identified industries.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Information Technology, analytical hierarchy process, two-digit codes, international standard industrial classification

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69 Counterfeit Drugs Prevention in Pharmaceutical Industry with RFID: A Framework Based On Literature Review

Authors: Zeeshan Hamid, Asher Ramish


The purpose of this paper is to focus on security and safety issues facing by pharmaceutical industry globally when counterfeit drugs are in question. Hence, there is an intense need to secure and authenticate pharmaceutical products in the emerging counterfeit product market. This paper will elaborate the application of radio frequency identification (RFID) in pharmaceutical industry and to identify its key benefits for patient’s care. The benefits are: help to co-ordinate the stream of supplies, accuracy in chains of supplies, maintaining trustworthy information, to manage the operations in appropriate and timely manners and finally deliver the genuine drug to patient. It is discussed that how RFID supported supply chain information sharing (SCIS) helps to combat against counterfeit drugs. And a solution how to tag pharmaceutical products; since, some products prevent RFID implementation in this industry. In this paper, a proposed model for pharma industry distribution suggested to combat against the counterfeit drugs when they are in supply chain.

Keywords: Supply Chain, RFID, Pharmaceutical Industry, counterfeit drugs, patients care

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68 Cost Diminution in Supply Chain of a Dairy Industry

Authors: Naveed Ahmed Khan


The ever increasing importance of food industry cannot be denied and especially in the wake of escalating population and prices both in developing and developed nations. Thus, this issue demands the attention of researchers especially in the area of supply chain to identify cost diminution waste eliminating supply chain practices in the said industry. For such purpose the 'Dairy Division' of Engro Foods Limited, one of the biggest food companies in Pakistan was taken into consideration in a case study manner. Based on the literature review and interviews following variables were obtained: energy, losses, maintenance, taxes, and logistics. Having studied the said variables, it was concluded that management of relevant industries operating in a comparable environment need to efficiently manage two major areas: energy and taxes. On the other hand, similar kind of other organizations could be benefited by adopting the proficient supply chain practices being observed at dairy division of Engro foods limited.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Dairy Industry, cost diminution, Engro Foods Limited

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67 Foresight in Food Supply System in Bogota

Authors: Suarez-Puello Alejandro, Baquero-Ruiz Andrés F, Suarez-Puello Rodrigo


This paper discusses the results of a foresight exercise which analyzes Bogota’s fruit, vegetable and tuber supply chain strategy- described at the Food Supply and Security Master Plan (FSSMP)-to provide the inhabitants of Bogotá, Colombia, with basic food products at a fair price. The methodology consisted of using quantitative and qualitative foresight tools such as system dynamics and variable selection methods to better represent interactions among stakeholders and obtain more integral results that could shed light on this complex situation. At first, the Master Plan is an input to establish the objectives and scope of the exercise. Then, stakeholders and their relationships are identified. Later, system dynamics is used to model product, information and money flow along the fruit, vegetable and tuber supply chain. Two scenarios are presented, discussing actions by the public sector and the reactions that could be expected from the whole food supply system. Finally, these impacts are compared to the Food Supply and Security Master Plan’s objectives suggesting recommendations that could improve its execution. This foresight exercise performed at a governmental level is intended to promote the widen the use of foresight as an anticipatory, decision-making tool that offers solutions to complex problems.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Decision Making, System Dynamics, Public Policies, foresight

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66 A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Aluminum Production Process

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Wael El Hasan, Mahmoud Alijla, Ammar Manawi, Abdelbaki Benamour


The production of aluminium alloys and ingots -starting from the processing of alumina to aluminium, and the final cast product- was studied using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The studied aluminium supply chain consisted of a carbon plant, a reduction plant, a casting plant, and a power plant. In the LCA model, the environmental loads of the different plants for the production of 1 ton of aluminium metal were investigated. The impact of the aluminium production was assessed in eight impact categories. The results showed that for all of the impact categories the power plant had the highest impact only in the cases of Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) the reduction plant had the highest impact and in the Marine Aquatic Eco-Toxicity Potential (MAETP) the carbon plant had the highest impact. Furthermore, the impact of the carbon plant and the reduction plant combined was almost the same as the impact of the power plant in the case of the Acidification Potential (AP). The carbon plant had a positive impact on the environment when it comes to the Eutrophication Potential (EP) due to the production of clean water in the process. The natural gas based power plant used in the case study had 8.4 times less negative impact on the environment when compared to the heavy fuel based power plant and 10.7 times less negative impact when compared to the hard coal based power plant.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Life Cycle Assessment, Ecological Impacts, aluminium production

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65 Predictability of Supply Chain in Indian Automobile Division

Authors: Dharamvir Mangal


Supply chain management has increasingly become an inevitable challenge to most companies to continuously survive and prosper in the global chain-based competitive environment. The current challenges of the Indian automotive world, their implications on supply chain are summarized and analyzed in this paper. In this competitive era of ‘LPG’ i.e. Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization, modern marketing systems, introduction of products with short life cycles, and the discriminating expectations of customers have enforced business enterprises to invest in and focus attention on their Supply Chains (SCs) in order to meet out the level of customer’s satisfaction and to survive in the competitive market. In fact, many of trends in the auto industry are reinforcing the need to redefine supply chain strategies layouts, and operations etc. Many manufacturing operations are designed to maximize throughput and lower costs with modest considerations for the crash on inventory levels and distribution capabilities. To improve profitability and efficiency, automotive players are seeking ways to achieve operational excellence, reduce operating cost and enhance customer service through efficient supply chain management.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Challenges, Automotive industry, market potential

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64 Homomorphic Conceptual Framework for Effective Supply Chain Strategy (HCEFSC) within Operational Research (OR) with Sustainability and Phenomenology

Authors: Hussain Abdullah Al-Salamin, Elias Ogutu Azariah Tembe


Supply chain (SC) is an operational research (OR) approach and technique which acts as catalyst within central nervous system of business today. Without SC, any type of business is at doldrums, hence entropy. SC is the lifeblood of business today because it is the pivotal hub which provides imperative competitive advantage. The paper present a conceptual framework dubbed as Homomorphic Conceptual Framework for Effective Supply Chain Strategy (HCEFSC).The term homomorphic is derived from abstract algebraic mathematical term homomorphism (same shape) which also embeds the following mathematical application sets: monomorphism, isomorphism, automorphisms, and endomorphism. The HCFESC is intertwined and integrated with wide and broad sets of elements.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Automorphisms, Homomorphism, Isomorphism, endomorphism, monomorphisms, epimorphisms, operational research (OR)

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63 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in the Supply Chain: Impact on Customer Satisfaction

Authors: Hicham Amine, Abdelouahab Mesnaoui


Electronic data interchange EDI is the computer-to-computer exchange of structured business information. This information typically takes the form of standardized electronic business documents, such as invoices, purchase orders, bills of lading, and so on. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact EDI might have on supply chain and typically on customer satisfaction keeping in mind the constraints the organization might face. This study included 139 subject matter experts (SMEs) who participated by responding to a survey that was distributed. 85% responded that they are extremely for the implementation while 10% were neutral and 5% were against the implementation. From the quality assurance department, we have got 75% from the clients agreed to move on with the change whereas 10% stayed neutral and finally 15% were against the change. From the legal department where 80% of the answers were for the implementation and 10% of the participants stayed neutral whereas the last 10% were against it. The survey consisted of 40% male and 60% female (sex-ratio (F/M=1,5), who had chosen to participate. Our survey also contained 3 categories in terms of technical background where 80% are from technical background and 15% were from nontechnical background and 5% had some average technical background. This study examines the impact of EDI on customer satisfaction which is the primary hypothesis and justifies the importance of the implementation which enhances the customer satisfaction.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Customer Satisfaction, electronic data interchange, subject matter experts

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62 A New Tactical Optimization Model for Bioenergy Supply Chain

Authors: Birome Holo Ba, Christian Prins, Caroline Prodhon


Optimization is an important aspect of logistics management. It can reduce significantly logistics costs and also be a good tool for decision support. In this paper, we address a planning problem specific to biomass supply chain. We propose a new mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model dealing with different feed stock production operations such as harvesting, packing, storage, pre-processing and transportation, with the objective of minimizing the total logistic cost of the system on a regional basis. It determines the optimal number of harvesting machine, the fleet size of trucks for transportation and the amount of each type of biomass harvested, stored and pre-processed in each period to satisfy demands of refineries in each period. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposal model with a numerical example, a case study in Aube (France department), which gives preliminary and interesting, results on a small test case.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Modelling, Optimization, biofuels, Bioenergy, Biomass Logistics

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61 The Logistics Collaboration in Supply Chain of Orchid Industry in Thailand

Authors: Chattrarat Hotrawaisaya


This research aims to formulate the logistics collaborative model which is the management tool for orchid flower exporter. The researchers study logistics activities in orchid supply chain that stakeholders can collaborate and develop, including demand forecasting, inventory management, warehouse and storage, order-processing, and transportation management. The research also explores logistics collaboration implementation into orchid’s stakeholders. The researcher collected data before implementation and after model implementation. Consequently, the costs and efficiency were calculated and compared between pre and post period of implementation. The research found that the results of applying the logistics collaborative model to orchid exporter reduces inventory cost and transport cost. The model also improves forecasting accuracy, and synchronizes supply chain of exporter. This research paper contributes the uniqueness logistics collaborative model which value to orchid industry in Thailand. The orchid exporters may use this model as their management tool which aims in competitive advantage.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Logistics, Collaboration, orchid

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60 Sustainability of Green Supply Chain for a Steel Industry Using Mixed Linear Programing Model

Authors: Ameen Alawneh


The cost of material management across the supply chain represents a major contributor to the overall cost of goods in many companies both manufacturing and service sectors. This fact combined with the fierce competition make supply chains more efficient and cost effective. It also requires the companies to improve the quality of the products and services, increase the effectiveness of supply chain operations, focus on customer needs, reduce wastes and costs across the supply chain. As a heavy industry, steel manufacturing companies in particular are nowadays required to be more environmentally conscious due to their contribution to air, soil, and water pollution that results from emissions and wastes across their supply chains. Steel companies are increasingly looking for methods to reduce or cost cut in the operations and provide extra value to their customers to stay competitive under the current low margins. In this research we develop a green framework model for the sustainability of a steel company supply chain using Mixed integer Linear programming.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Water pollution, Mixed Integer linear programming, heavy industry

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59 Industrial Revolution: Army Production

Authors: M. Şimşek


Additive manufacturing (AM) or generally known as three dimensional (3D) printing provides great opportunities for both civilian and military applications by which 3D has become the biggest nominee of breakthrough of 21th century. When properly used, it has a wide spectrum of applications that make production easier and more profitable. Considering the advantages of AM, every firm has an intention of catching up with this new trend. As well as reducing costs and thus increasing benefits, 3D printing provides opportunities for national armies by reducing maintenance and repair time and increasing operational readiness.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Additive manufacturing, operational cost, operational readiness, three dimensional printing

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58 Cloud Based Supply Chain Traceability

Authors: Kedar J. Mahadeshwar


Concept introduction: This paper talks about how an innovative cloud based analytics enabled solution that could address a major industry challenge that is approaching all of us globally faster than what one would think. The world of supply chain for drugs and devices is changing today at a rapid speed. In the US, the Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA) is a new law for Tracing, Verification and Serialization phasing in starting Jan 1, 2015 for manufacturers, repackagers, wholesalers and pharmacies / clinics. Similarly we are seeing pressures building up in Europe, China and many countries that would require an absolute traceability of every drug and device end to end. Companies (both manufacturers and distributors) can use this opportunity not only to be compliant but to differentiate themselves over competition. And moreover a country such as UAE can be the leader in coming up with a global solution that brings innovation in this industry. Problem definition and timing: The problem of counterfeit drug market, recognized by FDA, causes billions of dollars loss every year. Even in UAE, the concerns over prevalence of counterfeit drugs, which enter through ports such as Dubai remains a big concern, as per UAE pharma and healthcare report, Q1 2015. Distribution of drugs and devices involves multiple processes and systems that do not talk to each other. Consumer confidence is at risk due to this lack of traceability and any leading provider is at risk of losing its reputation. Globally there is an increasing pressure by government and regulatory bodies to trace serial numbers and lot numbers of every drug and medical devices throughout a supply chain. Though many of large corporations use some form of ERP (enterprise resource planning) software, it is far from having a capability to trace a lot and serial number beyond the enterprise and making this information easily available real time. Solution: The solution here talks about a service provider that allows all subscribers to take advantage of this service. The solution allows a service provider regardless of its physical location, to host this cloud based traceability and analytics solution of millions of distribution transactions that capture lots of each drug and device. The solution platform will capture a movement of every medical device and drug end to end from its manufacturer to a hospital or a doctor through a series of distributor or retail network. The platform also provides advanced analytics solution to do some intelligent reporting online. Why Dubai? Opportunity exists with huge investment done in Dubai healthcare city also with using technology and infrastructure to attract more FDI to provide such a service. UAE and countries similar will be facing this pressure from regulators globally in near future. But more interestingly, Dubai can attract such innovators/companies to run and host such a cloud based solution and become a hub of such traceability globally.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Pharmaceutical, Cloud, Tracking

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57 A Collaborative Application of Six Sigma and Value Engineering in Supply Chain and Logistics

Authors: Arun Raja, Kevin Thomas, Sreyas Tribhu, S. P. Anbuudayasankar


This paper deals with the application of six sigma methodology in supply chain (SC) and logistics. A detailed cram about how the SC can be improved and its impact on the organization are dealt with and also how the quality plays a vital role in improving SC and logistics are identified. A simulation has been performed using the ARENA software to determine the process efficiency of a bottle manufacturing unit. Further, a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) analysis has been executed on the manufacturing process flow model and the manner by which Value Engineering (VE) holds a significant importance for quality assertion on the products is also studied.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Logistics, Six Sigma, Quality, Value Engineering

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56 A Supply Chain Traceability Improvement Using RFID

Authors: Yaser Miaji, Mohammad Sabbagh


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which shares a similar concept with bar code. With RFID, the electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the RF portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used to transmit signals. Supply chain management is aimed to keep going long-term performance of individual companies and the overall supply chain by maximizing customer satisfaction with minimum costs. One of the major issues in the supply chain management is product loss or shrinkage. In order to overcome this problem, this system which uses Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology will be able to RFID track and identify where losses are occurring and enable effective traceability. RFID brings a new dimension to supply chain management by providing a more efficient way of being able to identify and track items at the various stages throughout the supply chain. This system has been developed and tested to prove that RFID technology can be used to improve traceability in supply chain at low cost. Due to its simplicity in interface program and database management system using Visual Basic and MS Excel or MS Access the system can be more affordable and implemented even by small and medium scale industries.

Keywords: Supply Chain, RFID, Radio Frequency Identification, tractability

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55 Future of the Supply Chain Management

Authors: Mehmet Şimşek


In the rapidly changing market conditions, it is getting harder to survive without adapting new abilities. Technology and globalization have enabled foreign producers to enter into national markets, even local ones. For this reason there is now big competition among production companies for market share. Furthermore, competition has provided customer with broad range of options to choose from. To be able to survive in this environment, companies need to produce at low price and at high quality. The best way to succeed this is the efficient use of supply chain management that has started to get shaped by the needs of customers and the environment.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Logistics, Production, Outsourcing, cycle time

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54 Optimal Wheat Straw to Bioethanol Supply Chain Models

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul Razik, Ali Elkamel, Leonardo Simon


Wheat straw is one of the alternative feedstocks that may be utilized for bioethanol production especially when sustainability criteria are the major concerns. To increase market competitiveness, optimal supply chain plays an important role since wheat straw is a seasonal agricultural residue. In designing the supply chain optimization model, economic profitability of the thermochemical and biochemical conversion routes options were considered. It was found that torrefied pelletization with gasification route to be the most profitable option to produce bioethanol from the lignocellulosic source of wheat straw.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Optimization, bio-ethanol, wheat straw

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53 Supply Chain Control and Inventory Management in Garment Industry

Authors: Nisa Nur Duman, Sümeyya Kiliç


In global competition conditions, survival of the plants by obtaining competitive advantage relies on the effective usage of existing sources. By this way, the plants can minimize their costs without losing their quality. They also take advantage took advantage on their competitors and enlarge customer portfolio by increasing profit margins. Changing structure of market and customer demands also change the structure of the competition between companies. Furthermore, competition is not only between the companies. By this manner, supply chain and supply chain management get importance by considering company performances. Companies that want to survive, search the ways of decreasing costs and the ways of meeting customer expectations. One of the important tools for reaching these goals is inventory managemet. The best inventory management system is meeting the demands by considering plant goals.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Inventory Management, Garment industry, apparel sector

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52 Management of Interdependence in Manufacturing Networks

Authors: Atour Taghipour


In the real world each manufacturing company is an independent business unit. These business units are linked to each other through upstream and downstream linkages. The management of these linkages is called coordination which, could be considered as a difficult engineering task. The degree of difficulty of coordination depends on the type and the nature of information exchanged between partners as well as the structure of relationship from mutual to the network structure. The literature of manufacturing systems comprises a wide range of varieties of methods and approaches of coordination. In fact, two main streams of research can be distinguished: central coordination versus decentralized coordination. In the centralized systems a high degree of information exchanges is required. The high degree of information exchanges sometimes leads to difficulties when independent members do not want to share information. In order to address these difficulties, decentralized approaches of coordination of operations planning decisions based on some minimal information sharing have been proposed in many academic disciplines. This paper first proposes a framework of analysis in order to analyze the proposed approaches in the literature, based on this framework which includes the similarities between approaches we categorize the existing approaches. This classification can be used as a research map for future researches. The result of our paper highlights several opportunities for future research. First, it is proposed to develop more dynamic and stochastic mechanisms of planning coordination of manufacturing units. Second, in order to exploit the complementarities of approaches proposed by diverse science discipline, we propose to integrate the techniques of coordination. Finally, based on our approach we proposed to develop coordination standards to guaranty both the complementarity of these approaches as well as the freedom of companies to adopt any planning tools.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Manufacturing, Operations Planning, network coordination

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51 Agent-Based Simulation for Supply Chain Transport Corridors

Authors: Kamalendu Pal


Supply chains are the spinal cord of trade and commerce. Their logistics use different transport corridors on regular basis for operational purpose. The international supply chain transport corridors include different infrastructure elements (e.g. weighbridge, package handling equipment, border clearance authorities, and so on) in supply chains. This paper presents the use of multi-agent systems (MAS) to model and simulate some aspects of transportation corridors, and in particular the area of weighbridge resource optimization for operational profit generation purpose. An underlying multi-agent model provides a means of modeling the relationships among stakeholders in order to enable coordination in a transport corridor environment. Simulations of the costs of container unloading, reloading, and waiting time for queuing up tracks have been carried out using data sets. Results of the simulation provide the potential guidance in making decisions about optimal service resource allocation in a trade corridor.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Simulation, Multi-Agent Systems, transport corridor, weighbridge

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50 Toward a New Approach for Modeling Lean, Agile and Leagile Supply Chains

Authors: Bouchra Abdelilah, Akram El Korchi, Atmane Baddou


With the very competitive business era that we witness nowadays, companies needs more that anytime to use all the resources they have in order to maximize performance and satisfy the customers’ needs. The changes occurring in the market business are often due to the variations of demand, which requires a very specific supply chain strategy. Supply chains aims to balance cost, quality, and service level and lead time. Still, managers are confused when faced with the strategies working the best for the supply chain: lean, agile and leagile. This paper presents a decision making tool that aims to assist the manager in choosing the supply chain strategy that suits the most his business, depending on the type of product and the nature of demand. Analyzing the different characteristics of supply chain will enable us to guide the manager to the suitable strategy between lean, agile and leagile.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Performance, Agile, Flexibility, Lean

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49 Optimal Policies in a Two-Level Supply Chain with Defective Product and Price Dependent Demand

Authors: Samira Mohabbatdar, Abbas Ahmadi, Mohsen S. Sajadieh


This paper deals with a two-level supply chain consisted of one manufacturer and one retailer for single-type product. The demand function of the customers depends on price. We consider an integrated production inventory system where the manufacturer processes raw materials in order to deliver finished product with imperfect quality to the retailer. Then retailer inspects the products and after that delivers perfect products to customers. The proposed model is based on the joint total profit of both the manufacturer and the retailer, and it determines the optimal ordering lot-size, number of shipment and selling price of the retailer. A numerical example is provided to analyse and illustrate the behaviour and application of the model. Finally, sensitivity analysis of the key parameters are presented to test feasibility of the model.

Keywords: Supply Chain, pricing policy, defective quality, joint economic lot sizing

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48 Inventory Policy with Continuous Price Reduction in Solar Photovoltaic Supply Chain

Authors: Xiangrong Liu, Chuanhui Xiong


With the concern of large pollution emissions from coal-fired power plants and new commitment to green energy, global solar power industry was emerging recently. Due to the advanced technology, the price of solar photovoltaic(PV) module was reduced at a fast rate, which arose an interesting but challenge question to solar supply chain. This research is modeling the inventory strategies for a PV supply chain with a PV manufacturer, an assembler and an end customer. Through characterizing the manufacturer's and PV assembler's optimal decision in decentralized and centralized situation, this study shed light on how to improve supply chain performance through parameters setting in the contract design. The results suggest the assembler to lower the optimal stock level gradually each period before price reduction and set up a newsvendor base-stock policy in all periods after price reduction. As to the PV module manufacturer, a non-stationary produce-up-to policy is optimal.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Photovoltaic, inventory policy, base-stock policy

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47 Integrated Risk Management in The Supply Chain of Essential Medicines in Zambia

Authors: Mario M. J. Musonda


Access to health care is a human right, which includes having timely access to affordable and quality essential medicines at the right place and in sufficient quantity. However, inefficient public sector supply chain management contributes to constant shortages of essential medicines at health facilities. Literature review involved a desktop study of published research studies and reports on risk management, supply chain management of essential medicines and their integration to increase the efficiency of the latter. The research was conducted on a sample population of offices under Ministry of Health Headquarters, Lusaka Provincial and District Offices, selected health facilities in Lusaka, Medical Stores Limited, Zambia Medicines Regulatory Authority and Cooperating Partners. Individuals involved in study were selected judgmentally by their functions under selection and quantification, regulation, procurement, storage, distribution, quality assurance, and dispensing of essential medicines. Structured interviews and discussions were held with selected experts and self-administered questionnaires were distributed. Collected and analysed data of 35 returned and usable questionnaires from the 50 distributed. The highest prioritised risks were; inadequate and inconsistent fund disbursements, weak information management systems, weak quality management systems and insufficient resources (HR and infrastructure) among others. The results for this research can be used to increase the efficiency of the public sector supply chain of essential medicines and other pharmaceuticals. The results of the study showed that there is need to implement effective risk management systems by participating institutions and organisations to increase the efficiency of the entire supply chain in order to avoid and/or reduce shortages of essential medicines at health facilities.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Risk management, Supply chain risk management, Risk Assessment, essential medicine

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46 Studying the Influence of Logistics on Organizational Performance through a Supply Chain Strategy: Case Study in Goldiran Electronics Co.

Authors: Ali Hajiesmaeili, Mehdi Rahimi, Ehsan Jaberi, Amir Abbas Hosseini


The purpose of this study is investigating the influences of logistics performance on organizational performance including both marketing & financial aspects, and showing the financial impacts of selecting the right marketing and logistics priorities in line with their supply chain type, and also giving the practitioners an advance identification of their priorities and participation types of supply chain, and the best combination of their strategies and resources in this regard. We made use of the original model’s questionnaire to gather all expert’s data and also SPSS and AMOS Ver.22 to analyze the gathered data. CFA method was also used to test whether a relationship between observed variables and their underlying latent constructs exists. Supply chain strategy implementation leads to logistics performance improvement, and marketing performance will be affected as well. Logistics service providers should focus on enhancement of supply chain performance, since logistics performance has been considered as a basis of evaluation of supply chain management strategy. Consequently, performance of the organization will be enhanced. This case is the first research made in Iran that analyzes the relationship between Logistics & Organizational performance in Home Appliances and Home Entertainment companies.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Logistics, Strategy, Performance, Organizational

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45 Optimization of the Jatropha curcas Supply Chain as a Criteria for the Implementation of Future Collection Points in Rural Areas of Manabi-Ecuador

Authors: Boris G. German, Edward Jiménez, Sebastián Espinoza, Andrés G. Chico, Ricardo A. Narváez


The unique flora and fauna of The Galapagos Islands has leveraged a tourism-driven growth in the islands. Nonetheless, such development is energy-intensive and requires thousands of gallons of diesel each year for thermoelectric electricity generation. The needed transport of fossil fuels from the continent has generated oil spillages and affectations to the fragile ecosystem of the islands. The Zero Fossil Fuels initiative for The Galapagos proposed by the Ecuadorian government as an alternative to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the islands, considers the replacement of diesel in thermoelectric generators, by Jatropha curcas vegetable oil. However, the Jatropha oil supply cannot entirely cover yet the demand for electricity generation in Galapagos. Within this context, the present work aims to provide an optimization model that can be used as a selection criterion for approving new Jatropha Curcas collection points in rural areas of Manabi-Ecuador. For this purpose, existing Jatropha collection points in Manabi were grouped under three regions: north (7 collection points), center (4 collection points) and south (9 collection points). Field work was carried out in every region in order to characterize the collection points, to establish local Jatropha supply and to determine transportation costs. Data collection was complemented using GIS software and an objective function was defined in order to determine the profit associated to Jatropha oil production. The market price of both Jatropha oil and residual cake, were considered for the total revenue; whereas Jatropha price, transportation and oil extraction costs were considered for the total cost. The tonnes of Jatropha fruit and seed, transported from collection points to the extraction plant, were considered as variables. The maximum and minimum amount of the collected Jatropha from each region constrained the optimization problem. The supply chain was optimized using linear programming in order to maximize the profits. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to find a profit-based criterion for the acceptance of future collection points in Manabi. The maximum profit reached a value of $ 4,616.93 per year, which represented a total Jatropha collection of 62.3 tonnes Jatropha per year. The northern region of Manabi had the biggest collection share (69%), followed by the southern region (17%). The criteria for accepting new Jatropha collection points in the rural areas of Manabi can be defined by the current maximum profit of the zone and by the variation in the profit when collection points are removed one at a time. The definition of new feasible collection points plays a key role in the supply chain associated to Jatropha oil production. Therefore, a mathematical model that assists decision makers in establishing new collection points while assuring profitability, contributes to guarantee a continued Jatropha oil supply for Galapagos and a sustained economic growth in the rural areas of Ecuador.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Linear Programming, jatropha curcas, collection points

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44 Extent of Fruit and Vegetable Waste at Wholesaler Stage of the Food Supply Chain in Western Australia

Authors: P. Ghosh, S. B. Sharma


The growing problem of food waste is causing unacceptable economic, environmental and social impacts across the globe. In Australia, food waste is estimated at about AU$8 billion per year; however, information on the extent of wastage at different stages of the food value chain from farm to fork is very limited. This study aims to identify causes for and extent of food waste at wholesaler stage of the food value chain in the state of Western Australia. It also explores approaches applied to reduce and utilize food waste by the wholesalers. The study was carried out at Perth city market in Caning Vale, the main wholesale distribution centre for fruits and vegetables in Western Australia. A survey questionnaire was prepared and shared with 51 wholesalers and their responses to 10 targeted questions on quantity of produce (fruits and vegetables) delivery received and further supplied, reasons for waste generation and innovations applied or being considered to reduce and utilize food waste. Data were computed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 21). Among the wholesalers 52% were primary wholesalers (buy produce directly from growers) and 48% were secondary wholesalers (buy produce in bulk from major wholesalers and supply to the local retail market, caterers, and customers with specific requirements). Average fruit and vegetable waste was 180 Kilogram per week per primary wholesaler and 30 Kilogram per secondary wholesaler. Based on this survey, the fruit and vegetable waste at wholesaler stage was estimated at about 286 tonnes per year. The secondary wholesalers distributed pre-ordered commodities, which minimized the potential to cause waste. Non-parametric test (Mann Whitney test) was carried out to assess contributions of wholesalers to waste generation. Over 56% of secondary wholesalers generally had nothing to bin as waste. Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed positive correlation (r = 0.425; P=0.01) between the quantity of produce received and waste generated. Low market demand was the predominant reason identified by the wholesalers for waste generation. About a third of the wholesalers suggested that high cosmetic standards for fruits and vegetables - appearance, shape, and size - should be relaxed to reduce waste. Donation of unutilized fruits and vegetables to charity was overwhelmingly (95%) considered as one of the best options for utilization of discarded produce. The extent of waste at other stages of fruit and vegetable supply chain is currently being studied.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Fruits and Vegetables, Food Waste, waste generation

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