Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Stunting Related Abstracts

5 Effect of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB) Vaccination on Child Anthropometry in India: Evidence from Young Lives Study

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay


Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib) cause infections of pneumonia, meningitis, epiglottises and other invasive disease exclusively among children under age five. Occurrence of these infections may impair child growth by causing micronutrient deficiency. Using longitudinal data from first and second waves of Young Lives Study conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 respectively and multivariable logistic regression models (using generalised estimation equation to take into account the cluster nature of sample), this study aims to examine the impact of Hib vaccination on child anthropometric outcomes (stunting, underweight and wasting) in India. Bivariate result shows that, a higher percent of children were stunted and underweight among those who were not vaccinated against Hib (39% & 48% respectively) as compare to those who were vaccinated (31% and 39% respectively).The risk of childhood stunting and underweight was significantly lower among children who were vaccinated against Hib (odds ratio: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96 and odds ratio: 0.79, 95% C.I: 0.64-0.98 respectively) as compare to the unvaccinated children. No significant association was found between vaccination status against Hib and childhood wasting. Moreover, in the statistical models, about 13% of stunting and 12% of underweight could be attributable to lack of vaccination against Hib in India. Study concludes that vaccination against Hib- in addition to being a major intervention for reducing childhood infectious disease and mortality- can be consider as a potential tool for reducing the burden of undernutrition in India. Therefore, the Government of India must include the vaccine against Hib into the Universal Immunization Programme in India.

Keywords: India, underweight, Haemophilus influenzae Type-B, Stunting, Wasting, Young Lives Study (YLS)

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4 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Stunting among 6-59 Months Children in Pastoral Community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia 2016

Authors: Sisay Shine, Frew Tadesse, Zemenu Shiferaw, Lema Mideksa


Background: Stunting is one of the most important public health problems in Ethiopia with an estimated 44.4% of children less than five years of age are stunted. Thus, this study aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of stunting among 6-59 months children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia. Objective of the study: To assess prevalence and associated factors of stunting among 6-59 months children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods: Community based cross sectional study design was done among 770 children in pastoral community of Korahay Zone. Systematic sampling techniques were used to select households and took child mother pair from each selected households. Data was collected using pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to assess level of significance. Result: Prevalence of stunting among 6-59 months age children was 31.9%. Sex (AOR: 1.47, 95%CI 1.02, 2.11), age (AOR: 2.10, 95%CI 1.16, 3.80), maternal education (AOR: 3.42, 95%CI 1.58, 7.41), maternal occupation (AOR: 3.10, 95%CI 1.85, 5.19), monthly income (AOR: 1.47, 95%CI 1.03, 2.09), PNC visits (AOR: 1.59, 95%CI 1.07, 2.37), source of water (AOR: 3.41, 95%CI 1.96, 5.93), toilet availability (AOR: 1.71, 95%CI 1.13, 2.58), first milk feeding (AOR: 3.37, 95%CI 2.27, 5.02) and bottle feeding (AOR: 2.07, 95%CI 1.34, 3.18) were significant predictors of stunting. Conclusion and recommendations: Prevalence of stunting among 6-59 months children was high 31.9%. Lack maternal education, not feeding first milk, unsafe water supply, absence toilet availability and bottle feeding can increase the risk of stunting. So, educating mothers on child feeding practice, sanitation and important of first milk can reduce stunting.

Keywords: Healthcare, Environmental, dietary, socio-demographic, Stunting

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3 Reducing Stunting, Low Birth Weight and Underweight in Anuradhapura District in Sri Lanka, by Identifying and Addressing the Underlying Determinants of Under-Nutrition and Strengthening Families and Communities to Address Them

Authors: Saman Kumara, Duminda Guruge, Krishani Jayasinghe


Introduction: Nutrition strongly influences good health and development in early life. This study, based on a health promotion approach, used a community-based intervention to improve child nutrition. The approach provides the community with control of interventions, thereby building its capacity and empowering individuals and communities. The aim of this research was to reduce stunting, low birth weight and underweight in communities from Anuradhapura District in Sri Lanka, by identifying and addressing the underlying determinants of under-nutrition and strengthening families and communities to address them. Methods: A health promotion intervention was designed and implemented-based on a logical framework developed in collaboration with members of targeted community. Community members’ implements action, so they fully own the process. Members of the community identify and address the most crucial determinants of health including child health and development and monitor the initial results of their action and modify action to optimize outcomes as well as future goals. Group Discussion, group activities, awareness programs, cluster meetings, community tools and sharing success stories were major activities to address determinants. Continuous data collection was planned at different levels. Priority was given to strengthening the ability of families and groups or communities to collect meaningful data and analyze these themselves. Results: Enthusiasm and interest of the mother, happiness of the child/ family, dietary habits, money management, tobacco and alcohol use of fathers, media influences, illnesses in the child or others, hygiene and sanitary practices, community sensitiveness and domestic violence were the major perceived determinants elicited from the study. There were around 1000 well-functioning mothers groups in this district. ‘Happiness calendar’, ‘brain calendar’, ‘money tool’ and ‘stimulation books’ were created by the community members, to address determinants and measure the process. Evaluation of the process has shown positive early results, such as improvement of feeding habits among mothers, innovative ways of providing early stimulation and responsive care, greater involvement of fathers in childcare and responsive feeding. There is a positive movement of communities around child well-being through interactive play areas. Family functioning and community functioning improved. Use of alcohol and tobacco declined. Community money management improved. Underweight was reduced by 40%. Stunting and low birth weight among under-fives also declined within one year. Conclusion: The health promotion intervention was effective in changing the determinants of under-nutrition in early childhood. Addressing the underlying determinants of under-nutrition in early childhood can be recommended for similar contexts.

Keywords: Community, determinants, underweight, Stunting, birth-weight

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2 Determinants of Child Anthropometric Indicators: A Case Study of Mali in 2015

Authors: Davod Ahmadigheidari


The main objective of this study was to explore prevalence of anthropometric indicators as well the factors associated with the anthropometric indications in Mali. Data on 2015, downloaded from the website of Unicef, were analyzed. A total of 16,467 women (ages 15-49 years) and 16,467 children (ages 0-59 months) were selected for the sample. Different statistical analyses, such as descriptive, crosstabs and binary logistic regression form the basis of this study. Child anthropometric indicators (i.e., wasting, stunting, underweight and BMI for age) were used as the dependent variables. SPSS Syntax from WHO was used to create anthropometric indicators. Different factors, such as child’s sex, child’s age groups, child’s diseases symptoms (i.e., diarrhea, cough and fever), maternal education, household wealth index and area of residence were used as independent variables. Results showed more than forty percent of Malian households were in nutritional crises (stunting (42%) and underweight (34%). Findings from logistic regression analyses indicated that low score of wealth index, low maternal education and experience of diarrhea in last two weeks increase the probability of child malnutrition.

Keywords: underweight, Stunting, Wasting, Mali, BMI for age and wealth index

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1 Factors Associated with Stunting at Birth and at 6 Weeks in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: Maretha Le Roux, Corinna Walsh, Mariette M. Nel


Introduction: The first 1000 days from conception to 24 months, is a critical period for healthy growth and development. In South Africa, stunting is a major public health issue with significant health consequences. We determined associations between demographic, health and anthropometric indicators of mothers and their infants. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all districts in the Northern Cape. All mothers with 5-7 week old babies visiting PHC facilities could participate. A questionnaire was completed in a structured interview with each mother. Weight and length of the baby at birth and at 6 weeks were used to determine stunting, while weight and height of the mother were measured for body mass index (BMI). Results: Eight hundred questionnaires were completed in 92 facilities. The median age of mothers was 26 years (range 10-46 years), and 44,9% were married. Almost 40% relied on a government grant as main source of income. Two-thirds (64,9%) had not planned the pregnancy, and 19.4% had a Caesarian section. Although 79% breastfed exclusively, more than a quarter (26,1%) smoked cigarettes or used snuff during pregnancy, while 9,4% drank alcohol. At birth, 17.7% of boys and 13.0% of girls were stunted (height-for-age below -2SD from the WHO reference values), while at 6 weeks this had increased to 30.8% of boys and 14.1% of girls. In terms of mothers, 25,4% were classified as obese and 24,6% as overweight at 6 weeks. Compared to babies that were not stunted, significantly more babies of mothers that were older, overweight, used ART, relied on a grant and smoked/snuffed during pregnancy were stunted. Conclusion: To address stunting, interventions aimed at encouraging healthy lifestyles with the emphasis on maintaining a healthy weight, healthy eating and smoking cessation before pregnancy are urgently required.

Keywords: Health, Growth, South Africa, Stunting

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