Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

sulfur Related Abstracts

7 Tribological Behavior of EP Additives with Different Percentage of Sulfur

Authors: Salete Martins Alves, José Josemar de Oliveira Junior

Abstract:

The current efforts on design of lubricants are based in attending the new requirement of modern equipment with the focus on the choice of base oil and additives. Nowadays, there are different types of lubricant oils’ bases, such as mineral oils, synthetic oils, re-refined oils and vegetable oils. The lubrication in the boundary condition is controlled mainly by EP additives that interact with the surface forming very thin films. Therefore, the study’s goal is to evaluate the action of three EP additives, with different percentage of sulfur, on friction and wear reduction. They were evaluated in mineral and synthetic oils. Lubricants were prepared with synthetic and mineral oils and added 3 % and 5 % of EP additives. The friction and wear characteristics were studied using HFRR test. In this test, a normal load of 10 N was applied at a frequency of 20 Hz. The analysis of results has appointed that the percentage of sulfur in mineral oil has influenced on wear reduction. However, synthetic oil had good performance with low sulfur content.

Keywords: Wear, boundary lubrication, EP additives, sulfur

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6 Possible Sulfur Induced Superconductivity in Nano-Diamond

Authors: J. Mona, R. R. da Silva, C.-L.Cheng, Y. Kopelevich

Abstract:

We report on a possible occurrence of superconductivity in 5 nm particle size diamond powders treated with sulfur (S) at 500 o C for 10 hours in ~10-2 Torr vacuum. Superconducting-like magnetization hysteresis loops M(H) have been measured up to ~ 50 K by means of the SQUID magnetometer (Quantum Design). Both X-ray (Θ-2Θ geometry) and Raman spectroscopy analyses revealed no impurity or additional phases. Nevertheless, the measured Raman spectra are characteristic to the diamond with embedded disordered carbon and/or graphitic fragments suggesting a link to the previous reports of the local or surface superconductivity in graphite- and amorphous carbon–sulfur composites.

Keywords: Nanodiamond, Superconductivity, Raman spectroscopy, sulfur

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5 The Nutritive Value of Fermented Sago Pith (Metroxylon sago Rottb) Enriched with Micro Nutrients for Poultry Feed

Authors: Wizna, Helmi Muis, Hafil Abbas

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient value of sago pith (Metroxylon sago Rottb) supplemented with Zn, Sulfur and urea through fermentation by using cellulolytic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) as inoculums. The experiment was determination of the optimum dose combination (dosage of Zn, S and urea) for sago pith fermentation based on nutrient quality and quantity of these fermented products. The study was conducted in experimental method, using the completely randomized design in factorial with 3 treatments consist of: factor A (Dose of urea: A1 = 2.0%, A2 = 3.0%), factor B (Dose of S: B1 = 0.2%, B2 = 0.4%) and factor C (Dose of Zn: C1 = 0.0025%, C2 = 0.005%). Results of study showed that optimum condition for fermentation process of sago pith with B. amyloliquefaciens caused a change of nutrient content was obtained at urea (3%), S (0,2%), and Zn (0,0025%). This fermentation process was able to increase amino acid average, reduce crude fiber content by 67% and increase crude protein by 433%, which made the nutritional value of the product based on dry matter was 18.22% crude protein, 12.42% crude fiber, 2525 Kcal/kg metabolic energy and 65.73% nitrogen retention.

Keywords: Fermentation, sulfur, urea, sago pith, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

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4 Valorization of Gypsum as Industrial Waste

Authors: Hasna Soli

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is the extraction of sulfur from gypsum here is industrial waste. Indeed the sulfuric acid production, passing through the following process; melting sulfur, filtration of the liquid sulfur, sulfur combustion to produce SO₂, conversion of SO₂ to SO₃ and SO₃ absorption in water to produce H₂SO₄ product as waste CaSO₄ the anhydrous calcium sulfate. The main objectives of this work are improving the industrial practices and to find other ways to manage these solid wastes. It should also assess the consequences of treatment in terms of training and become byproducts. Firstly there will be a characterization of this type of waste by an X-ray diffraction; to obtain phase solid compositions and chemical analysis; gravimetrically and atomic absorption spectrometry or by ICP. The samples are mineralized in suitable acidic or basic solutions. The elements analyzed are CaO, Sulfide (SO₃), Al₂O₃, Fe₂O₃, MgO, SiO₂. Then an analysis by EDS energy dispersive spectrometry using an Oxford EDX probe and differential thermal and gravimetric analyzes. Gypsum’s valuation will be performed. Indeed, the CaSO₄ will be reused to produce sulfuric acid, which will be reintroduced into the production line. The second approach explored in this work is the thermal utilization of solid waste to remove sulfur as a dilute sulfuric acid solution.

Keywords: Waste, Environment, gypsum, sulfur

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3 Effect of Sulfur on the High-Temperature Oxidation of DIN1.4091

Authors: M. J. Kim, D. B. Lee

Abstract:

Centrifugal casting is a metal casting method that uses forces make by centripetal acceleration to distribute molten material in mold. Centrifugal cast parts manufactured in industry contain gas pipes and water supply lines, moreover rings, turbocharger, bushings, brake drums. Turbochargers were exposed to exhaust temperatures of 900-1050°C require a material for the corrosion resistance that will withstand such high component temperatures during the entire service life of the vehicle. Hence, the study of corrosion resistance for turbocharger is important for practical application. DIN1.4091 steels were used widely. The DIN1.4091 steels whose compositions were Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni-2.5Mo-0.4W-0.4Mn-0.5Si-(0.009 or 0.35)S (wt.%) were centrifugally cast, and oxidized at 900°C for 50-200 h in order to find the effect of sulfur on the high-temperature oxidation of Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni-2.5Mo-0.4W-0.4Mn-0.5Si-(0.009 or 0.35)S (wt.%) alloys. These alloys formed oxide scales that consisted primarily of Cr₂O₃ as the major oxide and Cr₂MnO₄ as the minor one through preferential oxidation of Cr and Mn. Cr formed a thin CrOx oxide film on the surface to prevent further oxidation, and when it is added more than 20%, the sulphide decreased corrosion rate. The high affinity of Mn with S, led to the formation of scattered MnS inclusions, particularly in the 0.35S-containing cast alloy. Sulfur was harmful to the oxidation resistance because it deteriorated the scale/alloy adherence so as to accelerate the adherence and compactness of the formed scales. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A2B1013169).

Keywords: Oxidation, centrifugal casting, sulfur, turbocharger, Fe-34.4Cr-14.5Ni alloy

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2 Appropriate Nutrient Management for Wheat Production in Afghanistan

Authors: Azizurahman Sakhizadah, Tsugiyuki Masunaga

Abstract:

The use of sulfur fertilizer by Afghanistan farmers for wheat production has never been practiced, although sulfur deficiency has been expected for wheat production. A field experiment was conducted at Poza e Ishan Research Station Farm, Baghlan province, Afghanistan to examine the effect of sulfur fertilizer on growth and yield components of wheat. The experiment was laid out in randomize complete block design (RCBD), having three replications and eight treatments. The initial soil of experiment was alkaline (pH8.4), with textural class of sandy clay loam, available sulfur (40.8) mg kg-1, and Olsen-P (28.8) mg kg-1. Wheat variety, Kabul 013 was cultivated from November 2015 to June 2016. The recommended doses of nitrogen and Phosphors (Urea and DAP at 250 and 125 kg ha-1) were applied by broadcasting except control plot. Sulfur was applied by foliar spray (K2 SO4) at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 kg ha-1, split at tillering and flowering stages. The results demonstrated that sulfur application positively influenced on growth and yield of wheat crop with combination of nitrogen. Plant did not respond to sole sulfur application. Plant height, spike length, spikelet's number spike-1, were increased and yield g m-2 was also increased by 1.2, 19.1 and 25.1 % for 10, 20 and 30 kg sulfur ha-1 application.

Keywords: Wheat, Nitrogen, sulfur, foliar

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1 Experimental Investigation of Absorbent Regeneration Techniques to Lower the Cost of Combined CO₂ and SO₂ Capture Process

Authors: Bharti Garg, Ashleigh Cousins, Pauline Pearson, Vincent Verheyen, Paul Feron

Abstract:

The presence of SO₂ in power plant flue gases makes flue gas desulfurization (FGD) an essential requirement prior to post combustion CO₂ (PCC) removal facilities. Although most of the power plants worldwide deploy FGD in order to comply with environmental regulations, generally the achieved SO₂ levels are not sufficiently low for the flue gases to enter the PCC unit. The SO₂ level in the flue gases needs to be less than 10 ppm to effectively operate the PCC installation. The existing FGD units alone cannot bring down the SO₂ levels to or below 10 ppm as required for CO₂ capture. It might require an additional scrubber along with the existing FGD unit to bring the SO₂ to the desired levels. The absence of FGD units in Australian power plants brings an additional challenge. SO₂ concentrations in Australian power station flue gas emissions are in the range of 100-600 ppm. This imposes a serious barrier on the implementation of standard PCC technologies in Australia. CSIRO’s developed CS-Cap process is a unique solution to capture SO₂ and CO₂ in a single column with single absorbent which can potentially bring cost-effectiveness to the commercial deployment of carbon capture in Australia, by removing the need for FGD. Estimated savings of removing SO₂ through a similar process as CS-Cap is around 200 MMUSD for a 500 MW Australian power plant. Pilot plant trials conducted to generate the proof of concept resulted in 100% removal of SO₂ from flue gas without utilising standard limestone-based FGD. In this work, removal of absorbed sulfur from aqueous amine absorbents generated in the pilot plant trials has been investigated by reactive crystallisation and thermal reclamation. More than 95% of the aqueous amines can be reclaimed back from the sulfur loaded absorbent via reactive crystallisation. However, the recovery of amines through thermal reclamation is limited and depends on the sulfur loading on the spent absorbent. The initial experimental work revealed that reactive crystallisation is a better fit for CS-Cap’s sulfur-rich absorbent especially when it is also capable of generating K₂SO₄ crystals of highly saleable quality ~ 99%. Initial cost estimation carried on both the technologies resulted in almost similar capital expenditure; however, the operating cost is considerably higher in thermal reclaimer than that in crystalliser. The experimental data generated in the laboratory from both the regeneration techniques have been used to generate the simulation model in Aspen Plus. The simulation model illustrates the economic benefits which could be gained by removing flue gas desulfurization prior to standard PCC unit and replacing it with a CS-Cap absorber column co-capturing CO₂ and SO₂, and it's absorbent regeneration system which would be either reactive crystallisation or thermal reclamation.

Keywords: Cost Analysis, Regeneration, sulfur, crystallisation, combined capture, CS-Cap, flue gas desulfurisation, thermal reclamation

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