Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

sulphate Related Abstracts

3 Improving the Ability of Constructed Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage

Authors: Chigbo Emmanuel Ikechukwu

Abstract:

Constructed wetlands are seen as a potential means of ameliorating the poor quality water that derives from coal and gold mining operations. However, the processes whereby a wetland environment is able to improve water quality are not well understood and techniques for optimising their performance poorly developed. A parameter that may be manipulated in order to improve the treatment capacity of a wetland is the substrate in which the aquatic plants are rooted. This substrate can provide an environment wherein sulphate reducing bacteria, which contribute to the removal of contaminants from the water, are able to flourish. The bacteria require an energy source which is largely provided by carbon in the substrate. This paper discusses the form in which carbon is most suitable for the bacteria and describes the results of a series of experiments in which different materials were used as substrate. Synthetic acid mine drainage was passed through an anaerobic bioreactor that contained either compost or cow manure. The effluent water quality was monitored with respect to time and the effect of the substrate composition discussed.

Keywords: Carbon, Bacteria, constructed wetland, acid mine drainage, sulphate

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2 A Study on the Effect of Cod to Sulphate Ratio on Performance of Lab Scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor

Authors: Ahmad Saadiq, Neeraj Sahu

Abstract:

Anaerobic sulphate reduction has the potential for being effective and economically viable over conventional treatment methods for the treatment of sulphate-rich wastewater. However, a major challenge in anaerobic sulphate reduction is the diversion of a fraction of organic carbon towards methane production and some minor problem such as odour problems, corrosion, and increase of effluent chemical oxygen demand. A high-rate anaerobic technology has encouraged researchers to extend its application to the treatment of complex wastewaters with relatively low cost and energy consumption compared to physicochemical methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COD/SO₄²⁻ ratio on the performance of lab scale UASB reactor. A lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated for 170 days. In which first 60 days, for successful start-up with acclimation under methanogenesis and sulphidogenesis at COD/SO₄²⁻ of 18 and were operated at COD/SO₄²⁻ ratios of 12, 8, 4 and 1 to evaluate the effects of the presence of sulfate on the reactor performance. The reactor achieved maximum COD removal efficiency and biogas evolution at the end of acclimation (control). This phase lasted 53 days with 89.5% efficiency. The biogas was 0.6 L/d at (OLR) of 1.0 kg COD/m³d when it was treating synthetic wastewater with effective volume of reactor as 2.8 L. When COD/SO₄²⁻ ratio changed from 12 to 1, slight decrease in COD removal efficiencies (76.8–87.4%) was observed, biogas production decreased from 0.58 to 0.32 L/d, while the sulfate removal efficiency increased from 42.5% to 72.7%.

Keywords: sulphate, chemical oxygen demand, anaerobic, organic loading rate, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

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1 Effects of pH, Load Capacity and Contact Time in the Sulphate Sorption onto a Functionalized Mesoporous Structure

Authors: Ximena Castillo, Jaime Pizarro

Abstract:

The intensive use of water in agriculture, industry, human consumption and increasing pollution are factors that reduce the availability of water for future generations; the challenge is to advance in sustainable and low-cost solutions to reuse water and to facilitate the availability of the resource in quality and quantity. The use of new low-cost materials with sorbent capacity for pollutants is a solution that contributes to the improvement and expansion of water treatment and reuse systems. Fly ash, a residue from the combustion of coal in power plants that is produced in large quantities in newly industrialized countries, contains a high amount of silicon oxides and aluminum oxides, whose properties can be used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials. Properly functionalized, this material allows obtaining matrixes with high sorption capacity. The mesoporous materials have a large surface area, thermal and mechanical stability, uniform porous structure, and high sorption and functionalization capacities. The goal of this study was to develop hexagonal mesoporous siliceous material (HMS) for the adsorption of sulphate from industrial and mining waters. The silica was extracted from fly ash after calcination at 850 ° C, followed by the addition of water. The mesoporous structure has a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a size of 5.7 nm and was functionalized with ethylene diamine through of a self-assembly method. The material was characterized by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The capacity of sulphate sorption was evaluated according to pH, maximum load capacity and contact time. The sulphate maximum adsorption capacity was 146.1 mg g-1, which is three times higher than commercial sorbents. The kinetic data were fitted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model.

Keywords: fly ash, Sorption, sulphate, mesoporous siliceous

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