Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Structure Related Abstracts

40 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings

Authors: O. Eren, L. Zakar

Abstract:

Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.

Keywords: Building, Structure, steel, recycled material

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39 Productivity and Structural Design of Manufacturing Systems

Authors: Ryspek Usubamatov, Tan San Chin, Sarken Kapaeva

Abstract:

Productivity of the manufacturing systems depends on technological processes, a technical data of machines and a structure of systems. Technology is presented by the machining mode and data, a technical data presents reliability parameters and auxiliary time for discrete production processes. The term structure of manufacturing systems includes the number of serial and parallel production machines and links between them. Structures of manufacturing systems depend on the complexity of technological processes. Mathematical models of productivity rate for manufacturing systems are important attributes that enable to define best structure by criterion of a productivity rate. These models are important tool in evaluation of the economical efficiency for production systems.

Keywords: Manufacturing Systems, Productivity, Structural Design, Structure

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38 Nazca: A Context-Based Matching Method for Searching Heterogeneous Structures

Authors: Karine B. de Oliveira, Carina F. Dorneles

Abstract:

The structure level matching is the problem of combining elements of a structure, which can be represented as entities, classes, XML elements, web forms, and so on. This is a challenge due to large number of distinct representations of semantically similar structures. This paper describes a structure-based matching method applied to search for different representations in data sources, considering the similarity between elements of two structures and the data source context. Using real data sources, we have conducted an experimental study comparing our approach with our baseline implementation and with another important schema matching approach. We demonstrate that our proposal reaches higher precision than the baseline.

Keywords: Matching, Structure, Search, context, data source, index, similarity

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37 Embedment Design Concept of Signature Tower in Chennai

Authors: S. Balaji, M. Gobinath

Abstract:

Assumptions in model inputs: Grade of concrete=40 N/mm2 (for slab), Grade of concrete=40 N/mm2 (for shear wall), Grade of Structural steel (plate girder)=350 N/mm2 (yield strength), Ultimate strength of structural steel=490 N/mm2, Grade of rebar=500 N/mm2 (yield strength), Applied Load=1716 kN (un-factored). Following assumptions are made for the mathematical modelling of RCC with steel embedment: (1) The bond between the structural steel and concrete is neglected. (2) The stiffener is provided with shear studs to transfer the shear force. Hence nodal connectivity is established between solid nodes (concrete) and shell elements (stiffener) at those locations. (3) As the end reinforcements transfer either tension/compression, it is modeled as line element and connected to solid nodes. (4) In order to capture the bearing of bottom flange on to the concrete, the line element of plan size of solid equal to the cross section of line elements is connected between solid and shell elements below for bottom flange and above for top flange. (5) As the concrete cannot resist tension at the interface (i.e., between structural steel and RCC), the tensile stiffness is assigned as zero and only compressive stiffness is enabled to take. Hence, non-linear static analysis option is invoked.

Keywords: Construction, Structure, signature tower, embedment design concept

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36 Effect of Yttrium Doping on Properties of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ (Bi-2202) Cuprate Ceramics

Authors: Y. Boudjadja, A. Amira, A. Saoudel, A. Varilci, S. P. Altintas, C. Terzioglu

Abstract:

In this work, we report the effect of Y3+ doping on structural, mechanical and electrical properties of Bi-2202 phase. Samples of Bi2Sr1.9Ca0.1-xYxCu2O7+δ with x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 are elaborated in air by conventional solid state reaction and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDS spectroscopy, density, Vickers micro-hardness and resistivity measurements. A good correlation between the variations of the bulk density and the Vickers micro-hardness with doping is obtained. The SEM photograph shows that the samples are composed of grains with a flat shape that characterizes the Bi-based cuprates. Quantitative EDS analysis confirms the reduction of Ca content and the increase of Y content when x is increased. The variation of resistivity with temperature shows that only samples with x = 0, 0.025 and 0.05 present an onset transition to the superconducting state. The higher onset transition temperature is obtained for x = 0.025 and is about 93.62 K. The transition is wide and is realized in two steps confirming then the presence of the low Tc Bi-2201 phase in the samples. For x = 0.075 and 0.1, a transition to a semiconducting state is seen at low temperatures. Some physical parameters are extracted from these curves and discussed.

Keywords: Doping, Structure, Bi-2202 phase, mechanical and electrical properties

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35 Topology Optimization of Structures with Web-Openings

Authors: J. H. Lee, D. K. Lee, S. M. Shin

Abstract:

Topology optimization technique utilizes constant element densities as design parameters. Finally, optimal distribution contours of the material densities between voids (0) and solids (1) in design domain represent the determination of topology. It means that regions with element density values become occupied by solids in design domain, while there are only void phases in regions where no density values exist. Therefore the void regions of topology optimization results provide design information to decide appropriate depositions of web-opening in structure. Contrary to the basic objective of the topology optimization technique which is to obtain optimal topology of structures, this present study proposes a new idea that topology optimization results can be also utilized for decision of proper web-opening’s position. Numerical examples of linear elastostatic structures demonstrate efficiency of methodological design processes using topology optimization in order to determinate the proper deposition of web-openings.

Keywords: Material, Structure, topology optimization, web-opening, element density

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34 Design of a Vehicle Door Structure Based on Finite Element Method

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Tawanda Mushiri

Abstract:

The performance of door assembly is very significant for the vehicle design. In the present paper, the finite element method is used in the development processes of the door assembly. The stiffness, strength, modal characteristic, and anti-extrusion of a newly developed passenger vehicle door assembly are calculated and evaluated by several finite element analysis commercial software. The structural problems discovered by FE analysis have been modified and finally achieved the expected door structure performance target of this new vehicle. The issue in focus is to predict the performance of the door assembly by powerful finite element analysis software, and optimize the structure to meet the design targets. It is observed that this method can be used to forecast the performance of vehicle door efficiently when it’s designed. In order to reduce lead time and cost in the product development of vehicles more development will be made virtually.

Keywords: Structure, Strength, Finite Element Method, Stiffness, vehicle door, modal characteristic, anti-extrusion

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33 Determination of the Structural Parameters of Calcium Phosphate for Biomedical Use

Authors: María Magdalena Méndez-González, Miguel García Rocha, Carlos Manuel Yermo De la Cruz

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate (Ca5(PO4)3(X)) is widely used in orthopedic applications and is widely used as powder and granules. However, their presence in bone is in the form of nanometric needles 60 nm in length with a non-stoichiometric phase of apatite contains CO3-2, Na+, OH-, F-, and other ions in a matrix of collagen fibers. The crystal size, morphology control and interaction with cells are essential for the development of nanotechnology. The structural results of calcium phosphate, synthesized by chemical precipitation with crystal size of 22.85 nm are presented in this paper. The calcium phosphate powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared spectroscopy and FT-IR transmission electron microscopy. Network parameters, atomic positions, the indexing of the planes and the calculation of FWHM (full width at half maximum) were obtained. The crystal size was also calculated using the Scherer equation d (hkl) = cλ/βcosѲ. Where c is a constant related to the shape of the crystal, the wavelength of the radiation used for a copper anode is 1.54060Å, Ѳ is the Bragg diffraction angle, and β is the width average peak height of greater intensity. Diffraction pattern corresponding to the calcium phosphate called hydroxyapatite phase of a hexagonal crystal system was obtained. It belongs to the space group P63m with lattice parameters a = 9.4394 Å and c = 6.8861 Å. The most intense peak is obtained 2Ѳ = 31.55 (FWHM = 0.4798), with a preferred orientation in 121. The intensity difference between the experimental data and the calculated values is attributable to the temperature at which the sintering was performed. The intensity of the highest peak is at angle 2Ѳ = 32.11. The structure of calcium phosphate obtained was a hexagonal configuration. The intensity changes in the peaks of the diffraction pattern, in the lattice parameters at the corners, indicating the possible presence of a dopant. That each calcium atom is surrounded by a tetrahedron of oxygen and hydrogen was observed by infrared spectra. The unit cell pattern corresponds to hydroxyapatite and transmission electron microscopic crystal morphology corresponding to the hexagonal phase with a preferential growth along the c-plane was obtained.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Structure, calcium phosphate, metallurgical and materials engineering

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32 Study the Dynamic Behavior of Irregular Buildings by the Analysis Method Accelerogram

Authors: Beciri Mohamed Walid

Abstract:

Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accelerogram) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: Code, Seismic, Structure, Method, Force, irregular, period

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
31 Structure-Phase States of Al-Si Alloy After Electron-Beam Treatment and Multicycle Fatigue

Authors: Victor E. Gromov, Sergey V. Konovalov, Krestina V. Alsaraeva, Anna A. Atroshkina

Abstract:

Processing of Al-19.4Si alloy by high intensive electron beam has been carried out and multiple increase in fatigue life of the material has been revealed. Investigations of structure and surface modified layer destruction of Al-19.4Si alloy subjected to multicycle fatigue tests to fracture have been carried out by methods of scanning electron microscopy. The factors responsible for the increase of fatigue life of Al-19.4Si alloy have been revealed and analyzed.

Keywords: Structure, Al-19.4Si alloy, high intensive electron beam, multicycle fatigue

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30 Dynamic Analysis and Design of Lower Extremity Power-Assisted Exoskeleton

Authors: Song Shengli, Tan Zhitao, Li Qing, Fang Husheng, Ye Qing, Zhang Xinglong

Abstract:

Lower extremity power-assisted exoskeleton (LEPEX) is a kind of wearable electromechanical integration intelligent system, walking in synchronization with the wearer, which can assist the wearer walk by means of the driver mounted in the exoskeleton on each joint. In this paper, dynamic analysis and design of the LEPEX are performed. First of all, human walking process is divided into single leg support phase, double legs support phase and ground collision model. The three kinds of dynamics modeling is established using the Lagrange method. Then, the flat walking and climbing stairs dynamic information such as torque and power of lower extremity joints is derived for loading 75kg according to scholar Stansfield measured data of flat walking and scholars R. Riener measured data of climbing stair respectively. On this basis, the joint drive way in the sagittal plane is determined, and the structure of LEPEX is designed. Finally, the designed LEPEX is simulated under ADAMS by using a person’s joint sports information acquired under flat walking and climbing stairs. The simulation result effectively verified the correctness of the structure.

Keywords: Simulation, Kinematics, Structure, lower extremity exoskeleton

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29 Comparative Study of the Distribution of Seismic Loads of Buildings with Asymmetries Plan

Authors: Ahmed Hamza Yache

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to estimate the distribution of shear forces in building structures with asymmetries in the plan submitted to seismic forces can cause, in this case, simultaneous deformations of translation and torsion. To this end, the distribution of shear forces is obtained by seismic forces calculated from the equivalent static method of the Algerian earthquake code RPA 99 (2003 version) and spectral modal analysis for an irregular building plan without kinks. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods used to highlight the difference in terms of distributions of shear forces in such structures.

Keywords: Code, Seismic, Structure, Method, Force, irregular, period

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28 Modelling of Powered Roof Supports Work

Authors: Marcin Michalak

Abstract:

Due to the increasing efforts on saving our natural environment a change in the structure of energy resources can be observed - an increasing fraction of a renewable energy sources. In many countries traditional underground coal mining loses its significance but there are still countries, like Poland or Germany, in which the coal based technologies have the greatest fraction in a total energy production. This necessitates to make an effort to limit the costs and negative effects of underground coal mining. The longwall complex is as essential part of the underground coal mining. The safety and the effectiveness of the work is strongly dependent of the diagnostic state of powered roof supports. The building of a useful and reliable diagnostic system requires a lot of data. As the acquisition of a data of any possible operating conditions it is important to have a possibility to generate a demanded artificial working characteristics. In this paper a new approach of modelling a leg pressure in the single unit of powered roof support. The model is a result of the analysis of a typical working cycles.

Keywords: Structure, underground mining, Coal Mining, machine modelling

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27 Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) of Ertsberg East Skarn System, Papua; Correlation between Structure and Mineralization to Determined Characteristic Orebody of DMLZ Mine

Authors: Bambang Antoro, Lasito Soebari, Geoffrey de Jong, Fernandy Meiriyanto, Michael Siahaan, Eko Wibowo, Pormando Silalahi, Ruswanto, Adi Budirumantyo

Abstract:

The Ertsberg East Skarn System (EESS) is located in the Ertsberg Mining District, Papua, Indonesia. EESS is a sub-vertical zone of copper-gold mineralization hosted in both diorite (vein-style mineralization) and skarn (disseminated and vein style mineralization). Deep Mill Level Zone (DMLZ) is a mining zone in the lower part of East Ertsberg Skarn System (EESS) that product copper and gold. The Deep Mill Level Zone deposit is located below the Deep Ore Zone deposit between the 3125m to 2590m elevation, measures roughly 1,200m in length and is between 350 and 500m in width. DMLZ planned start mined on Q2-2015, being mined at an ore extraction rate about 60,000 tpd by the block cave mine method (the block cave contain 516 Mt). Mineralization and associated hydrothermal alteration in the DMLZ is hosted and enclosed by a large stock (The Main Ertsberg Intrusion) that is barren on all sides and above the DMLZ. Late porphyry dikes that cut through the Main Ertsberg Intrusion are spatially associated with the center of the DMLZ hydrothermal system. DMLZ orebody hosted in diorite and skarn, both dominantly by vein style mineralization. Percentage Material Mined at DMLZ compare with current Reserves are diorite 46% (with 0.46% Cu; 0.56 ppm Au; and 0.83% EqCu); Skarn is 39% (with 1.4% Cu; 0.95 ppm Au; and 2.05% EqCu); Hornfels is 8% (with 0.84% Cu; 0.82 ppm Au; and 1.39% EqCu); and Marble 7 % possible mined waste. Correlation between Ertsberg intrusion, major structure, and vein style mineralization is important to determine characteristic orebody in DMLZ Mine. Generally Deep Mill Level Zone has 2 type of vein filling mineralization from both hosted (diorite and skarn), in diorite hosted the vein system filled by chalcopyrite-bornite-quartz and pyrite, in skarn hosted the vein filled by chalcopyrite-bornite-pyrite and magnetite without quartz. Based on orientation the stockwork vein at diorite hosted and shallow vein in skarn hosted was generally NW-SE trending and NE-SW trending with shallow-moderate dipping. Deep Mill Level Zone control by two main major faults, geologist founded and verified local structure between major structure with NW-SE trending and NE-SW trending with characteristics slickenside, shearing, gauge, water-gas channel, and some has been re-healed.

Keywords: Structure, skarn, copper-gold, DMLZ

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26 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation on the Dynamic Behavior of the Building

Authors: Yassine Sadji

Abstract:

Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities, and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to make apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accélérogramme) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: Seismic, Structure, response, Ductility, irregularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
25 Influence of Irregularities in Plan and Elevation

Authors: Houmame Benbouali

Abstract:

Some architectural conditions required some shapes often lead to an irregular distribution of masses, rigidities and resistances. The main object of the present study consists in estimating the influence of the irregularity both in plan and in elevation which presenting some structures on the dynamic characteristics and his influence on the behavior of this structures. To do this, it is necessary to apply both dynamic methods proposed by the RPA99 (spectral modal method and method of analysis by accelerogram) on certain similar prototypes and to analyze the parameters measuring the answer of these structures and to proceed to a comparison of the results.

Keywords: Seismic, Structure, response, Ductility, irregularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
24 Critical Investigation on Performance of Polymeric Materials in Rehabilitation of Metallic Components

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

Failure and leakage of metallic components because of corrosion in infrastructure structures is a considerably problematic and expensive issue and the traditional solution of replacing the component is costly and time-consuming. Rehabilitation techniques by using advanced polymeric materials are an alternative solution towards this problem. This paper provides a summary of analyses on relined rehabilitated metallic samples after exposure in practice and real condition to study the composite material performance when it is exposed to water, heat and chemicals in real condition. The study was carried out by using different test methods such as microscopy, thermal and chemical as well as mechanical analyses.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Material, Structure, Composite

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23 A Phenomenological Study of Sports for the Analysis of Soccer Game: On Embodiment of the Goal Type Ball Games of Team Sports

Authors: K. Kiniwa, S. Kitagawa, M. Kawamoto, H. Uchiyama

Abstract:

This study aims to identify phenomenologically the embodiment of soccer in order to analyze soccer games. In this paper the authors focused on the embodiment of sports and the embodiment of the goal type ball games of team sports. The authors revealed that the embodiment of sports is represented by inverse proportional body. It is possible for this structure (body scheme) of intercorporeality of sports to be compared to the symbolic figure of Uroboros which is a monster connected the tails of two snakes. The embodiment of the goal type ball games of team sports has dependency on situation and complexity. In doing this, it revealed that soccer is sensitive and emotional sports.

Keywords: Complexity, Structure, intercorporeality, body scheme, Uroboros, inverse proportional body, dependency on situation

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22 COSMO-RS Prediction for Choline Chloride/Urea Based Deep Eutectic Solvent: Chemical Structure and Application as Agent for Natural Gas Dehydration

Authors: Tayeb Aissaoui, Inas M. AlNashef

Abstract:

In recent years, green solvents named deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been found to possess significant properties and to be applicable in several technologies. Choline chloride (ChCl) mixed with urea at a ratio of 1:2 and 80 °C was the first discovered DES. In this article, chemical structure and combination mechanism of ChCl: urea based DES were investigated. Moreover, the implementation of this DES in water removal from natural gas was reported. Dehydration of natural gas by ChCl:urea shows significant absorption efficiency compared to triethylene glycol. All above operations were retrieved from COSMOthermX software. This article confirms the potential application of DESs in gas industry.

Keywords: Natural Gas, Structure, dehydration, COSMO-RS, deep eutectic solvents, organic salt

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21 A Simple Computational Method for the Gravitational and Seismic Soil-Structure-Interaction between New and Existent Buildings Sites

Authors: Ion MIERLUS MAZILU, Nicolae Daniel Stoica

Abstract:

This work is one of numerical research and aims to address the issue of the design of new buildings in a 3D location of existing buildings. In today's continuous development and congestion of urban centers is a big question about the influence of the new buildings on an already existent vicinity site. Thus, in this study, we tried to focus on how existent buildings may be affected by any newly constructed buildings and in how far this influence is really decreased. The problem of modeling the influence of interaction between buildings is not simple in any area in the world, and neither in Romania. Unfortunately, most often the designers not done calculations that can determine how close to reality these 3D influences nor the simplified method and the more superior methods. In the most literature making a "shield" (the pilots or molded walls) is absolutely sufficient to stop the influence between the buildings, and so often the soil under the structure is ignored in the calculation models. The main causes for which the soil is neglected in the analysis are related to the complexity modeling of interaction between soil and structure. In this paper, based on a new simple but efficient methodology we tried to determine for a lot of study cases the influence, in terms of assessing the interaction land structure on the behavior of structures that influence a new building on an existing one. The study covers additional subsidence that may occur during the execution of new works and after its completion. It also highlighted the efforts diagrams and deflections in the soil for both the original case and the final stage. This is necessary to see to what extent the expected impact of the new building on existing areas.

Keywords: Interaction, Soil, Structure, Earthquakes, Piles

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20 Structure and Power Struggle in Contemporary Nollywood: An Ethnographic Evaluation

Authors: Ezinne M. Igwe

Abstract:

Statements of facts have been made about Nollywood, a segment of the Nigerian film industry that has in recent times become phenomenal due largely to its quantity of production and specific production style. In the face of recent transformations reshaping the industry, matters have been arising which have not been given due academic attention from an industry player perspective. While re-addressing such issues like structure, policy and informality, this study benefits from a new perspective – that of a community member adopting participant observation to research into a familiar culture. With data drawn from an extensive ethnographic study of the industry, this paper examines these matters with an emphasis on structure and the industry’s overall political economy. Drawing from discourses on the new and old Nollywood labels and other current matters arising within the industry such as the MOPICON bill redraft, corporate financing and possibilities of regeneration, this paper examines structure and power struggle within Nollywood. These are championing regenerative processes that bring about formalization, professionalism and the quest for a transnational presence, which have only been superficially evaluated. Focused essentially on Nollywood’s political economy, this study critically analyses the transforming face of an informal industry, the consistent quest for structure, quality and standard, and issues of corporate sponsorship as possible trends of regeneration. It evaluates them as indicators of regeneration, questioning the possibilities of their sustenance in an industry experiencing increased interactions with the formal economy and an influx of young professionals. With findings that make sustained regeneration both certain (due to increased formal economy interaction) and uncertain (due to the dysfunctionality of the society and its political system), it concludes that the transforming face of the industry suggests impending gentrification of the industry.

Keywords: Structure, Nollywood, formalisation, MOPICON

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19 The Gradient Complex Protective Coatings for Single Crystal Nickel Alloys

Authors: Evgeniya Popova, Vladimir Lesnikov, Nikolay Popov

Abstract:

High yield complex coatings have been designed for thermally stressed cooled HP turbine blades from single crystal alloys ZHS32-VI-VI and ZHS36 with crystallographic orientation [001]. These coatings provide long-term protection of single crystal blades during operation. The three-layer coatings were prepared as follows: the diffusion barrier layer formation on the alloy surface, the subsequent deposition of the condensed bilayer coatings consisting of an inner layer based on Ni-Cr-Al-Y systems and an outer layer based on the alloyed β-phase. The structure, phase composition of complex coatings and reaction zone interaction with the single-crystal alloys ZHS32-VI and ZHS36-VI were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The effect of complex protective coatings on the properties of heat-resistant nickel alloys was studied.

Keywords: Properties, Structure, Phase Composition, single crystal nickel alloys, complex heat-resistant coatings

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18 The Use of X-Ray Computed Microtomography in Petroleum Geology: A Case Study of Unconventional Reservoir Rocks in Poland

Authors: Michał Maksimczuk, Łukasz Kaczmarek, Tomasz Wejrzanowski

Abstract:

High-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (µCT) is a non-destructive technique commonly used to determine the internal structure of reservoir rock sample. This study concerns µCT analysis of Silurian and Ordovician shales and mudstones from a borehole in the Baltic Basin, north of Poland. The spatial resolution of the µCT images obtained was 27 µm, which enabled the authors to create accurate 3-D visualizations and to calculate the ratio of pores and fractures volume to the total sample volume. A total of 1024 µCT slices were used to create a 3-D volume of sample structure geometry. These µCT slices were processed to obtain a clearly visible image and the volume ratio. A copper X-ray source filter was used to reduce image artifacts. Due to accurate technical settings of µCT it was possible to obtain high-resolution 3-D µCT images of low X-ray transparency samples. The presented results confirm the utility of µCT implementations in geoscience and show that µCT has still promising applications for reservoir exploration and characterization.

Keywords: Structure, pores, fractures, material density

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17 The Interrelations between Niemeyer’s Works and the Concept of Typology: A Computer Based Analysis of Form and Structure

Authors: Aline M. C. Santoro, João C. Pantoja, Eduardo P. Rossetti

Abstract:

While the aim of the modernist movement was to deny known typology, the creation of a new formal language also gave it new meaning, which was now related to Form. This is specifically true in the modern capital of Brazil, where Niemeyer sought to demonstrate the manner in which the new materials available, such as reinforced concrete, were able to produce innovative forms. With this study, we aim to demonstrate the relationship between Niemeyer’s forms and the topological typology known as tessellation, through the presentation of two case studies, the Monument to Caxias and the Saint George Orthodox Church. At a first glance, our purpose is to present the definition of Form, especially with relationship to the works of Niemeyer, seeking to identify in them the concepts presented by Moussavi. Afterwards, we will use a computer-based approach to study and model the forms of two of his buildings with the McNeel Rhinoceros program, where, with the aid of diagrams and renderings, we will be able to clearly and legibly represent their organic forms and further understand their structural systems. When we recognise the concept of typology as a starting point for structural form, it can be concluded that the case studies presented here are encompassed by the typology presented by Moussavi since they derive from his basic structural systems.

Keywords: Topology, Structure, Form, Typology, Niemeyer

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16 Earthquake Hazards in Manipur: Casual Factors and Remedial Measures

Authors: Kangujam Monika, Kiranbala Devi Thokchom, Soibam Sandhyarani Devi

Abstract:

Earthquake is a major natural hazard in India. Manipur, located in the North-Eastern Region of India, is one of the most affected location in the region prone to earthquakes since it lies in an area where Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates meet and is in seismic Zone V which is the most severe intensity zone, according to IS Code. Some recent earthquakes recorded in Manipur are M 6.7 epicenter at Tamenglong (January 4, 2016), M 5.2 epicenter at Churachandpur (February 24, 2017) and most recent M 4.4 epicenter at Thoubal (June 19, 2017). In these recent earthquakes, some houses and buildings were damaged, landslides were also occurred. A field study was carried out. An overview of the various causal factors involved in triggering of earthquake in Manipur has been discussed. It is found that improper planning, poor design, negligence, structural irregularities, poor quality materials, construction of foundation without proper site soil investigation and non-implementation of remedial measures, etc., are possibly the main causal factors for damage in Manipur during earthquake. The study also suggests, though the proper design of structure and foundation along with soil investigation, ground improvement methods, use of modern techniques of construction, counseling with engineer, mass awareness, etc., might be effective solution to control the hazard in many locations. An overview on the analysis pertaining to earthquake in Manipur together with on-going detailed site specific geotechnical investigation were presented.

Keywords: Earthquake, Soil, Structure, Hazard, Manipur

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15 Solutions for Comfort and Safety on Vibrations Resulting from the Action of the Wind on the Building in the Form of Portico with Four Floors

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford, G. B. M. Carvalho

Abstract:

With the aim of increasing the levels of comfort and security structures, the study of dynamic loads on buildings has been one of the focuses in the area of control engineering, civil engineering and architecture. Thus, this work presents a study based on simulation of the dynamics of buildings in the form of portico subjected to wind action, besides presenting an action of passive control, using for this the dynamics of the structure, consequently representing a system appropriated on environmental issues. These control systems are named the dynamic vibration absorbers.

Keywords: Safety, Structure, comfort, dynamic vibration absorber, wind behavior

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14 Design and Thermal Simulation Analysis of the Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-Critical System Injector-I Cryomodule

Authors: Rui-Xiong Han, Rui Ge, Shao-Peng Li, Lin Bian, Liang-Rui Sun, Min-Jing Sang, Rui Ye, Ya-Ping Liu, Xiang-Zhen Zhang, Jie-Hao Zhang, Zhuo Zhang, Jian-Qing Zhang, Miao-Fu Xu

Abstract:

The Chinese Accelerator Driven Sub-critical system (C-ADS) uses a high-energy proton beam to bombard the metal target and generate neutrons to deal with the nuclear waste. The Chinese ADS proton linear has two 0~10 MeV injectors and one 10~1500 MeV superconducting linac. Injector-I is studied by the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) under construction in the Beijing, China. The linear accelerator consists of two accelerating cryomodules operating at the temperature of 2 Kelvin. This paper describes the structure and thermal performances analysis of the cryomodule. The analysis takes into account all the main contributors (support posts, multilayer insulation, current leads, power couplers, and cavities) to the static and dynamic heat load at various cryogenic temperature levels. The thermal simulation analysis of the cryomodule is important theory foundation of optimization and commissioning.

Keywords: Structure, Thermal Simulation, C-ADS, cryomodule, static heat load, dynamic heat load

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13 The Organizational Structure, Development Features, and Metadiscoursal Elements in the Expository Writing of College Freshman Students

Authors: Lota Largavista

Abstract:

This study entitled, ‘The Organizational Structure, Development Features, and Metadiscoursal Elements in the Expository Writing of Freshman College Writers’ aimed to examine essays written by college students. It seeks to examine the organizational structure and development features of the essays and describe their defining characteristics, the linguistic elements at both macrostructural and microstructural discourse levels and the types of textual and interpersonal metadiscourse markers that are employed in order to negotiate meanings with their prospective readers. The different frameworks used to analyze the essays include Toulmin’s ( 1984) model for argument structure, Olson’s ( 2003) three-part essay structure; Halliday and Matthiesen (2004) in Herriman (2011) notions of thematic structure, Danes (1974) thematic progression or method of development, Halliday’s (2004) concept of grammatical and lexical cohesion ;Hyland’s (2005) metadiscourse strategies; and Chung and Nation’s( 2003) four-step scale for technical vocabulary. This descriptive study analyzes qualitatively and quantitatively how freshman students generally express their written compositions. Coding of units is done to determine what linguistic features are present in the essays. Findings revealed that students’ expository essays observe a three-part structure having all three moves, the Introduction, the Body and the Conclusion. Stance assertion, stance support, and emerging moves/strategies are found to be employed in the essays. Students have more marked themes on the essays and also prefer constant theme progression as their method of development. The analysis of salient linguistic elements reveals frequently used cohesive devices and metadiscoursal strategies. Based on the findings, an instructional learning plan is being proposed. This plan is characterized by a genre approach that focuses on expository and linguistic conventions.

Keywords: Organization, Structure, metadiscourse, theme progression

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12 The Structure and Composition of Plant Communities in Ajluon Forest Reserve in Jordan

Authors: Maher J. Tadros, Yaseen Ananbeh

Abstract:

The study area is located in Ajluon Forest Reserve northern part of Jordan. It consists of Mediterranean hills dominated by open woodlands of oak and pistachio. The aims of the study were to investigate the positive and negative relationships between the locals and the protected area and how it can affect the long-term forest conservation. The main research objectives are to review the impact of establishing Ajloun Forest Reserve on nature conservation and on the livelihood level of local communities around the reserve. The Ajloun forest reserve plays a fundamental role in Ajloun area development. The existence of initiatives of nature conservation in the area supports various socio-economic activities around the reserve that contribute towards the development of local communities in Ajloun area. A part of this research was to conduct a survey to study the impact of Ajloun forest reserve on biodiversity composition. Also, studying the biodiversity content especially for vegetation to determine the economic impacts of Ajloun forest reserve on its surroundings was studied. In this study, several methods were used to fill the objectives including point-centered quarter method which involves selecting randomly 50 plots at the study site. The collected data from the field showed that the absolute density was (1031.24 plant per hectare). Density was recorded and found to be the highest for Quecus coccifera, and relative density of (73.7%), this was followed by Arbutus andrachne and relative density (7.1%), Pistacia palaestina and relative density (10.5%) and Crataegus azarulus (82.5 p/ha) and relative density (5.1%),

Keywords: Composition, Density, Structure, Frequency, importance value, point-centered quarter, tree cover

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11 The World View of Tere Liye in Negeri Para Bedebah an Analysis of Genetic Structuralism Lucien Goldmann

Authors: Muhammad Fadli Muslimin

Abstract:

Negeri Para Bedebah is known as one of the works of Tere Liye, an Indonesia author. In the literary works, the fiction as always tries to reflect the reality of the society where the author or the social groups lived in. The essential or nature of society is generally a reality while literary work is fiction and both of them are social fact. Negeri Para Bedebah is a novel fiction which is a social fact and which holds an important role in reality. It is more likely as the representation of social, economy and politic aspects in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to reveal the world view of Tere Liye throughout novel Negeri Para Bedebah. By analyzing the object using genetic structuralism Lucien Goldmann which chiefly focuses on world view, it is stated that the literary work is an structure and it has homology with the structure in society. The structure of literary work is not chiefly homolog to the structure of society but homolog to the world view which is growing and developing inside the society. The methodological research used in this paper is a dialectic method which focuses on the starting and ending points lied in the literary text by paying attention to the coherent meanings. The result of this study is that Tere Liye shows us his world view about the structure of the society where he is living in, but one is an imaginative form of the world and the homology to the reality itself.

Keywords: Society, Structure, world view, homology, literary work

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