Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Substance abuse Related Abstracts

8 Prevalence of Drug Injection among Male Prisoners in the West of Iran

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh

Abstract:

Background: Substance addiction is one of the major worldwide problems that destroys economy, familial relationships, and the abuser’s career and has several side effects; in the meantime drug injection due to the possibility of shared use of syringes among drug users could have multiple complications to be followed. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug injection among male prisoners in Kermanshah city, the west of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 615 male prisoners were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a writing self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) at 95% significant level. Results: The mean age of respondents was 31.13 years [SD: 7.76]. Mean initiation age for drug use was 14.36 years (range, 9-34 years). Almost, 39.4 % reported a history of drug use before prison. Opium (33.2%) and crystal (27.1%) was the most used drug among prisoners. Furthermore, 9.3 % had a history of injection addiction. There was a significant correlation between age, crime type, marital status, economic status, unprotected sex and drug injection (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The low age of drug abuse and the prevalence of drug injection among offenders can be as a warning for responsible; in this regard, implementation of prevention programs to risky behavior and harm reduction among high-risk groups can follow useful results.

Keywords: Substance abuse, Iran, prison, drug injection

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7 Risk Factors Associated with Increased Emergency Department Visits and Hospital Admissions Among Child and Adolescent Patients

Authors: Lalanthica Yogendran, Manassa Hany, Saira Pasha, Benjamin Chaucer, Simarpreet Kaur, Christopher Janusz

Abstract:

Children and adolescent patients visit the Psychiatric Emergency Department (ED) for multiple reasons. Visiting the Psychiatric ED itself can be a traumatic experience that can affect an adolescents mental well-being, regardless of a history of mental illness. Despite this, limited research exists in this domain. Prospective studies have correlated adverse psychosocial determinants among adolescents to risk factors for poor well-being and unfavorable behavior outcomes. Studies have also shown that physiological stress is a contributor in the development of health problems and an increase in substance abuse in adolescents. This study aimed to retrospectively determine which psychosocial factors are associated with an increase in psychiatric ED visits. 600 charts of patients who had a psychiatric ED and inpatient admission visit from January 2014 through December 2014 were reviewed. Sociodemographics, diagnoses, ED visits and inpatient admissions were collected. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and independent t-test analyses were utilized to examine differences in the sample to determine which factors affected ED visits and admissions. The sample was 50% female, 35.2% self-identified black, and had a mean age of 13 years. The majority, 85%, went to public school and 17% were in special education. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder was the most common admitting diagnosis, found in 132(23%) responders. Most patients came from single parent household 305 (53%). The mean ages of patients that were sexually active, with legal issues, and reporting marijuana substance abuse were 15, 14.35, and 15 years respectively. Patients from two biological parent households had significantly fewer ED visits (1.2 vs. 1.7, p < 0.01) and admissions (0.09 vs. 0.26, p < 0.01). Among social factors, those who reported sexual, physical or emotional abuse had a significantly greater number of ED visits (2.1 vs. 1.5, p < 0.01) and admissions (0.61 vs. 0.14, p < 0.01) than those who did not. Patients that were sexually active or had legal issues or substance abuse with marijuana had a significantly greater number of admissions (0.43 vs. 0.17, p < 0.01), (0.54 vs. .18, p < 0.01) and (0.46 vs. 0.18, p < 0.01) respectively. This data supports the theory of the stability of a two parent home. Dual parenting plays a role in creating a safe space where a child can develop; this is shown by subsequent decreases in psychiatric ED visits and admissions. This may highlight the psychological protective role of a two parent household. Abuse can exacerbate existing psychiatric illness or initiate the onset of new disease. Substance abuse and legal issues result in early induction to the criminal system. Results show that this causes an increase in frequency of visits and severity of symptoms. Only marijuana, but not other illicit substances, correlated with higher incidence of psychiatric ED visits. This may speak to the psychotropic nature of tetrahydrocannabinols and their role in mental illness. This study demonstrates the array of psychosocial factors that lead to increased ED visits and admissions in children and adolescents.

Keywords: Substance abuse, Adolescent, Child Psychiatry, Emergency Department

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6 The Impact of Life Satisfaction on Substance Abuse: Delinquency as a Mediator

Authors: Mahadzirah Mohamad, Morliyati Mohammad, Nor Azman Mat Ali, Zainudin Awang

Abstract:

Globally, youth substance abuse has been identified as the problem that causes substantial damage not only to individuals, but also to families and communities. In addition, substance abuse youths have become unproductive resources that would play lesser roles in the nation’s development. The increasing trend of substance abuse among youths has raised a lot of concern among various quarters in Malaysia. It has also been reported that Malay youths are the majority group involved in substance abuse. However, it was noted that life satisfaction had been found to be an important mitigating factor that addressed substance abuse. The objectives of the study were twofold: firstly, to ascertain the effect of life satisfaction on substance abuse among Malay youth. Secondly, to identify the role of delinquency on the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 500 Malay youths at the youth programmes using a two-step sampling technique: area sampling and systematic sampling. The research hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significance relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. There is a significant inverse relationship between life satisfaction and delinquency. Moreover, delinquency has a positive significant influence on substance abuse. The use of Bootstrapping analysis proved that delinquency plays a full mediating role in the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study suggested that life satisfaction has no effect on youth substance abuse. In order to reduce substance abuse, efforts should be undertaken to reduce delinquency behaviour by increasing youth life satisfaction.

Keywords: Substance abuse, Youth, Delinquency, Life Satisfaction

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5 Racism in Drug Policies: A Report on United States Legislation

Authors: Frederick Monyepao

Abstract:

Crack cocaine first appeared on the scene in the form of cocaine freebasing in the late 1970s. Stockbrokers, investment bankers, rock stars, Hollywood elites, and a few pro athletes were regular users of the substance. As criminogenic factors associated with substance abuse began to surface, congress passed new legislation. The laws led to the increase of health coverage insurances and the expansion of hospitals. By the mid-1980s, crack use spread into America's inner cities among impoverished African Americans and Latinos. While substance abuse increased among minority communities, legislation pertaining to substance abuse evolved. The prison industry also expanded the number of cells available. A qualitative approach was taken, drawing from a range secondary sources for contextual analysis. This paper traces out the continued marginalisation and racist undertones towards minorities as perpetuated by certain drug policies. It was discovered that the new legislation on crack was instrumental in the largest incarcerations the United States ever faced. Drug offenders increased in prisons eightfold from 1986 to 2000. The paper concludes that American drug control policies are consistently irrational and ineffective when measured by levels of substance use and abuse. On the contrary, these policies have been successful as agents of social control in maintaining the stratification patterns of racial/ethnic minorities and women. To move beyond prohibition, radical law and policy reform may require a change in narratives on substance use.

Keywords: Racism, Substance abuse, Drug Policy, Minorities, crack

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4 Heroic Villains: An Exploration of the Use of Narrative Plotlines and Emerging Identities within Recovery Stories of Former Substance Abusers

Authors: Tria Moore Aimee Walker-Clarke

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of how self-identity is negotiated and reconstructed by people in recovery from substance abuse. The approach draws on the notion that self-identity is constructed through stories. Specifically, dominant narratives of substance abuse involve the 'addict identity' in which the meaning of being an addict is constructed though social interaction and informed by broader social meanings of substance misuse, which are considered deviant. The addict is typically understood as out of control, weak and feckless. Users may unconsciously embody this addict identity which makes recovery less likely. Typical approaches to treatment employ the notion that recovery is much more likely when users change the way they think and feel about themselves by assembling a new identity. Recovery, therefore, involves a reconstruction of the self in a new light, which may mean rejecting a part of the self (the addict identity). One limitation is that previous research on this topic has been quantitative which, while useful, tells us little about how this process is best managed. Should one, for example, reject the past addict identity completely and move on to the new identity, or, is it more effective to accept the past identity and use this in the formation of the new non-user identity? The purpose of this research, then, is to explore how addicts in recovery have managed the transition between their past and current selves and whether this may inform therapeutic practice. Using a narrative approach, data were analyzed from five in-depth interviews with former addicts who had been abstinent for at least a year, and who were in some form of volunteering role at substance treatment services in the UK. Although participants' identified with a previous ‘addict identity,’ and made efforts to disassociate themselves from this, they also recognized that acceptance was an important part of reconstructing their new identity. The participants' narratives used familiar plot lines to structure their stories, in which they positioned themselves as the heroes in their own stories, rather than as victim of circumstance. Instead of rejecting their former addict identity, which would mean rejecting a part of the self, participants used their experience in a reconstructive and restorative way. The findings suggest that encouraging people to tell their story and accept their addict identity are important factors in successful recovery.

Keywords: Identity, Addiction, Substance abuse, Recovery, Narrative

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3 Development of a Framework for Family Therapy for Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Perspective from India

Authors: Tanya Anand, Arun Kandasamy, L. N. Suman

Abstract:

Family based therapy for adolescent substance abuse has been studied to be effective in the West. Whereas, based on literature review, family therapy and interventions for adolescent substance abuse is still in its nascent stages in India. A multidimensional perspective to treatment has been indicated consistently in the Indian literature, but standardized therapy which addresses early substance abuse, from a social-ecological perspective has not been developed and studied for Indian population. While numerous researches have been conducted in India on the need of engaging the family in therapy for the purpose of symptom reduction, long-term maintenance of gains, and reducing family burnout, distress and dysfunction; a family based model in the Indian context has not been developed and tried, to the best of our knowledge. Hence, from the aim of building a model to treat adolescent substance abuse within the family context, experts in the area of mental health and deaddiction were interviewed to inform upon the clinical difficulties, challenges, uniqueness that Indian families present with. The integration of indigenous techniques that would be helpful in engaging families of young individuals with difficulties were also explored. Eight experts' who were interviewed, have 10-30 years of experience in working with families and substance users. An open-ended interview was conducted with the experts individually and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis for building a framework and treatment guideline. Additionally, interviews with patients and their parents were conducted to elicit ‘felt needs’. The results of the analysis revealed culture-specific issues widely experienced within Indian families by adolescents and young adults, centering around the theme of Individuation versus collective identity and living. Substance abuse, in this framework, was found to be perceived as one of the maladaptive ways of the youth to disengage from the family and attempt at individuation and the responsibilities that are considered entitlements in the culture. On the other hand, interviews with family members revealed them to be engaging in inconsistent patterns of care and parenting. This was experienced and observed in terms of fostering interdependence within the family, sometimes within adverse socio-economic and societal conditions, where enacted and perceived stigma kept the individual and family members in a vicious loop of maladaptive coping patterns, dysfunctional family arrangements, and often leading to burnout with poor help seeking. The paper inform upon a framework that lays down the foundation for assessments, planning, case management and therapist competencies, required to address alcohol and drug issues in an Indian family context with such etiological factors at its heart. This paper will cover qualitative results of the interviews and present a model that may guide mental health professionals for treatment of adolescent substance use and family therapy.

Keywords: Culture, Etiology, Substance abuse, Adolescent, Youth, Family Therapy, interviews, Model Building, Indian families, de-addiction, behavioral issues, felt needs, framework development

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2 Reducing the Risk of Alcohol Relapse after Liver-Transplantation

Authors: Rebeca V. Tholen, Elaine Bundy

Abstract:

Background: Liver transplantation (LT) is considered the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease Background: Liver transplantation (LT) is considered the only curative treatment for end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The effects of alcoholism can cause irreversible liver damage, cirrhosis and subsequent liver failure. Alcohol relapse after transplant occurs in 20-50% of patients and increases the risk for recurrent cirrhosis, organ rejection, and graft failure. Alcohol relapse after transplant has been identified as a problem among liver transplant recipients at a large urban academic transplant center in the United States. Transplantation will reverse the complications of ESLD, but it does not treat underlying alcoholism or reduce the risk of relapse after transplant. The purpose of this quality improvement project is to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a High-Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale to screen and identify patients at high-risk for alcohol relapse after receiving an LT. Methods: The HRAR Scale is a predictive tool designed to determine the severity of alcoholism and risk of relapse after transplant. The scale consists of three variables identified as having the highest predictive power for early relapse including, daily number of drinks, history of previous inpatient treatment for alcoholism, and the number of years of heavy drinking. All adult liver transplant recipients at a large urban transplant center were screened with the HRAR Scale prior to hospital discharge. A zero to two ordinal score is ranked for each variable, and the total score ranges from zero to six. High-risk scores are between three to six. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed 25 patients were newly transplanted and discharged from the hospital during an 8-week period. 40% of patients (n=10) were identified as being high-risk for relapse and 60% low-risk (n=15). The daily number of drinks were determined by alcohol content (1 drink = 15g of ethanol) and number of drinks per day. 60% of patients reported drinking 9-17 drinks per day, and 40% reported ≤ 9 drinks. 50% of high-risk patients reported drinking ≥ 25 years, 40% for 11-25 years, and 10% ≤ 11 years. For number of inpatient treatments for alcoholism, 50% received inpatient treatment one time, 20% ≥ 1, and 30% reported never receiving inpatient treatment. Findings reveal the importance and value of a validated screening tool as a more efficient method than other screening methods alone. Integration of a structured clinical tool will help guide the drinking history portion of the psychosocial assessment. Targeted interventions can be implemented for all high-risk patients. Conclusions: Our findings validate the effectiveness of utilizing the HRAR scale to screen and identify patients who are a high-risk for alcohol relapse post-LT. Recommendations to help maintain post-transplant sobriety include starting a transplant support group within the organization for all high-risk patients. (ESLD). The effects of alcoholism can cause irreversible liver damage, cirrhosis and subsequent liver failure. Alcohol relapse after transplant occurs in 20-50% of patients, and increases the risk for recurrent cirrhosis, organ rejection, and graft failure. Alcohol relapse after transplant has been identified as a problem among liver transplant recipients at a large urban academic transplant center in the United States. Transplantation will reverse the complications of ESLD, but it does not treat underlying alcoholism or reduce the risk of relapse after transplant. The purpose of this quality improvement project is to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a High-Risk Alcoholism Relapse (HRAR) Scale to screen and identify patients at high-risk for alcohol relapse after receiving a LT. Methods: The HRAR Scale is a predictive tool designed to determine severity of alcoholism and risk of relapse after transplant. The scale consists of three variables identified as having the highest predictive power for early relapse including, daily number of drinks, history of previous inpatient treatment for alcoholism, and the number of years of heavy drinking. All adult liver transplant recipients at a large urban transplant center were screened with the HRAR Scale prior to hospital discharge. A zero to two ordinal score is ranked for each variable, and the total score ranges from zero to six. High-risk scores are between three to six. Results: Descriptive statistics revealed 25 patients were newly transplanted and discharged from the hospital during an 8-week period. 40% of patients (n=10) were identified as being high-risk for relapse and 60% low-risk (n=15). The daily number of drinks were determined by alcohol content (1 drink = 15g of ethanol) and number of drinks per day. 60% of patients reported drinking 9-17 drinks per day, and 40% reported ≤ 9 drinks. 50% of high-risk patients reported drinking ≥ 25 years, 40% for 11-25 years, and 10% ≤ 11 years. For number of inpatient treatments for alcoholism, 50% received inpatient treatment one time, 20% ≥ 1, and 30% reported never receiving inpatient treatment. Findings reveal the importance and value of a validated screening tool as a more efficient method than other screening methods alone. Integration of a structured clinical tool will help guide the drinking history portion of the psychosocial assessment. Targeted interventions can be implemented for all high-risk patients. Conclusions: Our findings validate the effectiveness of utilizing the HRAR scale to screen and identify patients who are a high-risk for alcohol relapse post-LT. Recommendations to help maintain post-transplant sobriety include starting a transplant support group within the organization for all high-risk patients.

Keywords: Substance abuse, Alcoholism, Quality improvement, liver transplant

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1 A Comparative Study of Substance Abusers and Non-Abusers on Peer Pressure, Tendency to Risk Taking Behavior and Anxiety

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen Khan, Uzma Azam, Kainat Umar, Jazba Amber Satti, Aiman Shehzadi, Nimo Omer

Abstract:

This study aimed to examine the comparison between substance abusers and non-abusers on anxiety, peer pressure, and risk-taking behavior among young adults. The sample consisted of 138 individuals including 64 female and 71 males, age range from 17-35 years, drawn from non-clinical population through convenient sampling. Questionnaire technique was used for the information assortment and the scales were susceptibility to peer pressure (Dieman, Pamella, Shope & Butchart, 1987), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Zung, 1971), and risk-taking questionnaire (Gullone, Moore, Moss & Boyd, 2000) having alpha reliability of .54, .88, and .80 respectively. Results showed that anxiety negatively correlates with the risk-taking behavior. High level of anxiety stops an individual to involve himself in risk taking activities. Peer pressure have positive correlation with risk-taking behavior. Females are more susceptible to peer pressure irrespective of being abusers or non-abusers as compared to male abusers and non-abusers. Substance abusers have less anxiety as compared to non-abusers but are more susceptible to peer pressure and risk-taking behaviors.

Keywords: Substance abuse, Anxiety, peer pressure, risk-taking behavior, substance

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