Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

sugarcane bagasse Related Abstracts

11 Effect of Different Microbial Strains on Biological Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse for Enzymatic Hydrolysis

Authors: Achiraya Jiraprasertwong, Erdogan Gulari, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

Among agricultural residues, sugarcane bagasse is one of the most convincing raw materials for the production of bioethanol due to its availability, and low cost through enzymatic hydrolysis and yeast fermentation. A pretreatment step is needed to enhance the enzymatic step. In this study, sugarcane bagasse (SCB), one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Thailand, was pretreated biologically with various microorganisms of white-rot fungus—Phanerochaete sordid (SK 7), Cellulomonas sp. (TISTR 784), and strain A 002 (Bacillus subtilis isolated from Thai higher termites). All samples with various microbial pretreatments were further hydrolyzed enzymatically by a commercial enzyme obtained from Aspergillus niger. The results showed that the pretreatment with the white-rot fungus gave the highest glucose concentration around two-fold higher when compared with the others.

Keywords: Microorganisms, Pretreatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, sugarcane bagasse

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10 Mechanical Properties of the Sugarcane Bagasse Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

Authors: R. L. M. Paiva, M. R. Capri, D. R. Mulinari, C. F. Bandeira, S. R. Montoro

Abstract:

Natural fibers are used in polymer composites to improve mechanical properties, substituting inorganic reinforcing agents produced by non renewable resources. The present study investigates the tensile, flexural and impact behaviors of sugarcane bagasse fibers-polypropylene composite as a function of volume fraction. The surface of the fibers was modified by mercerization treatments to improve the wetting behavior of the apolar polypropylene. The treatment characterization was obtained by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results evidence that a good adhesion interfacial between fibers-matrix causing an increase strength and modulus flexural as well as impact strength in the modified fibers/PP composites when compared to the pure PP and unmodified fibers reinforced composites.

Keywords: Polymer composites, fibers, Mechanical Properties, sugarcane bagasse

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9 Producing Carbon Nanoparticles from Agricultural and Municipal Wastes

Authors: Kanik Sharma

Abstract:

In the year of 2011, the global production of carbon nano-materials (CNMs) was around 3,500 tons, and it is projected to expand at a compound annual growth rate of 30.6%. Expanding markets for applications of CNMs, such as carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and carbon nano-fibers (CNFs), place ever-increasing demands on lowering their production costs. Current technologies for CNM generation require intensive premium feedstock consumption and employ costly catalysts; they also require input of external energy. Industrial-scale CNM production is conventionally achieved through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods which consume a variety of expensive premium chemical feedstocks such as ethylene, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2); or by flame synthesis techniques, which also consume premium feedstock fuels. Additionally, CVD methods are energy-intensive. Renewable and replenishable feedstocks, such as those found in municipal, industrial, agricultural recycling streams have a more judicious reason for usage, in the light of current emerging needs for sustainability. Agricultural sugarcane bagasse and corn residues, scrap tire chips as well as post-consumer polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle shreddings when either thermally treated by sole pyrolysis or by sequential pyrolysis and partial oxidation result in the formation of gaseous carbon-bearing effluents which when channeled into a heated reactor, produce CNMs, including carbon nano-tubes, catalytically synthesized therein on stainless steel meshes. The structure of the nano-material synthesized depends on the type of feedstock available for pyrolysis, and can be determined by analysing the feedstock. These feedstocks could supersede the use of costly and often toxic or highly-flammable chemicals such as hydrocarbon gases, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are commonly used as feedstocks in current nano-manufacturing process for CNMs.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, pyrolysis, Waste Plastics, sugarcane bagasse

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8 Investigation on the Effect of Sugarcane Bagasse/HDPE Composition on the Screw Withdrawal Resistance of Injection Molded Parts

Authors: Seyed Abdol Mohammad Rezavand, Mohammad Nikbakhsh

Abstract:

Withdrawal resistance of screws driven into HDPE/Sugarcane Bagasse injection molded parts was investigated. After chemical treatment and drying, SCB was pre-mixed with HDPE using twin extruder. The resulting granules are used in producing samples in injection molding machine. SCB with the quantity of %10, %20, and %30 was used. By using a suitable fixture, screw heads can take with tensile test machine grips. Parts with screws in the center and edge were fasten together. Then, withdrawal resistance was measured with tensile test machine. Injection gate is at the one edge of the part. The results show that by increasing SCB content in composite, the withdrawal resistance is decreased. Furthermore, the withdrawal resistance at the edges (near injection gate and the end of the filling path of mold cavity) is more than that of the center.

Keywords: Polyethylene, sugarcane bagasse, wood plastic, screw, withdrawal resistance

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7 Biorefinery Annexed to South African Sugar Mill: Energy Sufficiency Analysis

Authors: S. Farzad, M. Ali Mandegari, J. F. Görgens

Abstract:

The South African Sugar Industry, which has a significant impact on the national economy, is currently facing problems due to increasing energy price and low global sugar price. The available bagasse is already combusted in low-efficiency boilers of the sugar mills while bagasse is generally recognized as a promising feedstock for second generation bioethanol production. Establishment of biorefinery annexed to the existing sugar mills, as an alternative for the revitalization of sugar industry producing biofuel and electricity has been proposed and considered in this study. Since the scale is an important issue in the feasibility of the technology, this study has taken into account a typical sugar mill with 300 ton/hr sugar cane capacity. The biorefinery simulation is carried out using Aspen PlusTM V8.6, in which the sugar mill’s power and steam demand has been considered. Hence, sugar mills in South Africa can be categorized as highly efficient, efficient, and not efficient with steam consumption of 33, 40, and 60 tons of steam per ton of cane and electric power demand of 10 MW; three different scenarios are studied. The sugar cane bagasse and tops/trash are supplied to the biorefinery process and the wastes/residues (mostly lignin) from the process are burnt in the CHP plant in order to produce steam and electricity for the biorefinery and sugar mill as well. Considering the efficient sugar mill, the CHP plant has generated 5 MW surplus electric powers, but the obtained energy is not enough for self-sufficiency of the plant (Biorefinery and Sugar mill) due to lack of 34 MW heat. One of the advantages of second generation biorefinery is its low impact on the environment and carbon footprint, thus the plant should be self-sufficient in energy without using fossil fuels. For this reason, a portion of fresh bagasse should be sent to the CHP plant to meet the energy requirements. An optimization procedure was carried out to find out the appropriate portion to be burnt in the combustor. As a result, 20% of the bagasse is re-routed to the combustor which leads to 5 tons of LP Steam and 8.6 MW electric power surpluses.

Keywords: Biorefinery, Energy Analysis, Bioethanol, sugarcane bagasse, sugar mill

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6 Genetic Change in Escherichia coli KJ122 That Improved Succinate Production from an Equal Mixture of Xylose and Glucose

Authors: Apichai Sawisit, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Sunthorn Kanchanatawee, Lonnie O. Ingram, Kaemwich Jantama

Abstract:

Escherichia coli KJ122 was engineered to produce succinate from glucose using the wild type GalP for glucose uptake instead of the native phosphotransferase system (ptsI mutation). This strain ferments 10% (w/v) xylose poorly. Mutants were selected by serial transfers in AM1 mineral salts medium with 10% (w/v) xylose. Evolved mutants exhibited a similar improvement, co-fermentation of an equal mixture of xylose and glucose. One of these, AS1600a, produced 84.26±1.37 g/L succinate, equivalent to that produced by the parent (KJ122) strain from 10% glucose (85.46±1.78 g/L). AS1600a was sequenced and found to contain a mutation in galactose permease (GalP, G236D). Expressing the galP* mutation gene in KJ122ΔgalP resembled the xylose utilization phenotype of the mutant AS1600a. The strain AS1600a and KJ122ΔgalP (pLOI5746; galP*) also co-fermented a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for succinate production.

Keywords: E. coli, xylose, sugarcane bagasse, furfural, succinate

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5 Volarization of Sugarcane Bagasse: The Effect of Alkali Concentration, Soaking Time and Temperature on Fibre Yield

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Tilahun Seyoum, K. Shabaridharan

Abstract:

The objective of this paper was to determine the effect of NaOH concentration, soaking time, soaking temperature and their interaction on percentage yield of fibre extract using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the extraction process of cellulosic fibre from sugar cane by-product bagasse using low alkaline extraction technique. The quadratic model with the optimal technological conditions resulted in a maximum fibre yield of 56.80% at 0.55N NaOH concentration, 4 h steeping time and 60ᵒC soaking temperature. Among the independent variables concentration was found to be the most significant (P < 0.005) variable and the interaction effect of concentration and soaking time leads to securing the optimized processes.

Keywords: fibre, sugarcane bagasse, low alkaline, Box-Behnken

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4 Mutation of Galp Improved Fermentation of Mixed Sugars to Succinate Using Engineered Escherichia coli As1600a

Authors: Apichai Sawisit, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Sunthorn Kanchanatawee, Lonnie O. Ingram, Kaemwich Jantama

Abstract:

Escherichia coli KJ122 was engineered to produce succinate from glucose using the wild type GalP for glucose uptake instead of the native phosphotransferase system (ptsI mutation). This strain ferments 10% (w/v) xylose poorly. Mutants were selected by serial transfers in AM1 mineral salts medium with 10% (w/v) xylose. Evolved mutants exhibited a similar improvement, co-fermentation of an equal mixture of xylose and glucose. One of these, AS1600a, produced 84.26±1.37 g/L succinate, equivalent to that produced by the parent (KJ122) strain from 10% glucose (85.46±1.78 g/L). AS1600a was sequenced and found to contain a mutation in galactose permease (GalP, G236D). Expressing the galP* mutation gene in KJ122ΔgalP resembled the xylose utilization phenotype of the mutant AS1600a. The strain AS1600a and KJ122ΔgalP (pLOI5746; galP*) also co-fermented a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for succinate production.

Keywords: E. coli, xylose, sugarcane bagasse, furfural, succinat

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3 Evaluation of Hollocelulase Production for Lignocellulosic Biomass Degradation by Penicillium polonicum

Authors: H. M. Takematsu, B. R. De Camargo, E. F. Noronha

Abstract:

The use of hydrolyzing enzymes for degradation of lignocellulosic biomass is of great concern for the production of second generation ethanol. Although many hollocelulases have already been described in the literature, much more has to be discovered. Therefore, the aim of this study to evaluate hollocelulase production of P. polonicum grown in liquid media containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. From a collection of twenty fungi isolated from Cerrado biome soil, P. polonicum was molecular identified by sequencing of ITS4, βtubulin and Calmodulin genes, and has been chosen to be further investigated regarding its potential production of hydrolyzing enzymes. Spore suspension (1x10-6 ml-1) solution was inoculated in sterilized minimal liquid medium containing 0,5%(w/v) of non-pretreated sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source, and incubated in shaker incubator at 28°C and 120 rpm. The supernatant obtained, was subjected to enzymatic assays to analyze xylanase, mannanase, pectinase and endoglucanase activities. Xylanase activity showed better results (67,36 UI/mg). Xylanases bands were indicated by zymogram and SDS-PAGE, and one of them was partially purified and characterized. It showed maximum activity at 50 °C, was thermostable for 72h at 40°C, and pH5.0 was the optimum observed. This study presents P. polonicum as an interesting source of hollocelulases, especially xylanase, for lignocellulose bio-conversion processes with commercial use.

Keywords: Lignocellulosic Biomass, sugarcane bagasse, Cerrado biome, hollocelulase

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2 Exploring Paper Mill Sludge and Sugarcane Bagasse as Carrier Matrix in Solid State Fermentation for Carotenoid Pigment Production by Planococcus sp. TRC1

Authors: Subhasree Majumdar, Sovan Dey, Sayari Mukherjee, Sourav Dutta, Dalia Dasgupta Mandal

Abstract:

Bacterial isolates from Planococcus genus are known for the production of yellowish orange pigment that belongs to the carotenoid family. These pigments are of immense pharmacological importance as antioxidant, anticancer, eye and liver protective agent, etc. The production of this pigment in a cost effective manner is a challenging task. The present study explored paper mill sludge (PMS), a solid lignocellulosic waste generated in large quantities from pulp and paper mill industry as a substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1. PMS was compared in terms of efficacy with sugarcane bagasse, which is a highly explored substrate for valuable product generation via solid state fermentation. The results showed that both the biomasses yielded the highest carotenoid during 48 hours of incubation, 31.6 mg/gm and 42.1 mg/gm for PMS and bagasse respectively. Compositional alterations of both the biomasses showed reduction in lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content by 41%, 15%, 1% for PMS and 38%, 25% and 6% for sugarcane bagasse after 72 hours of incubation. Structural changes in the biomasses were examined by FT-IR, FESEM, and XRD which further confirmed modification of solid biomasses by bacterial isolate. This study revealed the potential of PMS to act as cheap substrate for carotenoid pigment production by Planococcus sp. TRC1, as it showed a significant production in comparison to sugarcane bagasse which gave only 1.3 fold higher production than PMS. Delignification of PMS by TRC1 during pigment production is another important finding for the reuse of this waste from the paper industry.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, sugarcane bagasse, carotenoid, lignocellulosic, paper mill sludge, Planococcus sp. TRC1

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1 Influence of Applied Inorganic and Organic Nitrogen Fertilizers on Nitrogen Forms in Biochar-Treated Soil

Authors: Eman H. El-Gamal, Maher E. Saleh, Mohamed Rashad, Ibrahim Elsokkary, Mona M. Abd El-Latif

Abstract:

Biochar application to calcareous soils could potentially influence the nitrogen dynamics that affect the bioavailability of plants. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incubation periods on the changes of nitrogen levels (total nitrogen TN and exchangeable ammonium NH₄⁺ and nitrate NO₃⁻) in biochar-treated calcareous soil. The incubation course was extended to 144 days at 30 ± 3 ℃ and at 50% of soil water holding capacity (WHC). Two types of biochars were obtained by pyrolysis at 500 ℃ from rice husk (RHB) and sugarcane bagasse (SCBB). The experiment was planned in a factorial experimental design with three factors (6 periods '24 days for each period' × 3 biochar types 'un-amended, RHB and SCBB' × 3 nitrogen fertilizers 'control, ammonium nitrate; AN and animal manure; AM') in a completely randomized design. The results obtained showed that the highest level of TN was found in the first 24 days of the incubation period in all treatments. However, the amount of TN was decreased with proceeding incubation period up to 144 days and reached to the lowest level at the end of incubation with values of change rate was 17.5, 16.6, and 14.6 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for the un-amended, RHB and SCBB treated soil, respectively. The values of change rate in biochar-soils treated with nitrogen fertilizers were decreased gradually through the whole incubation time from 127.22 to 12.45 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and from 65.00 to 13.43 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for AN and AM respectively, in the case of RHB-soil. While in SCBB-soil, these values were decreased from 70.83 to 12.13 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and from 59.17 to 11.48 g kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ for AN and AM treatments, respectively. The lowest concentration of exchangeable NH₄⁺ was generally found through the period from 24-48 days of incubation. However, the addition of nitrogen fertilizers, enhanced NH₄⁺ production through incubation periods. In the case of RHB-soil, the value of change rate in NH₄⁺ level in the first 24 days of incubation was 0.43 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ and with the addition of AN and AM this value increased to 1.54 and 4.38 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹, respectively. In the case of SCBB-soil, the value of change rate in NH₄⁺ level was 0.29 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ which increased to 1.04 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ at the end of incubation, and due to the addition of AN and AM this value increased to 2.78 and 1.90 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹ in the first 24 days of incubation period, respectively. However, as compared to the control treatment, the lowest rate of change in NH₄⁺ level was found at the end of incubation. On the other hand, incubation of all biochars-amended soil and treated with AN and AM decreased the concentration levels of NO₃⁻, especially through the first 24-72 days of incubation period. As a result, the values of change rate in NO₃⁻ concentrations in all treatments were almost negative.

Keywords: Biochar, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, ammonium nitrate, animal manure

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