Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

supercapacitor Related Abstracts

15 Switched Ultracapacitors for Maximizing Energy Supply

Authors: Nassouh K. Jaber


Supercapacitors (S.C.) are presently attracting attention for driving general purpose (12VDC to 220VAC) inverters in renewable energy systems. Unfortunately, when the voltage of the S.C supplying the inverter reaches the minimal threshold of 7-8VDC the inverter shuts down leaving the remaining 40% of the valuable energy stored inside the ultracapacitor un-usable. In this work a power electronic circuit is proposed which switches 2 banks of supercapacitors from parallel connection when both are fully charged at 14VDC to serial connection when their voltages drop down to 7 volts, thus keeping the inverter working within its operating limits for a longer time and advantageously tapping almost 92% of the stored energy in the supercapacitors.

Keywords: Inverter, ultra capacitor, switched ultracapacitors, supercapacitor, parallel connection, serial connection, battery limitation

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14 Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposite Prepared by Microwave Method and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim


Supercapacitors are energy storage devices capable of storing more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further use of a post-heat treatment unlike the conventional processes, in which calcination is generally employed after obtaining the initial product. Furthermore, it also offers a shorter reaction time at low temperatures and low power requirements, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an electrode material. The as-prepared electrode exhibited a high capacitance of 953 F•g^−1 at 1 A•g^−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. Moreover, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg^−1 at a power density of 720 W•kg^−1, and a high power density of 7200 W•kg^−1 at an energy density of 38 Wh•kg^−1. The successful methodology was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, thereby providing an active electrode material with very promising electrochemical performance.

Keywords: Graphene, electrochemical, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor, cobalt-manganese oxide

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13 Mesoporous Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core-Shell Microspheres for Supercapacitor Electrode Material

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim, Marjorie Baynosa


The depletion of non-renewable sources had led to the continuous development of various energy storage systems in order to cope with the world’s demand in energy. Supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because they can store more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The combination of carbon-based material and metal chalcogenides are now being considered in response to the search for active electrode materials exhibiting high electrochemical performance. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon [email protected] cobalt sulfide ([email protected]) core-shell was synthesized using a simple hydrothermal method. The [email protected] core-shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724.4 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Good specific retention of 86.1% and high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9% was obtained after 2000 charge-discharge cycles. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 (1440 W kg−1) and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 (34.2 Wh kg−1). The reaction involved green synthesis without further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. Through this study, a cost-effective and facile synthesis of [email protected] as an active electrode showed favorable electrochemical performance.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, electrochemical, supercapacitor, carbon sphere, nickel cobalt sulfide

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12 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core/Shell Microstructure and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim, Marjorie Baynosa


Electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because of their high potential as an efficient energy storage system. The combination of carbon-based material and transition metal oxides/sulfides are studied because they have long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon sphere/nickel cobalt sulfide (CS/Ni-Co-S) core/shell structure was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method without any further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. The CS/Ni-Co-S core/shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. After 2000 charge-discharge cycles, it retained 86.1% of its original capacitance, with high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9%. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 at an energy density of 1440 W kg−1, and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 at an energy density of 34.2 Wh kg−1. The successful synthesis was considered to be simple and cost-effective which supports the viability of this composite as an alternative activated material for high performance supercapacitors.

Keywords: Hydrothermal, electrochemical, supercapacitor, carbon sphere, nickel cobalt sulfide

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11 High Electrochemical Performance of Electrode Material Based On Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposites

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim, Deivasigamani Ranjith Kumar


The quest for alternative sources of energy storage had led to the exploration on supercapacitors. Hybrid supercapacitors, a combination of carbon-based material and transition metals, had yielded long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an active electrode material. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further post-heat treatment. Additionally, it offers shorter reaction time at low temperature and low power requirement, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. The as-prepared electrode material demonstrated a high capacitance of 953 F•g−1 at 1 A•g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg−1 (power density of 720 W•kg−1) and a high power density of 7200 W•kg−1 (energy density of 38 Wh•kg−1). The successful synthesis was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, with very promising electrochemical performance that can be used as an active material in supercapacitors.

Keywords: Graphene, electrochemical, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor, cobalt manganese oxide

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10 Lithium and Sodium Ion Capacitors with High Energy and Power Densities based on Carbons from Recycled Olive Pits

Authors: Jon Ajuria, Edurne Redondo, Roman Mysyk, Eider Goikolea


Hybrid capacitor configurations are now of increasing interest to overcome the current energy limitations of supercapacitors entirely based on non-Faradaic charge storage. Among them, Li-ion capacitors including a negative battery-type lithium intercalation electrode and a positive capacitor-type electrode have achieved tremendous progress and have gone up to commercialization. Inexpensive electrode materials from renewable sources have recently received increased attention since cost is a persistently major criterion to make supercapacitors a more viable energy solution, with electrode materials being a major contributor to supercapacitor cost. Additionally, Na-ion battery chemistries are currently under development as less expensive and accessible alternative to Li-ion based battery electrodes. In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitor (LIC & NIC) entirely based on electrodes prepared from carbon materials derived from recycled olive pits. Yearly, around 1 million ton of olive pit waste is generated worldwide, of which a third originates in the Spanish olive oil industry. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized at different temperatures to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the Li/Na ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. The best hard carbon delivers a total capacity of 270mAh/g vs Na/Na+ in 1M NaPF6 and 350mAh/g vs Li/Li+ in 1M LiPF6. On the other hand, the same hard carbon is chemically activated with KOH to obtain high specific surface area -about 2000 m2g-1- activated carbon that is further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. In a voltage window of 1.5-4.2V, activated carbon delivers a specific capacity of 80 mAh/g vs. Na/Na+ and 95 mAh/g vs. Li/Li+ at 0.1A /g. Both electrodes were assembled in the same hybrid cell to build a LIC/NIC. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5M Et4NBF4 electrolyte was also built. Both LIC & NIC demonstrates considerable improvements in the energy density over its EDLC counterpart, delivering a maximum energy density of 110Wh/Kg at a power density of 30W/kg AM and a maximum power density of 6200W/Kg at an energy density of 27 Wh/Kg in the case of NIC and a maximum energy density of 110Wh/Kg at a power density of 30W/kg and a maximum power density of 18000W/Kg at an energy density of 22 Wh/Kg in the case of LIC. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the same biomass waste can be adapted to offer a hybrid capacitor/battery storage device overcoming the limited energy density of corresponding double layer capacitors.

Keywords: supercapacitor, hybrid supercapacitor, Na-Ion capacitor, Li-Ion capacitor, EDLC

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9 Polymeric Composites with Synergetic Carbon and Layered Metallic Compounds for Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Anukul K. Thakur, Ram Bilash Choudhary, Mandira Majumder


In this technologically driven world, it is requisite to develop better, faster and smaller electronic devices for various applications to keep pace with fast developing modern life. In addition, it is also required to develop sustainable and clean sources of energy in this era where the environment is being threatened by pollution and its severe consequences. Supercapacitor has gained tremendous attention in the recent years because of its various attractive properties such as it is essentially maintenance-free, high specific power, high power density, excellent pulse charge/discharge characteristics, exhibiting a long cycle-life, require a very simple charging circuit and safe operation. Binary and ternary composites of conducting polymers with carbon and other layered transition metal dichalcogenides have shown tremendous progress in the last few decades. Compared with bulk conducting polymer, these days conducting polymers have gained more attention because of their high electrical conductivity, large surface area, short length for the ion transport and superior electrochemical activity. These properties make them very suitable for several energy storage applications. On the other hand, carbon materials have also been studied intensively, owing to its rich specific surface area, very light weight, excellent chemical-mechanical property and a wide range of the operating temperature. These have been extensively employed in the fabrication of carbon-based energy storage devices and also as an electrode material in supercapacitors. Incorporation of carbon materials into the polymers increases the electrical conductivity of the polymeric composite so formed due to high electrical conductivity, high surface area and interconnectivity of the carbon. Further, polymeric composites based on layered transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are also considered important because they are thin indirect band gap semiconductors with a band gap around 1.2 to 1.9eV. Amongst the various 2D materials, MoS2 has received much attention because of its unique structure consisting of a graphene-like hexagonal arrangement of Mo and S atoms stacked layer by layer to give S-Mo-S sandwiches with weak Van-der-Waal forces between them. It shows higher intrinsic fast ionic conductivity than oxides and higher theoretical capacitance than the graphite.

Keywords: Carbon, Ternary, conducting polymer, supercapacitor, layered transition-metal dichalcogenide

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8 The Prospects of Optimized KOH/Cellulose 'Papers' as Hierarchically Porous Electrode Materials for Supercapacitor Devices

Authors: Dina Ibrahim Abouelamaiem, Ana Jorge Sobrido, Magdalena Titirici, Paul R. Shearing, Daniel J. L. Brett


Global warming and scarcity of fossil fuels have had a radical impact on the world economy and ecosystem. The urgent need for alternative energy sources has hence elicited an extensive research for exploiting efficient and sustainable means of energy conversion and storage. Among various electrochemical systems, supercapacitors attracted significant attention in the last decade due to their high power supply, long cycle life compared to batteries and simple mechanism. Recently, the performance of these devices has drastically improved, as tuning of nanomaterials provided efficient charge and storage mechanisms. Carbon materials, in various forms, are believed to pioneer the next generation of supercapacitors due to their attractive properties that include high electronic conductivities, high surface areas and easy processing and functionalization. Cellulose has eco-friendly attributes that are feasible to replace man-made fibers. The carbonization of cellulose yields carbons, including activated carbon and graphite fibers. Activated carbons successively are the most exploited candidates for supercapacitor electrode materials that can be complemented with pseudocapacitive materials to achieve high energy and power densities. In this work, the optimum functionalization conditions of cellulose have been investigated for supercapacitor electrode materials. The precursor was treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at different KOH/cellulose ratios prior to the carbonization process in an inert nitrogen atmosphere at 850 °C. The chalky products were washed, dried and characterized with different techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray tomography and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The morphological characteristics and their effect on the electrochemical performances were investigated in two and three-electrode systems. The KOH/cellulose ratios of 0.5:1 and 1:1 exhibited the highest performances with their unique hierarchal porous network structure, high surface areas and low cell resistances. Both samples acquired the best results in three-electrode systems and coin cells with specific gravimetric capacitances as high as 187 F g-1 and 20 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and retention rates of 72% and 70%, respectively. This is attributed to the morphology of the samples that constituted of a well-balanced micro-, meso- and macro-porosity network structure. This study reveals that the electrochemical performance doesn’t solely depend on high surface areas but also an optimum pore size distribution, specifically at low current densities. The micro- and meso-pore contribution to the final pore structure was found to dominate at low KOH loadings, reaching ‘equilibrium’ with macropores at the optimum KOH loading, after which macropores dictate the porous network. The wide range of pore sizes is detrimental for the mobility and penetration of electrolyte ions in the porous structures. These findings highlight the influence of various morphological factors on the double-layer capacitances and high performance rates. In addition, they open a platform for the investigation of the optimized conditions for double-layer capacitance that can be coupled with pseudocapacitive materials to yield higher energy densities and capacities.

Keywords: Morphology, Carbon, electrodes, supercapacitor, electrochemical performance, KOH/cellulose optimized ratio

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7 Influence of Deposition Temperature on Supercapacitive Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide on Carbon Cloth: New Generation of Wearable Energy Storage Electrode Material

Authors: Snehal L. Kadam, Shriniwas B. Kulkarni


Flexible electrode material with high surface area and good electrochemical properties is the current trend captivating the researchers across globe for application in the next generation energy storage field. In the present work, crumpled sheet like reduced graphene oxide grown on carbon cloth by the hydrothermal method with a series of different deposition temperatures at fixed time. The influence of the deposition temperature on the structural, morphological, optical and supercapacitive properties of the electrode material was investigated by XRD, RAMAN, XPS, TEM, FE-SEM, UV-VISIBLE and electrochemical characterization techniques.The results show that the hydrothermally synthesized reduced graphene oxide on carbon cloth has sheet like mesoporous structure. The reduced graphene oxide material at 160°C exhibits the best supercapacitor performance, with a specific capacitance of 443 F/g at scan rate 5mV/sec. Moreover, stability studies show 97% capacitance retention over 1000 CV cycles. This result shows that hydrothermally synthesized RGO on carbon cloth is the potential electrode material and would be used in the next-generation wearable energy storage systems. The detailed analysis and results will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: Graphene Oxide, supercapacitor, reduced graphene oxide, carbon cloth, deposition temperature

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6 Sizing of Hybrid Source Battery/Supercapacitor for Automotive Applications

Authors: Laid Degaa, Bachir Bendjedia, Nassim Rizoug, Abdelkader Saidane


Energy storage system is a key aspect for the development of clean cars. The work proposed here deals with the modeling of hybrid storage sources composed of a combination of lithium-ion battery and supercapacitors. Simulation results show the performance of the active model for a hybrid source and confirm the feasibility of our approach. In this context, sizing of the electrical energy supply is carried out. The aim of this sizing is to propose an 'optimal' solution that improves the performance of electric vehicles in term of weight, cost and aging.

Keywords: Energy, Electric Vehicles, Battery, supercapacitor, hybrid storage

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5 A Novel All-Solid-State Microsupercapacitor Based on Carbon Nanotube Sheets

Authors: Behnoush Dousti, Ye Choi, Gil S. Lee


Supercapacitors which are also known as ultra supercapacitors play a significant role in development of energy storage devices owing to their high power density and rate capability. Nobel research has been conducted on micro scale energy storage systems currently to address the demand for smaller wearable technology and portable devices. Improving the performance of these microsupercapacitors have been always a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a facile fabrication of a microsupercapacitor (MSC) with interdigitated electrodes using novel structure of carbon nanotube sheets which are spun directly from as-grown carbon nanotube forests. Stability and performance of the device was tested using an aqueous PVA-H3PO4 gel electrolyte that also offers desirable electrochemical capacitive properties. High Coulombic efficiency around 100%, great rate capability and excellent capacitance retention over 15,000 cycles were obtained. Capacitive performance greatly improved with surface modification with acid and nitrogen doping of the CNT sheets. The high power density and stable cycling performance make this microsupercapacitor a suitable candidate for verity of energy storage application.

Keywords: energy storage, supercapacitor, carbon nanotube sheet, solid state electrolyte

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4 High-Performance Li Doped CuO/Reduced Graphene Oxide Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode

Authors: Ruey-Chi Wang, Po-Hsiang Huang, Ping-Chang Chuang, Shu-Jen Chen


High-performance Li: CuO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible electrodes for supercapacitors were fabricated via a low-temperature and low-cost route. To increase energy density while maintaining high power density and long-term cyclability, Li was doped to increase the electrical conductivity of CuO particles between RGO flakes. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrical conductivity, specific capacitance, energy density, and rate capability were all enhanced by Li incorporation. The optimized Li:CuO/RGO electrodes show a high energy density of 179.9 Wh/kg and a power density of 900.0 W/kg at a current density of 1 A/g. Cyclic life tests show excellent stability over 10,000 cycles with a capacitance retention of 93.2%. Li doping improves the electrochemical performance of CuO, making CuO a promising pseudocapacitive material for fabricating low-cost excellent supercapacitors.

Keywords: Lithium, supercapacitor, CuO, RGO

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3 Direct Electrophoretic Deposition of Hierarchical Structured Electrode Supercapacitor Application

Authors: An-Ya Lo, Hu-Cheng Weng, Jhen-Ting Huang, Chia-Chia Chang


In this study, Co3O4-CNT-Graphene composite electrode was deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method, where micro polystyrene spheres (PSs) were added for co-deposition. Applied with heat treatment, a hierarchical porosity is left in the electrode which is beneficial for supercapacitor application. In terms of charge and discharge performance, we discussed the optimal CNT/Graphene ratio, macroporous ratio, and the effect of Co3O4 addition on electrode capacitance. For materials characterization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and BET were applied, while cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) measurements, and Ragone plot were applied as in-situ analyses. Based on this, the effects of PS amount on the structure, porosity and their effect on capacitance of the electrodes were investigated. Finally, the full device performance was examined with charge-discharge and electron impedance spectrum (EIS) methods. The results show that the EPD coating with hierarchical porosity was successfully demonstrated in this study. As a result, the capacitance was greatly enhanced by 2.6 times with the hierarchical structure.

Keywords: Graphene, supercapacitor, metal oxide, nanocarbon tub

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2 Hierarchical Porous Carbon Composite Electrode for High Performance Supercapacitor Application

Authors: An-Ya Lo, Hu-Cheng Weng, Jhen-Ting Huang, Chia-Chia Chang


This study developed a simple hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) synthesis process and used for supercapacitor application. In which, mesopore provides huge specific surface area, meanwhile, macropore provides excellent mass transfer. Thus the hierarchical porous electrode improves the charge-discharge performance. On the other hand, cerium oxide (CeO2) have also got a lot research attention owing to its rich in content, low in price, environmentally friendly, good catalytic properties, and easy preparation. Besides, a rapid redox reaction occurs between trivalent cerium and tetravalent cerium releases oxygen atom and increase the conductivity. In order to prevent CeO2 from disintegration under long-term charge-discharge operation, the CeO2 carbon porous materials were was integrated as composite material in this study. For in the ex-situ analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis were adopted to identify the surface morphology, crystal structure, and microstructure of the composite. 77K Nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis was used to analyze the porosity of each specimen. For the in-situ test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) were conducted by potentiostat to understand the charge and discharge properties. Ragone plot was drawn to further analyze the resistance properties. Based on above analyses, the effect of macropores/mespores and the CeO2/HPC ratios on charge-discharge performance were investigated. As a result, the capacitance can be greatly enhanced by 2.6 times higher than pristine mesoporous carbon electrode.

Keywords: supercapacitor, cerium oxide, hierarchical porous carbon

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1 Internet of Things Edge Device Power Modelling and Optimization Simulator

Authors: Cian O'Shea, Ross O'Halloran, Peter Haigh


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are Internet of Things (IoT) edge devices. They are becoming widely adopted in many industries, including health care, building energy management, and conditional monitoring. As the scale of WSN deployments increases, the cost and complexity of battery replacement and disposal become more significant and in time may become a barrier to adoption. Harvesting ambient energies provide a pathway to reducing dependence on batteries and in the future may lead to autonomously powered sensors. This work describes a simulation tool that enables the user to predict the battery life of a wireless sensor that utilizes energy harvesting to supplement the battery power. To create this simulator, all aspects of a typical WSN edge device were modelled including, sensors, transceiver, and microcontroller as well as the energy source components (batteries, solar cells, thermoelectric generators (TEG), supercapacitors and DC/DC converters). The tool allows the user to plug and play different pre characterized devices as well as add user-defined devices. The goal of this simulation tool is to predict the lifetime of a device and scope for extension using ambient energy sources.

Keywords: Simulation, Energy harvesting, Solar Cells, Wireless Sensor Network, IoT, supercapacitor, TEG, edge device

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