Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

supercritical CO2 Related Abstracts

10 Investigation of Enhanced Geothermal System with CO2 as Working Fluid

Authors: Ruina Xu, Peixue Jiang, Feng Luo


The novel concept of enhanced geothermal system with CO2 instead of water as working fluid (CO2-EGS) has attracted wide attention due to additional benefit of CO2 geological storage during the power generation process. In this research, numerical investigation on a doublet CO2-EGS system is performed, focusing on the influence of the injection/production well perforation location in the targeted geothermal reservoir. Three different reservoir inlet and outlet boundary conditions are used in simulations since the well constrains are different in reality. The results show that CO2-EGS system performance of power generation and power cost vary greatly among cases of different wells perforation locations, and the optimum options under different boundary conditions are also different.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Enhanced Geothermal System, supercritical CO2, CO2-EGS

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9 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Chiang-Ho Cheng, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng


This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride, electroplating

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8 Properties of Biodiesel Produced by Enzymatic Transesterification of Lipids Extracted from Microalgae in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

Authors: Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Yousef Haik, Hanifa Taher, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi, Mohammed Farid


Biodiesel, as an alternative renewable fuel, has been receiving increasing attention due to the limited supply of fossil fuels and the increasing need for energy. Microalgae is a promising source for lipids, which can be converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel production from microalgae lipids using lipase catalyzed reaction in supercritical CO2 medium has several advantages over conventional production processes. However, identifying the optimum microalgae lipid extraction and transesterification conditions is still a challenge. In this study, the lipids extracted from Scenedesmus sp. and their enzymatic transesterification using supercritical carbon dioxide have been investigated. The effect of extraction variables (temperature, pressure and solvent flow rate) and reaction variables (enzyme loading, incubation time, methanol to lipids molar ratio and temperature) were considered. Process parameters and their effects were studied using a full factorial analysis of both. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and was used to determine the optimum conditions for the extraction and reaction steps. For extraction, the optimum conditions were 53 °C and 500 bar, whereas for the reaction the optimum conditions were 35% enzyme loading, 4 h reaction, 9:1 molar ratio and 50 oC. At these optimum conditions, the highest biodiesel production yield was found to be 82 %. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel, at optimum reaction condition, were determined and compared to ASTM standards. The properties were found to comply with the limits, and showed a low glycerol content, without any separation step.

Keywords: Standards, Biodiesel, supercritical CO2, lipase

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7 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri


Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: solubility, supercritical CO2, rice bran, ϒ-orizanol

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6 Synthesis of Vic-Dioxime Palladium (II) Complex: Precursor for Deposition on SBA-15 in ScCO2

Authors: Bilgehan Güzel, Asım Egitmen, Aysen Demir, Burcu Darendeli, Fatma Ulusal


Synthesizing supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) soluble precursors would be helpful for many processes of material syntheses based on scCO2. Ligand (amphi-(1Z, 2Z)-N-(2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)-N'-hydroxy-2-(hydroxyimino) were synthesized from chloro glyoxime and flourus aniline and Pd(II) complex (precursor) prepared. For scCO2 deposition method, organometallic precursor was dissolved in scCO2 and impregnated onto the SBA-15 at 90 °C and 3000 psi. Then the organometallic precursor was reduced with H2 in the CO2 mixture (150 psi H2 + 2850 psi CO2). Pd deposited support material was characterized by ICP-OES, XRD, FE-SEM, TEM and EDX analyses. The Pd loading of the prepared catalyst, measured by ICP-OES showed a value of about 1.64% mol/g Pd of catalyst. Average particle size was found 5.3 nm. The catalytic activity of prepared catalyst was investigated over Suzuki-Miyaura C-C coupling reaction in different solvent with K2CO3 at 50 oC. The conversion ratio was determined by gas chromatography.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Nanotube, supercritical CO2, precursor, oximes

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5 Performance of CO₂/N₂ Foam in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Mohamed Hassan, Rahul Gajbhiye


The high mobility and gravity override of CO₂ gas can be minimized by generating the CO₂ foam with the aid of surfactant. However, CO₂ is unable to generate the foam/stable foam above its supercritical point (1100 psi, 31°C). These difficulties with CO₂ foam is overcome by adding N₂ in small fraction to enhance the foam generation of CO₂ at supercritical conditions. This study shows how the addition of small quantity of N₂ helps in generating the CO₂ foam and performance of the CO₂/N₂ mixture foam in enhanced oil recovery. To investigate the performance of CO₂/N₂ foam, core-flooding experiments were conducted at elevated pressure and temperature condition (higher than supercritical CO₂ - 50°C and 1500 psi) in sandstone cores. Fluorosurfactant (FS-51) was used as a foaming agent, and n-decane was used as model oil in all the experiments. The selection of foam quality and N₂ fraction was optimized based on foam generation and stability tests. Every gas or foam flooding was preceded by seawater injection to simulate the behavior in the reservoir. The results from the core-flood experiments showed that the CO₂ and CO₂/N₂ foam flooding recovered an additional 34-40% of Original Initial Oil in Place (OIIP) indicating that foam flooding succeeded in producing more oil than pure CO₂ gas injection processes. Additionally, the performance CO₂/N₂ foam injection was better than CO₂ foam injection.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, sweep efficiency, CO₂/N₂ foam, enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

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4 A Green Approach towards the Production of CaCO₃ Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Sudhir Kumar Sharma, Abiy D. Woldetsadik, Mazin Magzoub, Ramesh Jagannathan


It is well known that bioactive ceramics exhibit specific biological affinities, especially in the area of tissue re-generation. In this context, we report the development of an eminently scalable, novel, supercritical CO₂ based process for the fabrication of hierarchically porous 'soft' CaCO₃ scaffolds. Porosity at the macro, micro, and nanoscales was obtained through process optimization of the so-called 'coffee-ring effect'. Exposure of these CaCO₃ scaffolds to monocytic THP-1 cells yielded negligible levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) thereby confirming the lack of immunogenicity of the scaffolds. ECM protein treatment of the scaffolds showed enhanced adsorption comparable to standard control such as glass. In vitro studies using osteoblast precursor cell line, MC3T3, also demonstrated the cytocompatibility of hierarchical porous CaCO₃ scaffolds.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, CaCO3 scaffolds, coffee-ring effect, ECM proteins

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3 Enhancement Production and Development of Hot Dry Rock System by Using Supercritical CO2 as Working Fluid Instead of Water to Advance Indonesia's Geothermal Energy

Authors: Dhara Adhnandya Kumara, Novrizal Novrizal


Hot Dry Rock (HDR) is one of geothermal energy which is abundant in many provinces in Indonesia. Heat exploitation from HDR would need a method which injects fluid to subsurface to crack the rock and sweep the heat. Water is commonly used as the working fluid but known to be less effective in some ways. The new research found out that Supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) can be used to replace water as the working fluid. By studying heat transfer efficiency, pumping power, and characteristics of the returning fluid, we might decide how effective SCCO2 to replace water as working fluid. The method used to study those parameters quantitatively could be obtained from pre-existing researches which observe the returning fluids from the same reservoir with same pumping power. The result shows that SCCO2 works better than water. For cold and hot SCCO2 has lower density difference than water, this results in higher buoyancy in the system that allows the fluid to circulate with lower pumping power. Besides, lower viscosity of SCCO2 impacts in higher flow rate in circulation. The interaction between SCCO2 and minerals in reservoir could induce dehydration of the minerals and enhancement of rock porosity and permeability. While the dissolution and transportation of minerals by SCCO2 are unlikely to occur because of the nature of SCCO2 as poor solvent, and this will reduce the mineral scaling in the system. Under those conditions, using SCCO2 as working fluid for HDR extraction would give great advantages to advance geothermal energy in Indonesia.

Keywords: Geothermal, supercritical CO2, injection fluid, hot dry rock

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2 Energy Analysis of an Ejector Based Solar Assisted Trigeneration System for Dairy Application

Authors: M. Ramgopal, V. Ravindra, P. A. Saikiran


This paper presents an energy analysis of a solar assisted trigeneration system using an Ejector for dairy applications. The working fluid in the trigeneration loop is Supercritical CO₂. The trigeneration system is a combination of Brayton cycle and ejector based vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The heating and cooling outputs are used for simultaneous pasteurization and chilling of the milk. The electrical power is used to drive the auxiliary equipment in the dairy plant. A numerical simulation is done with Engineering Equation Solver (EES), and a parametric analysis is performed by varying the operating variables over a meaningful range. The results show that the overall performance index decreases with increase in ambient temperature. For an ejector based system, the compressor work and cooling output are significant output quantities. An increase in total mass flow rate of the refrigerant (primary + secondary) results in an increase in the compressor work and cooling output.

Keywords: solar thermal, Trigeneration, supercritical CO2, ejector

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1 An Experimental and Analytical Study of Supercritical CO₂ Flow Instability in Two Heated Vertical Parallel Channels

Authors: Inderjit Singh, Vijay Chatoorgoon, Anantvir Singh


Very limited experimental data on supercritical flow instability is present in the literature. In order to enrich this limited database and to better understand the supercritical flow instability, an experimental study was conducted at the University of Manitoba -using two vertical parallel channels with supercritical CO₂. A total of 7 experimental cases were performed with a system pressure range of 8.0 – 9.1MPa, inlet temperatures 1- 10 °C, and with different outlet channel K-factors. The heated pipes used were made from INCONEL 825. In all the cases, the parallel channel flow instability was sorted and studied. The inlet temperature and total pressure were held constant, and heating power was increased gradually until the onset of oscillatory was observed. The development of the channel mass flow rates with power increase was studied. The results can be divided into three stages; initially, the flow rate between the channels is almost symmetrical, with increment in heating power it gets redistributed and become asymmetrical, and with further power increase, it starts oscillating out-of-phase. In addition, an in-house 1-D linear code based on linear stability theory in the frequency domain was used to numerically simulate the experimental results, and the obtained numerical results showed good agreement with experimental ones. The effect of wall thermal storage was also studied, and results showed that it has a very small effect on the oscillatory instability.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, natural circulation loop, parallel channel instability, supercritical water reactor, thermal hydraulic instability

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