Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Structural health monitoring Related Abstracts

30 Structural Health Monitoring of the 9-Story Torre Central Building Using Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani


The Torre Central building is a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile, and has been instrumented since 2009. Events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded, and thus the building can serve as a full-scale benchmark to evaluate the structural health monitoring method developed. The first part of this article presents an analysis of inter-story drifts, and of changes in the first system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) as baseline indicators of the occurrence of damage. During 2010 Chile earthquake the system frequencies were detected decreasing approximately 24% in the EW and 27% in NS motions. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% in the EW motion was detected. The structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling time (wave method) within a layered shear beam model of structure is presented in the second part of this article. If structural damage occurs the velocity of wave propagated through the structure changes. The wave method measures the velocities of shear wave propagation from the impulse responses generated by recorded data at various locations inside the building. Our analysis and results show that the detected changes in wave velocities are consistent with the observed damages. On this basis, the wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, earthquake response, Chile earthquake, impulse response, layered shear beam, Torre Central building, wave method, wave travel time

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29 Considerations upon Structural Health Monitoring of Small to Medium Wind Turbines

Authors: Nicolae Constantin, Ştefan Sorohan


The small and medium wind turbines are running in quite different conditions as compared to the big ones. Consequently, they need also a different approach concerning the structural health monitoring (SHM) issues. There are four main differences between the above mentioned categories: (i) significantly smaller dimensions, (ii) considerably higher rotation speed, (iii) generally small distance between the turbine and the energy consumer and (iv) monitoring assumed in many situations by the owner. In such conditions, nondestructive inspections (NDI) have to be made as much as possible with affordable, yet effective techniques, requiring portable and accessible equipment. Additionally, the turbines and accessories should be easy to mount, dispose and repair. As the materials used for such unit can be metals, composites and combined, the technologies should be adapted accordingly. An example in which the two materials co-exist is the situation in which the damaged metallic skin of a blade is repaired with a composite patch. The paper presents the inspection of the bonding state of the patch, using portable ultrasonic equipment, able to put in place the Lamb wave method, which proves efficient in global and local inspections as well. The equipment is relatively easy to handle and can be borrowed from specialized laboratories or used by a community of small wind turbine users, upon the case. This evaluation is the first in a row, aimed to evaluate efficiency of NDI performed with rather accessible, less sophisticated equipment and related inspection techniques, having field inspection capabilities. The main goal is to extend such inspection procedures to other components of the wind power unit, such as the support tower, water storage tanks, etc.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, small wind turbines, non-destructive inspection, field inspection capabilities

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28 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings–Recorded Data and Wave Method

Authors: Tzong-Ying Hao, Mohammad T. Rahmani


This article presents the structural health monitoring (SHM) method based on changes in wave traveling times (wave method) within a layered 1-D shear beam model of structure. The wave method measures the velocity of shear wave propagating in a building from the impulse response functions (IRF) obtained from recorded data at different locations inside the building. If structural damage occurs in a structure, the velocity of wave propagation through it changes. The wave method analysis is performed on the responses of Torre Central building, a 9-story shear wall structure located in Santiago, Chile. Because events of different intensity (ambient vibrations, weak and strong earthquake motions) have been recorded at this building, therefore it can serve as a full-scale benchmark to validate the structural health monitoring method utilized. The analysis of inter-story drifts and the Fourier spectra for the EW and NS motions during 2010 Chile earthquake are presented. The results for the NS motions suggest the coupling of translation and torsion responses. The system frequencies (estimated from the relative displacement response of the 8th-floor with respect to the basement from recorded data) were detected initially decreasing approximately 24% in the EW motion. Near the end of shaking, an increase of about 17% was detected. These analysis and results serve as baseline indicators of the occurrence of structural damage. The detected changes in wave velocities of the shear beam model are consistent with the observed damage. However, the 1-D shear beam model is not sufficient to simulate the coupling of translation and torsion responses in the NS motion. The wave method is proven for actual implementation in structural health monitoring systems based on carefully assessing the resolution and accuracy of the model for its effectiveness on post-earthquake damage detection in buildings.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, earthquake response, shear wave velocity, Chile earthquake, Torre Central building, wave method, impulse response function, shear beam model

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27 Health of Riveted Joints with Active and Passive Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

Authors: Javad Yarmahmoudi, Alireza Mirzaee


Many active and passive structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detection of the defects of plates. Generally, riveted joints hold the plates together and their failure may create accidents. In this study, well known active and passive methods were modified for the evaluation of the health of the riveted joints between the plates. The active method generated Lamb waves and monitored their propagation by using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disks. The signal was analyzed by using the wavelet transformations. The passive method used the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and evaluated the spectral characteristics of the signals by using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results indicated that the existing methods designed for the evaluation of the health of individual plates may be used for inspection of riveted joints with software modifications.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, PZT, SHM, active SHM, passive SHM, fiber bragg grating sensor, lead zirconate titanate

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26 Structural Damage Detection via Incomplete Model Data Using Output Data Only

Authors: Ahmed Noor Al-qayyim, Barlas Özden Çağlayan


Structural failure is caused mainly by damage that often occurs on structures. Many researchers focus on obtaining very efficient tools to detect the damage in structures in the early state. In the past decades, a subject that has received considerable attention in literature is the damage detection as determined by variations in the dynamic characteristics or response of structures. This study presents a new damage identification technique. The technique detects the damage location for the incomplete structure system using output data only. The method indicates the damage based on the free vibration test data by using “Two Points - Condensation (TPC) technique”. This method creates a set of matrices by reducing the structural system to two degrees of freedom systems. The current stiffness matrices are obtained from optimization of the equation of motion using the measured test data. The current stiffness matrices are compared with original (undamaged) stiffness matrices. High percentage changes in matrices’ coefficients lead to the location of the damage. TPC technique is applied to the experimental data of a simply supported steel beam model structure after inducing thickness change in one element. Where two cases are considered, the method detects the damage and determines its location accurately in both cases. In addition, the results illustrate that these changes in stiffness matrix can be a useful tool for continuous monitoring of structural safety using ambient vibration data. Furthermore, its efficiency proves that this technique can also be used for big structures.

Keywords: Optimization, Structural health monitoring, damage detection, Signals Processing, two points–condensation

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25 A Prediction Model for Dynamic Responses of Building from Earthquake Based on Evolutionary Learning

Authors: Kyu Jin Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park


The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to prevent seismic damage. Structural seismic damage of building is caused by the instantaneous stress concentration which is related with dynamic characteristic of earthquake. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the dynamic responses of building demands significantly high computational cost. To prevent the failure of structural members from the characteristic of the earthquake and the significantly high computational cost for seismic response analysis, this paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) based prediction model for dynamic responses of building considering specific time length. Through the measured dynamic responses, input and output node of the ANN are formed by the length of specific time, and adopted for the training. In the model, evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN), that radial basis function network (RBFN) is integrated with evolutionary optimization algorithm to find variables in RBF, is implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified through an analytical study applying responses from dynamic analysis for multi-degree of freedom system to training data in ERBFNN.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Genetic Algorithm, Artificial Neural Network, dynamic response, radial basis function network

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24 Structural Health Monitoring of Offshore Structures Using Wireless Sensor Networking under Operational and Environmental Variability

Authors: Srinivasan Chandrasekaran, Thailammai Chithambaram, Shihas A. Khader


The early-stage damage detection in offshore structures requires continuous structural health monitoring and for the large area the position of sensors will also plays an important role in the efficient damage detection. Determining the dynamic behavior of offshore structures requires dense deployment of sensors. The wired Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are highly expensive and always needs larger installation space to deploy. Wireless sensor networks can enhance the SHM system by deployment of scalable sensor network, which consumes lesser space. This paper presents the results of wireless sensor network based Structural Health Monitoring method applied to a scaled experimental model of offshore structure that underwent wave loading. This method determines the serviceability of the offshore structure which is subjected to various environment loads. Wired and wireless sensors were installed in the model and the response of the scaled BLSRP model under wave loading was recorded. The wireless system discussed in this study is the Raspberry pi board with Arm V6 processor which is programmed to transmit the data acquired by the sensor to the server using Wi-Fi adapter, the data is then hosted in the webpage. The data acquired from the wireless and wired SHM systems were compared and the design of the wireless system is verified.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Wireless Sensor Network, damage detection, Structural Response, Condition Assessment

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23 Self-Sensing Concrete Nanocomposites for Smart Structures

Authors: A. D'Alessandro, F. Ubertini, A. L. Materazzi


In the field of civil engineering, Structural Health Monitoring is a topic of growing interest. Effective monitoring instruments permit the control of the working conditions of structures and infrastructures, through the identification of behavioral anomalies due to incipient damages, especially in areas of high environmental hazards as earthquakes. While traditional sensors can be applied only in a limited number of points, providing a partial information for a structural diagnosis, novel transducers may allow a diffuse sensing. Thanks to the new tools and materials provided by nanotechnology, new types of multifunctional sensors are developing in the scientific panorama. In particular, cement-matrix composite materials capable of diagnosing their own state of strain and tension, could be originated by the addition of specific conductive nanofillers. Because of the nature of the material they are made of, these new cementitious nano-modified transducers can be inserted within the concrete elements, transforming the same structures in sets of widespread sensors. This paper is aimed at presenting the results of a research about a new self-sensing nanocomposite and about the implementation of smart sensors for Structural Health Monitoring. The developed nanocomposite has been obtained by inserting multi walled carbon nanotubes within a cementitious matrix. The insertion of such conductive carbon nanofillers provides the base material with piezoresistive characteristics and peculiar sensitivity to mechanical modifications. The self-sensing ability is achieved by correlating the variation of the external stress or strain with the variation of some electrical properties, such as the electrical resistance or conductivity. Through the measurement of such electrical characteristics, the performance and the working conditions of an element or a structure can be monitored. Among conductive carbon nanofillers, carbon nanotubes seem to be particularly promising for the realization of self-sensing cement-matrix materials. Some issues related to the nanofiller dispersion or to the influence of the nano-inclusions amount in the cement matrix need to be carefully investigated: the strain sensitivity of the resulting sensors is influenced by such factors. This work analyzes the dispersion of the carbon nanofillers, the physical properties of the fresh dough, the electrical properties of the hardened composites and the sensing properties of the realized sensors. The experimental campaign focuses specifically on their dynamic characterization and their applicability to the monitoring of full-scale elements. The results of the electromechanical tests with both slow varying and dynamic loads show that the developed nanocomposite sensors can be effectively used for the health monitoring of structures.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Structural health monitoring, self-sensing nanocomposites, smart cement-matrix sensors

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22 Cement-Based Composites with Carbon Nanofillers for Smart Structural Health Monitoring Sensors

Authors: Antonella D'Alessandro, Filippo Ubertini, Annibale Luigi Materazzi


The progress of nanotechnology resulted in the development of new instruments in the field of civil engineering. In particular, the introduction of carbon nanofillers into construction materials can enhance their mechanical and electrical properties. In construction, concrete is among the most used materials. Due to the characteristics of its components and its structure, concrete is suitable for modification, at the nanometer level too. Moreover, to guarantee structural safety, it is desirable to achieve a widespread monitoring of structures. The ideal thing would be to realize structures able to identify their behavior modifications, states of incipient damage or conditions of possible risk for people. This paper presents a research work about novel cementitious composites with conductive carbon nanoinclusions able of monitoring their state of deformation, with particular attention to concrete. The self-sensing ability is achieved through the correlation between the variation of stress or strain and that of electrical resistance. Carbon nanofillers appear particularly suitable for such applications. Nanomodified concretes with different carbon nanofillers has been tested. The samples have been subjected to cyclic and dynamic loads. The experimental campaign shows the potentialities of this new type of sensors made of nanomodified concrete for diffuse Structural Health Monitoring.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Smart Sensors, carbon nanofillers, cementitious nanocomposites

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21 Structural Health Monitoring of Buildings and Infrastructure

Authors: Mojtaba Valinejadshoubi, Ashutosh Bagchi, Osama Moselhi


Structures such as buildings, bridges, dams, wind turbines etc. need to be maintained against various factors such as deterioration, excessive loads, environment, temperature, etc. Choosing an appropriate monitoring system is important for determining any critical damage to a structure and address that to avoid any adverse consequence. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has emerged as an effective technique to monitor the health of the structures. SHM refers to an ongoing structural performance assessment using different kinds of sensors attached to or embedded in the structures to evaluate their integrity and safety to help engineers decide on rehabilitation measures. Ability of SHM in identifying the location and severity of structural damages by considering any changes in characteristics of the structures such as their frequency, stiffness and mode shapes helps engineers to monitor the structures and take the most effective corrective actions to maintain their safety and extend their service life. The main objective of this study is to review the overall SHM process specifically determining the natural frequency of an instrumented simply-supported concrete beam using modal testing and finite element model updating.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, modal analysis, natural frequency, finite element model updating

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20 A Detection Method of Faults in Railway Pantographs Based on Dynamic Phase Plots

Authors: G. Santamato, M. Solazzi, A. Frisoli


Systems for detection of damages in railway pantographs effectively reduce the cost of maintenance and improve time scheduling. In this paper, we present an approach to design a monitoring tool fitting strong customer requirements such as portability and ease of use. Pantograph has been modeled to estimate its dynamical properties, since no data are available. With the aim to focus on suspensions health, a two Degrees of Freedom (DOF) scheme has been adopted. Parameters have been calculated by means of analytical dynamics. A Finite Element Method (FEM) modal analysis verified the former model with an acceptable error. The detection strategy seeks phase-plots topology alteration, induced by defects. In order to test the suitability of the method, leakage in the dashpot was simulated on the lumped model. Results are interesting because changes in phase plots are more appreciable than frequency-shift. Further calculations as well as experimental tests will support future developments of this smart strategy.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, pantograph models, phase plots

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19 The Estimation Method of Inter-Story Drift for Buildings Based on Evolutionary Learning

Authors: Kyu Jin Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park


The seismic responses-based structural health monitoring system has been performed to reduce seismic damage. The inter-story drift ratio which is the major index of the seismic capacity assessment is employed for estimating the seismic damage of buildings. Meanwhile, seismic response analysis to estimate the structural responses of building demands significantly high computational cost due to increasing number of high-rise and large buildings. To estimate the inter-story drift ratio of buildings from the earthquake efficiently, this paper suggests the estimation method of inter-story drift for buildings using an artificial neural network (ANN). In the method, the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is integrated with optimization algorithm to optimize the variable through evolutionary learning that refers to evolutionary radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN). The estimation method estimates the inter-story drift without seismic response analysis when the new earthquakes are subjected to buildings. The effectiveness of the estimation method is verified through a simulation using multi-degree of freedom system.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Genetic Algorithm, Artificial Neural Network, radial basis function neural network, inter-story drift ratio

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18 Shape Management Method of Large Structure Based on Octree Space Partitioning

Authors: Gichun Cha, Changgil Lee, Seunghee Park


The objective of the study is to construct the shape management method contributing to the safety of the large structure. In Korea, the research of the shape management is lack because of the new attempted technology. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is used for measurements of large structures. TLS provides an efficient way to actively acquire accurate the point clouds of object surfaces or environments. The point clouds provide a basis for rapid modeling in the industrial automation, architecture, construction or maintenance of the civil infrastructures. TLS produce a huge amount of point clouds. Registration, Extraction and Visualization of data require the processing of a massive amount of scan data. The octree can be applied to the shape management of the large structure because the scan data is reduced in the size but, the data attributes are maintained. The octree space partitioning generates the voxel of 3D space, and the voxel is recursively subdivided into eight sub-voxels. The point cloud of scan data was converted to voxel and sampled. The experimental site is located at Sungkyunkwan University. The scanned structure is the steel-frame bridge. The used TLS is Leica ScanStation C10/C5. The scan data was condensed 92%, and the octree model was constructed with 2 millimeter in resolution. This study presents octree space partitioning for handling the point clouds. The basis is created by shape management of the large structures such as double-deck tunnel, building and bridge. The research will be expected to improve the efficiency of structural health monitoring and maintenance. "This work is financially supported by 'U-City Master and Doctor Course Grant Program' and the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF- 2015R1D1A1A01059291)."

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, octree space partitioning, shape management

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17 Damage Identification in Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Modal Parameters and Their Formulation

Authors: Ali Al-Ghalib, Fouad Mohammad


The identification of damage in reinforced concrete structures subjected to incremental cracking performance exploiting vibration data is recognized as a challenging topic in the published and heavily cited literature. Therefore, this paper attempts to shine light on the extent of dynamic methods when applied to reinforced concrete beams simulated with various scenarios of defects. For this purpose, three different reinforced concrete beams are tested through the course of the study. The three beams are loaded statically to failure in incremental successive load cycles and later rehabilitated. After each static load stage, the beams are tested under free-free support condition using experimental modal analysis. The beams were all of the same length and cross-sectional area (2.0x0.14x0.09)m, but they were different in concrete compressive strength and the type of damage presented. The experimental modal parameters as damage identification parameters were showed computationally expensive, time consuming and require substantial inputs and considerable expertise. Nonetheless, they were proved plausible for the condition monitoring of the current case study as well as structural changes in the course of progressive loads. It was accentuated that a satisfactory localization and quantification for structural changes (Level 2 and Level 3 of damage identification problem) can only be achieved reasonably through considering frequencies and mode shapes of a system in a proper analytical model. A convenient post analysis process for various datasets of vibration measurements for the three beams is conducted in order to extract, check and correlate the basic modal parameters; namely, natural frequency, modal damping and mode shapes. The results of the extracted modal parameters and their combination are utilized and discussed in this research as quantification parameters.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Damage Identification, reinforced concrete beam, experimental modal analysis

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16 Monitoring of the Chillon Viaducts after Rehabilitation with Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement-Based Composite

Authors: Henar Martín-Sanz García, Eleni Chatzi, Eugen Brühwiler


Located on the shore of Geneva Lake, in Switzerland, the Chillon Viaducts are two parallel structures consisted of post-tensioned concrete box girders, with a total length of 2 kilometers and 100m spans. Built in 1969, the bridges currently accommodate a traffic load of 50.000 vehicles per day, thereby holding a key role both in terms of historic value as well as socio-economic significance. Although several improvements have been carried out in the past two decades, recent inspections demonstrate an Alkali-Aggregate reaction in the concrete deck and piers reducing the concrete strength. In order to prevent further expansion of this issue, a layer of 40 mm of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced cement-based Composite (UHPFRC) (incorporating rebars) was casted over the slabs, acting as a waterproof membrane and providing significant increase in resistance of the bridge structure by composite UHPFRC – RC composite action in particular of the deck slab. After completing the rehabilitation works, a Structural Monitoring campaign was installed on the deck slab in one representative span, based on accelerometers, strain gauges, thermal and humidity sensors. This campaign seeks to reveal information on the behavior of UHPFRC-concrete composite systems, such as increase in stiffness, fatigue strength, durability and long-term performance. Consequently, the structural monitoring is expected to last for at least three years. A first insight of the analyzed results from the initial months of measurements is presented herein, along with future improvements or necessary changes on the deployment.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Rehabilitation, Structural health monitoring, UHPFRC

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15 Data Calibration of the Actual versus the Theoretical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Accelerometer Reading through Remote Monitoring of Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover

Authors: John Mark Payawal, Francis Aldrine Uy, John Paul Carreon


This paper shows the application of Structural Health Monitoring, SHM into bridges. Bridges are structures built to provide passage over a physical obstruction such as rivers, chasms or roads. The Philippines has a total of 8,166 national bridges as published on the 2015 atlas of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and only 2,924 or 35.81% of these bridges are in good condition. As a result, PHP 30.464 billion of the 2016 budget of DPWH is allocated on roads and/or bridges maintenance alone. Intensive spending is owed to the present practice of outdated manual inspection and assessment, and poor structural health monitoring of Philippine infrastructures. As the School of Civil, Environmental, & Geological Engineering of Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT) continuous its well driven passion in research based projects, a partnership with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the DPWH launched the application of Structural Health Monitoring, (SHM) in Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover. The flyover is located along Nagtahan Boulevard in Sta. Mesa, Manila that connects Brgy. 411 and Brgy. 635. It gives service to vehicles going from Lacson Avenue to Mabini Bridge passing over Legarda Flyover. The flyover is chosen among the many located bridges in Metro Manila as the focus of the pilot testing due to its site accessibility, and complete structural built plans and specifications necessary for SHM as provided by the Bureau of Design, BOD department of DPWH. This paper focuses on providing a method to calibrate theoretical readings from STAAD Vi8 Pro and sync the data to actual MEMS accelerometer readings. It is observed that while the design standards used in constructing the flyover was reflected on the model, actual readings of MEMS accelerometer display a large difference compared to the theoretical data ran and taken from STAAD Vi8 Pro. In achieving a true seismic response of the modeled bridge or hence syncing the theoretical data to the actual sensor reading also called as the independent variable of this paper, analysis using single degree of freedom (SDOF) of the flyover under free vibration without damping using STAAD Vi8 Pro is done. The earthquake excitation and bridge responses are subjected to earthquake ground motion in the form of ground acceleration or Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA. Translational acceleration load is used to simulate the ground motion of the time history analysis acceleration record in STAAD Vi8 Pro.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, accelerometer, peak ground acceleration, analysis using single degree of freedom, micro electro mechanical system

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14 Estimation of the Dynamic Fragility of Padre Jacinto Zamora Bridge Due to Traffic Loads

Authors: Kimuel Suyat, Francis Aldrine Uy, John Paul Carreon


The Philippines, composed of many islands, is connected with approximately 8030 bridges. Continuous evaluation of the structural condition of these bridges is needed to safeguard the safety of the general public. With most bridges reaching its design life, retrofitting and replacement may be needed. Concerned government agencies allocate huge costs for periodic monitoring and maintenance of these structures. The rising volume of traffic and aging of these infrastructures is challenging structural engineers to give rise for structural health monitoring techniques. Numerous techniques are already proposed and some are now being employed in other countries. Vibration Analysis is one way. The natural frequency and vibration of a bridge are design criteria in ensuring the stability, safety and economy of the structure. Its natural frequency must not be so high so as not to cause discomfort and not so low that the structure is so stiff causing it to be both costly and heavy. It is well known that the stiffer the member is, the more load it attracts. The frequency must not also match the vibration caused by the traffic loads. If this happens, a resonance occurs. Vibration that matches a systems frequency will generate excitation and when this exceeds the member’s limit, a structural failure will happen. This study presents a method for calculating dynamic fragility through the use of vibration-based monitoring system. Dynamic fragility is the probability that a structural system exceeds a limit state when subjected to dynamic loads. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 based from the available construction drawings provided by the Department of Public Works and Highways. It was verified and adjusted based from the actual condition of the bridge. The bridge design specifications are also checked using nondestructive tests. The approach used in this method properly accounts the uncertainty of observed values and code-based structural assumptions. The vibration response of the structure due to actual loads is monitored using installed sensors on the bridge. From the determinacy of these dynamic characteristic of a system, threshold criteria can be established and fragility curves can be estimated. This study conducted in relation with the research project between Department of Science and Technology, Mapúa Institute of Technology, and the Department of Public Works and Highways also known as Mapúa-DOST Smart Bridge Project deploys Structural Health Monitoring Sensors at Zamora Bridge. The bridge is selected in coordination with the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structural plans for the bridge are also readily available.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, dynamic characteristic, threshold criteria, traffic loads

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13 Structural Damage Detection Using Modal Data Employing Teaching Learning Based Optimization

Authors: Subhajit Das, Nirjhar Dhang


Structural damage detection is a challenging work in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). The damage detection methods mainly focused on the determination of the location and severity of the damage. Model updating is a well known method to locate and quantify the damage. In this method, an error function is defined in terms of difference between the signal measured from ‘experiment’ and signal obtained from undamaged finite element model. This error function is minimised with a proper algorithm, and the finite element model is updated accordingly to match the measured response. Thus, the damage location and severity can be identified from the updated model. In this paper, an error function is defined in terms of modal data viz. frequencies and modal assurance criteria (MAC). MAC is derived from Eigen vectors. This error function is minimized by teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm, and the finite element model is updated accordingly to locate and quantify the damage. Damage is introduced in the model by reduction of stiffness of the structural member. The ‘experimental’ data is simulated by the finite element modelling. The error due to experimental measurement is introduced in the synthetic ‘experimental’ data by adding random noise, which follows Gaussian distribution. The efficiency and robustness of this method are explained through three examples e.g., one truss, one beam and one frame problem. The result shows that TLBO algorithm is efficient to detect the damage location as well as the severity of damage using modal data.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, teaching learning based optimization, finite element model updating, modal assurance criteria

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12 Early Evaluation of Long-Span Suspension Bridges Using Smartphone Accelerometers

Authors: Ekin Ozer, Maria Q. Feng, Rupa Purasinghe


Structural deterioration of bridge systems possesses an ongoing threat to the transportation networks. Besides, landmark bridges’ integrity and safety are more than sole functionality, since they provide a strong presence for the society and nations. Therefore, an innovative and sustainable method to inspect landmark bridges is essential to ensure their resiliency in the long run. In this paper, a recently introduced concept, smartphone-based modal frequency estimation is addressed, and this paper targets to authenticate the fidelity of smartphone-based vibration measurements gathered from three landmark suspension bridges. Firstly, smartphones located at the bridge mid-span are adopted as portable and standalone vibration measurement devices. Then, their embedded accelerometers are utilized to gather vibration response under operational loads, and eventually frequency domain characteristics are deduced. The preliminary analysis results are compared with the reference publications and high-quality monitoring data to validate the usability of smartphones on long-span landmark suspension bridges. If the technical challenges such as high period of vibration, low amplitude excitation, embedded smartphone sensor features, sampling, and citizen engagement are tackled, smartphones can provide a novel and cost-free crowdsourcing tool for maintenance of these landmark structures. This study presents the early phase findings from three signature structures located in the United States.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Vibration analysis, Suspension Bridges, smart and mobile sensing

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11 Reliability Estimation of Bridge Structures with Updated Finite Element Models

Authors: Ekin Ozer


Assessment of structural reliability is essential for efficient use of civil infrastructure which is subjected hazardous events. Dynamic analysis of finite element models is a commonly used tool to simulate structural behavior and estimate its performance accordingly. However, theoretical models purely based on preliminary assumptions and design drawings may deviate from the actual behavior of the structure. This study proposes up-to-date reliability estimation procedures which engages actual bridge vibration data modifying finite element models for finite element model updating and performing reliability estimation, accordingly. The proposed method utilizes vibration response measurements of bridge structures to identify modal parameters, then uses these parameters to calibrate finite element models which are originally based on design drawings. The proposed method does not only show that reliability estimation based on updated models differs from the original models, but also infer that non-updated models may overestimate the structural capacity.

Keywords: Earthquake Engineering, Structural health monitoring, engineering vibrations, reliability estimation

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10 Proposal of Non-Destructive Inspection Function Based on Internet of Things Technology Using Drone

Authors: Byoungjoon Yu, Jihwan Park, Sujung Sin, Junghyun Im, Minsoo Park, Sehwan Park, Seunghee Park


In this paper, we propose a technology to monitor the soundness of an Internet-based bridge using a non-conductive inspection function. There has been a collapse accident due to the aging of the bridge structure, and it is necessary to prepare for the deterioration of the bridge. The NDT/SHM system for maintenance of existing bridge structures requires a large number of inspection personnel and expensive inspection costs, and access of expensive and large equipment to measurement points is required. Because current drone inspection equipment can only be inspected through camera, it is difficult to inspect inside damage accurately, and the results of an internal damage evaluation are subjective, and it is difficult for non-specialists to recognize the evaluation results. Therefore, it is necessary to develop NDT/SHM techniques for maintenance of new-concept bridge structures that allow for free movement and real-time evaluation of measurement results. This work is financially supported by Korea Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (MOLIT) as 'Smart City Master and Doctor Course Grant Program' and a grant (14SCIP-B088624-01) from Construction Technology Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Nondestructive Testing, Structural health monitoring, ndt, SHM, non-contact sensing, autonomous self-driving drone

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9 Application of a Model-Free Artificial Neural Networks Approach for Structural Health Monitoring of the Old Lidingö Bridge

Authors: Ana Neves, John Leander, Ignacio Gonzalez, Raid Karoumi


Systematic monitoring and inspection are needed to assess the present state of a structure and predict its future condition. If an irregularity is noticed, repair actions may take place and the adequate intervention will most probably reduce the future costs with maintenance, minimize downtime and increase safety by avoiding the failure of the structure as a whole or of one of its structural parts. For this to be possible decisions must be made at the right time, which implies using systems that can detect abnormalities in their early stage. In this sense, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is seen as an effective tool for improving the safety and reliability of infrastructures. This paper explores the decision-making problem in SHM regarding the maintenance of civil engineering structures. The aim is to assess the present condition of a bridge based exclusively on measurements using the suggested method in this paper, such that action is taken coherently with the information made available by the monitoring system. Artificial Neural Networks are trained and their ability to predict structural behavior is evaluated in the light of a case study where acceleration measurements are acquired from a bridge located in Stockholm, Sweden. This relatively old bridge is presently still in operation despite experiencing obvious problems already reported in previous inspections. The prediction errors provide a measure of the accuracy of the algorithm and are subjected to further investigation, which comprises concepts like clustering analysis and statistical hypothesis testing. These enable to interpret the obtained prediction errors, draw conclusions about the state of the structure and thus support decision making regarding its maintenance.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Structural health monitoring, clustering analysis, model-free damage detection, statistical hypothesis testing

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8 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner


In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, damage detection, acoustic emission, shaking table test

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7 Numerical Modelling and Experiment of a Composite Single-Lap Joint Reinforced by Multifunctional Thermoplastic Composite Fastener

Authors: Wenhao Li, Shijun Guo


Carbon fibre reinforced composites are progressively replacing metal structures in modern civil aircraft. This is because composite materials have large potential of weight saving compared with metal. However, the achievement to date of weight saving in composite structure is far less than the theoretical potential due to many uncertainties in structural integrity and safety concern. Unlike the conventional metallic structure, composite components are bonded together along the joints where structural integrity is a major concern. To ensure the safety, metal fasteners are used to reinforce the composite bonded joints. One of the solutions for a significant weight saving of composite structure is to develop an effective technology of on-board Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) System. By monitoring the real-life stress status of composite structures during service, the safety margin set in the structure design can be reduced with confidence. It provides a means of safeguard to minimize the need for programmed inspections and allow for maintenance to be need-driven, rather than usage-driven. The aim of this paper is to develop smart composite joint. The key technology is a multifunctional thermoplastic composite fastener (MTCF). The MTCF will replace some of the existing metallic fasteners in the most concerned locations distributed over the aircraft composite structures to reinforce the joints and form an on-board SHM network system. Each of the MTCFs will work as a unit of the AU and AE technology. The proposed MTCF technology has been patented and developed by Prof. Guo in Cranfield University, UK in the past a few years. The manufactured MTCF has been successfully employed in the composite SLJ (Single-Lap Joint). In terms of the structure integrity, the hybrid SLJ reinforced by MTCF achieves 19.1% improvement in the ultimate failure strength in comparison to the bonded SLJ. By increasing the diameter or rearranging the lay-up sequence of MTCF, the hybrid SLJ reinforced by MTCF is able to achieve the equivalent ultimate strength as that reinforced by titanium fastener. The predicted ultimate strength in simulation is in good agreement with the test results. In terms of the structural health monitoring, a signal from the MTCF was measured well before the load of mechanical failure. This signal provides a warning of initial crack in the joint which could not be detected by the strain gauge until the final failure.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, crack propagation, composite single-lap joint, multifunctional composite fastener

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6 Application of Transform Fourier for Dynamic Control of Structures with Global Positioning System

Authors: J. M. de Luis Ruiz, P. M. Sierra García, R. P. García, R. P. Álvarez, F. P. García, E. C. López


Given the evolution of viaducts, structural health monitoring requires more complex techniques to define their state. two alternatives can be distinguished: experimental and operational modal analysis. Although accelerometers or Global Positioning System (GPS) have been applied for the monitoring of structures under exploitation, the dynamic monitoring during the stage of construction is not common. This research analyzes whether GPS data can be applied to certain dynamic geometric controls of evolving structures. The fundamentals of this work were applied to the New Bridge of Cádiz (Spain), a worldwide milestone in bridge building. GPS data were recorded with an interval of 1 second during the erection of segments and turned to the frequency domain with Fourier transform. The vibration period and amplitude were contrasted with those provided by the finite element model, with differences of less than 10%, which is admissible. This process provides a vibration record of the structure with GPS, avoiding specific equipment.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Operational modal analysis, Fourier transform, global position system

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5 The Effect of Carbon Nanofibers on the Electrical Resistance of Cementitious Composites

Authors: Reza Pourjafar, Morteza Sohrabi-Gilani, Mostafa Jamshidi Avanaki, Malek Mohammad Ranjbar


Cementitious composites like concrete, are the most widely used materials in civil infrastructures. Numerous investigations on fiber’s effect on the properties of cement-based composites have been conducted in the last few decades. The use of fibers such as carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in these materials is an ongoing field and needs further researches and studies. Excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have motivated the development of advanced nanocomposites with outstanding and multifunctional properties. In this study, the electrical resistance of CNF reinforced cement mortar was examined. Three different dosages of CNF were used, and the resistances were compared to plain cement mortar. One of the biggest challenges in this study is dispersing CNF particles in the mortar mixture. Therefore, polycarboxylate superplasticizer and ultrasonication of the mixture have been selected for the purpose of dispersing CNFs in the cement matrix. The obtained results indicated that the electrical resistance of the CNF reinforced mortar samples decreases with increasing CNF content, which would be the first step towards examining strain and damage monitoring ability of cementitious composites containing CNF for structural health monitoring purposes.

Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Cement and concrete, carbon nanofiber, CNF reinforced mortar, smart mater, strain monitoring

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4 Description of a Structural Health Monitoring and Control System Using Open Building Information Modeling

Authors: Wahhaj Ahmed Farooqi, Bilal Ahmad, Sandra Maritza Zambrano Bernal


In view of structural engineering, monitoring of structural responses over time is of great importance with respect to recent developments of construction technologies. Recently, developments of advanced computing tools have enabled researcher’s better execution of structural health monitoring (SHM) and control systems. In the last decade, building information modeling (BIM) has substantially enhanced the workflow of planning and operating engineering structures. Typically, building information can be stored and exchanged via model files that are based on the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) standard. In this study a modeling approach for semantic modeling of SHM and control systems is integrated into the BIM methodology using the IFC standard. For validation of the modeling approach, a laboratory test structure, a four-story shear frame structure, is modeled using a conventional BIM software tool. An IFC schema extension is applied to describe information related to monitoring and control of a prototype SHM and control system installed on the laboratory test structure. The SHM and control system is described by a semantic model applying Unified Modeling Language (UML). Subsequently, the semantic model is mapped into the IFC schema. The test structure is composed of four aluminum slabs and plate-to-column connections are fully fixed. In the center of the top story, semi-active tuned liquid column damper (TLCD) is installed. The TLCD is used to reduce effects of structural responses in context of dynamic vibration and displacement. The wireless prototype SHM and control system is composed of wireless sensor nodes. For testing the SHM and control system, acceleration response is automatically recorded by the sensor nodes equipped with accelerometers and analyzed using embedded computing. As a result, SHM and control systems can be described within open BIM, dynamic responses and information of damages can be stored, documented, and exchanged on the formal basis of the IFC standard.

Keywords: Nondestructive Testing, Structural health monitoring, unified modeling language, industry foundation classes, open building information modeling, semi-active tuned liquid column damper

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3 Implementing Internet of Things through Building Information Modelling in Order to Assist with the Maintenance Stage of Commercial Buildings

Authors: Ushir Daya, Zenadene Lazarus, Dimelle Moodley, Ehsan Saghatforoush


It was found through literature that there is a lack of implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT) incorporated into Building Information Modelling (BIM) in South Africa. The research aims to find if the implementation of IoT into BIM will make BIM more useful during the maintenance stage of buildings and assist facility managers when doing their job. The research will look at the existing problematic areas with building information modelling, specifically BIM 7D. This paper will look at the capabilities of IoT and what issues IoT will be able to resolve in BIM software, as well as how IoT into BIM will assist facility managers and if such an implementation will make a facility manager's job more efficient.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Structural health monitoring, Building Information Modeling, Facilities Management

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2 A Visual Analytics Tool for the Structural Health Monitoring of an Aircraft Panel

Authors: F. M. Pisano, M. Ciminello


Aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering infrastructures can take advantages from damage detection and identification strategies in terms of maintenance cost reduction and operational life improvements, as well for safety scopes. The challenge is to detect so called “barely visible impact damage” (BVID), due to low/medium energy impacts, that can progressively compromise the structure integrity. The occurrence of any local change in material properties, that can degrade the structure performance, is to be monitored using so called Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems, in charge of comparing the structure states before and after damage occurs. SHM seeks for any "anomalous" response collected by means of sensor networks and then analyzed using appropriate algorithms. Independently of the specific analysis approach adopted for structural damage detection and localization, textual reports, tables and graphs describing possible outlier coordinates and damage severity are usually provided as artifacts to be elaborated for information extraction about the current health conditions of the structure under investigation. Visual Analytics can support the processing of monitored measurements offering data navigation and exploration tools leveraging the native human capabilities of understanding images faster than texts and tables. Herein, a SHM system enrichment by integration of a Visual Analytics component is investigated. Analytical dashboards have been created by combining worksheets, so that a useful Visual Analytics tool is provided to structural analysts for exploring the structure health conditions examined by a Principal Component Analysis based algorithm.

Keywords: visual analytics, Structural health monitoring, Optical Fibers, interactive dashboards

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1 Dimensionality Reduction in Modal Analysis for Structural Health Monitoring

Authors: Elia Favarelli, Enrico Testi, Andrea Giorgetti


Autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) of many structures and bridges became a topic of paramount importance for maintenance purposes and safety reasons. This paper proposes a set of machine learning (ML) tools to perform automatic feature selection and detection of anomalies in a bridge from vibrational data and compare different feature extraction schemes to increase the accuracy and reduce the amount of data collected. As a case study, the Z-24 bridge is considered because of the extensive database of accelerometric data in both standard and damaged conditions. The proposed framework starts from the first four fundamental frequencies extracted through operational modal analysis (OMA) and clustering, followed by density-based time-domain filtering (tracking). The fundamental frequencies extracted are then fed to a dimensionality reduction block implemented through two different approaches: feature selection (intelligent multiplexer) that tries to estimate the most reliable frequencies based on the evaluation of some statistical features (i.e., mean value, variance, kurtosis), and feature extraction (auto-associative neural network (ANN)) that combine the fundamental frequencies to extract new damage sensitive features in a low dimensional feature space. Finally, one class classifier (OCC) algorithms perform anomaly detection, trained with standard condition points, and tested with normal and anomaly ones. In particular, a new anomaly detector strategy is proposed, namely one class classifier neural network two (OCCNN2), which exploit the classification capability of standard classifiers in an anomaly detection problem, finding the standard class (the boundary of the features space in normal operating conditions) through a two-step approach: coarse and fine boundary estimation. The coarse estimation uses classics OCC techniques, while the fine estimation is performed through a feedforward neural network (NN) trained that exploits the boundaries estimated in the coarse step. The detection algorithms vare then compared with known methods based on principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and auto-associative neural network (ANN). In many cases, the proposed solution increases the performance with respect to the standard OCC algorithms in terms of F1 score and accuracy. In particular, by evaluating the correct features, the anomaly can be detected with accuracy and an F1 score greater than 96% with the proposed method.

Keywords: Neural Network, Structural health monitoring, Sensor Network, modal analysis, Anomaly Detection, vibration measurement, frequencies selection

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