Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Structural Equation Modeling Related Abstracts

25 Romanian Teachers' Perspectives of Different Leadership Styles

Authors: Ralpian Randolian


Eighty-five Romanian teachers and principals participated on this study to examine their perspectives of different leadership styles. Demographic variables such as the source of degree (Romania, Europe institutes, USA institutes, etc.), gender, region, level taught, years of experience, and specialty were identified. The researcher developed a questionnaire that consisted of 4 leadership styles. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to identify which of the variables best predict the leadership styles. Results indicated that the democracy style was the most preferred leadership style by Jordanian parents, while the authoritarian styles ranked second. The results also found statistically significant differences were found related to the study variables. This study ends by putting forward a number of suggestions and recommendation.

Keywords: Gender, Structural Equation Modeling, Leadership Styles, teachers’ perspectives

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24 Factors Influencing the Resistance of the Purchase of Organic Food and Market Education Process in Indonesia

Authors: Fety Nurlia Muzayanah, Arif Imam Suroso, Mukhamad Najib


The market share of organic food in Indonesia just reaches 0.5-2 percents from the entire of agricultural products. The aim of this research is to analyze the relation of gender, work, age and final education toward the buying interest of organic food, to identify the factors influencing the resistance of the purchase of organic food, and to identify the market education process. The analysis result of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) shows the factors causing the resistance of the purchase of organic food are the negative attitude toward organic food, the lack of affordable in range for organic food product and the lack of awareness toward organic food, while the subjective norms have no significant effect toward the buying interest. The market education process which can be done is the education about the use of the health of organic food, the organic certification and the economic value.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Consumer behavior, Organic Food, market education

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23 Measuring Student Teachers' Attitude and Intention toward Cell-Phone Use for Learning in Nigeria

Authors: Shittu Ahmed Tajudeen


This study examines student-teachers’ attitude and intention towards cell-phone use for learning. The study involves one hundred and ninety (190) trainee teachers in one of the Institutes of Education in Nigeria. The data of the study was collected through a questionnaire on a rating of seven point likert-type Scale. The data collected was used to test the hypothesized model of the study using Structural Equation Modeling approach. The finding of the study revealed that Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEU), Subjective Norm (SN) and Attitude significantly influence students’ intention towards adoption of cell-phone for learning. The study showed that perceived ease of use stands to be the strongest predictor of cell-phone use. The model of the study exhibits a good-fit with the data and provides an explanation on student- teachers’ attitude and intention towards cell-phone for learning.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Adoption, technology acceptance model, cell-phone

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22 A New Measurement for Assessing Constructivist Learning Features in Higher Education: Lifelong Learning in Applied Fields (LLAF) Tempus Project

Authors: Dorit Alt, Nirit Raichel


Although university teaching is claimed to have a special task to support students in adopting ways of thinking and producing new knowledge anchored in scientific inquiry practices, it is argued that students' habits of learning are still overwhelmingly skewed toward passive acquisition of knowledge from authority sources rather than from collaborative inquiry activities.This form of instruction is criticized for encouraging students to acquire inert knowledge that can be used in instructional settings at best, however cannot be transferred into real-life complex problem settings. In order to overcome this critical inadequacy between current educational goals and instructional methods, the LLAF consortium (including 16 members from 8 countries) is aimed at developing updated instructional practices that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. LLAF has created a practical guide for teachers containing updated pedagogical strategies and assessment tools, based on the constructivist approach for learning that put a premium on adaptability to the emerging requirements of present society. This presentation will be limited to teachers' education only and to the contribution of the project in providing a scale designed to measure the extent to which the constructivist activities are efficiently applied in the learning environment. A mix-method approach was implemented in two phases to construct the scale: The first phase included a qualitative content analysis involving both deductive and inductive category applications of students' observations. The results foregrounded eight categories: knowledge construction, authenticity, multiple perspectives, prior knowledge, in-depth learning, teacher- student interaction, social interaction and cooperative dialogue. The students' descriptions of their classes were formulated as 36 items. The second phase employed structural equation modeling (SEM). The scale was submitted to 597 undergraduate students. The goodness of fit of the data to the structural model yielded sufficient fit results. This research elaborates the body of literature by adding a category of in-depth learning which emerged from the content analysis. Moreover, the theoretical category of social activity has been extended to include two distinctive factors: cooperative dialogue and social interaction. Implications of these findings for the LLAF project are discussed.

Keywords: Higher Education, Structural Equation Modeling, Constructivist Learning, mix-methodology

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21 Investigating the Role of Organizational Politics in Human Resource Management: Effects on Performance Appraisal and Downsizing Decisions

Authors: Ibrahim Elshaer, Samar Kamel


Organizational politics (OP) has received a great deal of attention in the management literature due to its popularity, mystery, and potential advantages for those how can use it. It involves the use of power and social networks within an organization to promote interests and gain potential benefits. Its implication for human resource (HR) management decisions is heretofore one of its least studied aspects, and awaits further investigation. Therefore, it is our intention to investigate certain relations between organizational politics and the validity of HR decisions in addition to the expected dysfunctional consequences. The study is undertaken on two HR management practices- Performance appraisal (measured by the distributive justice scale) and downsizing- depending on data gathered from the hotel industry in Egypt; a developing Non-Western country, in which Political practices of HR management are common in public and private organizations. Data was obtained from a survey of 600 employees in the Egyptian hotel industry. A total of 500 responses were attained. 100 uncompleted questionnaires were excluded leaving 400 usable with response rate of around 80%. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the causal relationship between the research variables. The analysis of the current study data reveals that organizational politics is negatively linked to the perception of distributive justice of performance appraisal, additionally, the perception of distributive justice in performance appraisal is positively linked to the perception of validity in the downsizing decisions and finally the perception of OP is negatively linked to the perception of downsizing decisions validity. This study makes three important contributions. First although there have been several studies on OP, the majority of these studies have focused on examining its effect on employees’ attitudes in workplace. This empirical study helps in identifying the influence of OP on the effectiveness and success of HR decisions and accordingly the organizational system. Second, it draws attention to OP as an important phenomenon that influence HR management in hospitality industry, since empirical evidences concerning OP in the hospitality management literature are meager. Third, this study contributes to the existing downsizing literature by examining OP and low distributive justice as challenges of the effectiveness of the downsizing process. Finally, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no empirical study in the tourism and hospitality management literature has examined the effect of OP and distributive justice on the workplace using data gathered from the hotel industry in Egypt; a developing non-Western setting.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Hotel Industry, Performance Appraisal, organizational politics, downsizing

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20 An Introspective look into Hotel Employees Career Satisfaction

Authors: Anastasios Zopiatis, Antonis L. Theocharous


In the midst of a fierce war for talent, the hospitality industry is seeking new and innovative ways to enrich its image as an employer of choice and not a necessity. Historically, the industry’s professions are portrayed as ‘unattractive’ due to their repetitious nature, long and unsocial working schedules, below average remunerations, and the mental and physical demands of the job. Aligning with the industry, hospitality and tourism scholars embarked on a journey to investigate pertinent topics with the aim of enhancing our conceptual understanding of the elements that influence employees at the hospitality world of work. Topics such as job involvement, commitment, job and career satisfaction, and turnover intentions became the focal points in a multitude of relevant empirical and conceptual investigations. Nevertheless, gaps or inconsistencies in existing theories, as a result of both the volatile complexity of the relationships governing human behavior in the hospitality workplace, and the academic community’s unopposed acceptance of theoretical frameworks mainly propounded in the United States and United Kingdom years ago, necessitate our continuous vigilance. Thus, in an effort to enhance and enrich the discourse, we set out to investigate the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction traits and the individual’s career satisfaction, and subsequent intention to remain in the hospitality industry. Reflecting on existing literature, a quantitative survey was developed and administered, face-to-face, to 650 individuals working as full-time employees in 4- and 5- star hotel establishments in Cyprus, whereas a multivariate statistical analysis method, namely Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), was utilized to determine whether relationships existed between constructs as a means to either accept or reject the hypothesized theory. Findings, of interest to both industry stakeholders and academic scholars, suggest that the individual’s future intention to remain within the industry is primarily associated with extrinsic job traits. Our findings revealed that positive associations exist between extrinsic job traits, and both career satisfaction and future intention. In contrast, when investigating the relationship of intrinsic traits, a positive association was revealed only with career satisfaction. Apparently, the local industry’s environmental factors of seasonality, excessive turnover, overdependence on seasonal, and part-time migrant workers, prohibit industry stakeholders in effectively investing the time and resources in the development and professional growth of their employees. Consequently intrinsic job satisfaction factors such as advancement, growth, and achievement, take backstage to the more materialistic extrinsic factors. Findings from the subsequent mediation analysis support the notion that intrinsic traits can positively influence future intentions indirectly only through career satisfaction, whereas extrinsic traits can positively impact both career satisfaction and future intention both directly and indirectly.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, SEM, hotel employees, career satisfaction, Cyprus

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19 Assets and Health: Examining the Asset-Building Theoretical Framework and Psychological Distress

Authors: Einav Srulovici, Michal Grinstein-Weiss, George Knafl, Linda Beeber, Shawn Kneipp, Barbara Mark


Background: The asset-building theoretical framework (ABTF) is acknowledged as the most complete framework thus far for depicting the relationships between asset accumulation (the stock of a household’s saved resources available for future investment) and health outcomes. Although the ABTF takes into consideration the reciprocal relationship between asset accumulation and health, no ABTF based study has yet examined this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the ABTF and psychological distress, focusing on the reciprocal relationship between assets accumulation and psychological distress. Methods: The study employed longitudinal data from 6,295 families from the 2001 and 2007 Panel Study of Income Dynamics data sets. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the reciprocal relationship between asset accumulation and psychological distress. Results: In general, the data displayed a good fit to the model. The longitudinal SEM found that asset accumulation significantly increased with a decreased in psychological distress over time, while psychological distress significantly increased with an increase in asset accumulation over time, confirming the existence of the hypothesized reciprocal relationship. Conclusions: Individuals who are less psychological distressed might have more energy to engage in activities, such as furthering their education or obtaining better jobs that are in turn associated with greater asset accumulation, while those who have greater assets may invest those assets in riskier investments, resulting in increased psychological distress. The confirmation of this reciprocal relationship highlights the importance of conducting longitudinal studies and testing the reciprocal relationship between asset accumulation and other health outcomes.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Psychological distress, asset-building theoretical framework, reciprocal relationship

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18 Analysis of School Burnout and Academic Motivation through Structural Equation Modeling

Authors: Ismail Seçer


The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between school burnout and academic motivation in high school students. The working group of the study consists of 455 students from the high schools in Erzurum city center, selected with appropriate sampling method. School Burnout Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used in the study to collect data. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were used in the analysis of the data collected through the study. As a result of the study, it was determined that there are significant and negative relations between school burnout and academic motivation, and the school burnout has direct and indirect significant effects on the getting over himself, using knowledge and exploration dimension through the latent variable of academic motivation. Lastly, it was determined that school burnout is a significant predictor of academic motivation.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Motivation, University, school burnout

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17 E-Government Continuance Intention of Media Psychology: Some Insights from Psychographic Characteristics

Authors: Azlina Binti Abu Bakar, Fahmi Zaidi Bin Abdul Razak, Wan Salihin Wong Abdullah


Psychographic is a psychological study of values, attitudes, interests and it is used mostly in prediction, opinion research and social research. This study predicts the influence of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating condition on e-government acceptance among Malaysian citizens. The survey responses of 543 e-government users have been validated and analyzed by means of covariance-based Structural Equation Modeling. The findings indicate that e-government acceptance among Malaysian citizens are mainly influenced by performance expectancy (β = 0.66, t = 11.53, p < 0.01) and social influence (β = 0.20, t = 4.23, p < 0.01). Surprisingly, there is no significant effect of facilitating condition and effort expectancy on e-government continuance intention (β = 0.01, t = 0.27, p > 0.05; β = -0.01, t = -0.40, p > 0.05). This study offers government and vendors a frame of reference to analyze citizen’s situation before initiating new innovations. In case of Malaysian e-government technology, adoption strategies should be built around fostering level of citizens’ technological expectation and social influence on e-government usage.

Keywords: Media Psychology, Structural Equation Modeling, continuance intention, Malaysian citizen

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16 Surge in U. S. Citizens Expatriation: Testing Structual Equation Modeling to Explain the Underlying Policy Rational

Authors: Marco Sewald


Comparing present to past the numbers of Americans expatriating U. S. citizenship have risen. Even though these numbers are small compared to the immigrants, U. S. citizens expatriations have historically been much lower, making the uptick worrisome. In addition, the published lists and numbers from the U.S. government seems incomplete, with many not counted. Different branches of the U. S. government report different numbers and no one seems to know exactly how big the real number is, even though the IRS and the FBI both track and/or publish numbers of Americans who renounce. Since there is no single explanation, anecdotal evidence suggests this uptick is caused by global tax law and increased compliance burdens imposed by the U.S. lawmakers on U.S. citizens abroad. Within a research project the question arose about the reasons why a constant growing number of U.S. citizens are expatriating – the answers are believed helping to explain the underlying governmental policy rational, leading to such activities. While it is impossible to locate former U.S. citizens to conduct a survey on the reasons and the U.S. government is not commenting on the reasons given within the process of expatriation, the chosen methodology is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), in the first step by re-using current surveys conducted by different researchers within the population of U. S. citizens residing abroad during the last years. Surveys questioning the personal situation in the context of tax, compliance, citizenship and likelihood to repatriate to the U. S. In general SEM allows: (1) Representing, estimating and validating a theoretical model with linear (unidirectional or not) relationships. (2) Modeling causal relationships between multiple predictors (exogenous) and multiple dependent variables (endogenous). (3) Including unobservable latent variables. (4) Modeling measurement error: the degree to which observable variables describe latent variables. Moreover SEM seems very appealing since the results can be represented either by matrix equations or graphically. Results: the observed variables (items) of the construct are caused by various latent variables. The given surveys delivered a high correlation and it is therefore impossible to identify the distinct effect of each indicator on the latent variable – which was one desired result. Since every SEM comprises two parts: (1) measurement model (outer model) and (2) structural model (inner model), it seems necessary to extend the given data by conducting additional research and surveys to validate the outer model to gain the desired results.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, SEM, validating, expatriation of U. S. citizens

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15 Satisfaction Evaluation on the Fundamental Public Services for a Large-Scale Indemnificatory Residential Community: A Case Study of Nanjing

Authors: Dezhi Li, Peng Cui, Bo Zhang, Tengyuan Chang


In order to solve the housing problem for the low-income families, the construction of affordable housing is booming in China. However, due to various reasons, the service facilities and systems in the indemnificatory residential community meet many problems. This article established a Satisfaction Evaluation System of the Fundamental Public Services for Large-scale Indemnificatory Residential Community based on the national standards and local criteria and developed evaluation methods and processes. At last, in the case of Huagang project in Nanjing, the satisfaction of basic public service is calculated according to a survey of local residents.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Public services, indemnificatory residential community, satisfaction evaluation

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14 A Causal Model for Environmental Design of Residential Community for Elderly Well-Being in Thailand

Authors: Porntip Ruengtam


This article is an extension of previous research presenting the relevant factors related to environmental perceptions, residential community, and the design of a healing environment, which have effects on the well-being and requirements of Thai elderly. Research methodology began with observations and interviews in three case studies in terms of the management processes and environment design of similar existing projects in Thailand. The interview results were taken to summarize with related theories and literature. A questionnaire survey was designed for data collection to confirm the factors of requirements in a residential community intended for the Thai elderly. A structural equation model (SEM) was formulated to explain the cause-effect factors for the requirements of a residential community for Thai elderly. The research revealed that the requirements of a residential community for Thai elderly were classified into three groups when utilizing a technique for exploratory factor analysis. The factors were comprised of (1) requirements for general facilities and activities, (2) requirements for facilities related to health and security, and (3) requirements for facilities related to physical exercise in the residential community. The results from the SEM showed the background of elderly people had a direct effect on their requirements for a residential community from various aspects. The results should lead to the formulation of policies for design and management of residential communities for the elderly in order to enhance quality of life as well as both the physical and mental health of the Thai elderly.

Keywords: Environmental Design, Structural Equation Modeling, Elderly, residential community

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13 Structural Equation Modeling Exploration for the Multiple College Admission Criteria in Taiwan

Authors: Tzu-Ling Hsieh


When the Taiwan Ministry of Education implemented a new university multiple entrance policy in 2002, most colleges and universities still use testing scores as mainly admission criteria. With forthcoming 12 basic-year education curriculum, the Ministry of Education provides a new college admission policy, which will be implemented in 2021. The new college admission policy will highlight the importance of holistic education by more emphases on the learning process of senior high school, except only on the outcome of academic testing. However, the development of college admission criteria doesn’t have a thoughtful process. Universities and colleges don’t have an idea about how to make suitable multi-admission criteria. Although there are lots of studies in other countries which have implemented multi-college admission criteria for years, these studies still cannot represent Taiwanese students. Also, these studies are limited without the comparison of two different academic fields. Therefore, this study investigated multiple admission criteria and its relationship with college success. This study analyzed the Taiwan Higher Education Database with 12,747 samples from 156 universities and tested a conceptual framework that examines factors by structural equation model (SEM). The conceptual framework of this study was adapted from Pascarella's general causal model and focused on how different admission criteria predict students’ college success. It discussed the relationship between admission criteria and college success, also the relationship how motivation (one of admission standard) influence college success through engagement behaviors of student effort and interactions with agents of socialization. After processing missing value, reliability and validity analysis, the study found three indicators can significantly predict students’ college success which was defined as average grade of last semester. These three indicators are the Chinese language scores at college entrance exam, high school class rank, and quality of student academic engagement. In addition, motivation can significantly predict quality of student academic engagement and interactions with agents of socialization. However, the multi-group SEM analysis showed that there is no difference to predict college success between the students from liberal arts and science. Finally, this study provided some suggestions for universities and colleges to develop multi-admission criteria through the empirical research of Taiwanese higher education students.

Keywords: Higher Education, Structural Equation Modeling, Education Policy, college admission, admission criteria

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12 Testing a Dose-Response Model of Intergenerational Transmission of Family Violence

Authors: Katherine Maurer


Background and purpose: Violence that occurs within families is a global social problem. Children who are victims or witness to family violence are at risk for many negative effects both proximally and distally. One of the most disconcerting long-term effects occurs when child victims become adult perpetrators: the intergenerational transmission of family violence (ITFV). Early identification of those children most at risk for ITFV is needed to inform interventions to prevent future family violence perpetration and victimization. Only about 25-30% of child family violence victims become perpetrators of adult family violence (either child abuse, partner abuse, or both). Prior research has primarily been conducted using dichotomous measures of exposure (yes; no) to predict ITFV, given the low incidence rate in community samples. It is often assumed that exposure to greater amounts of violence predicts greater risk of ITFV. However, no previous longitudinal study with a community sample has tested a dose-response model of exposure to physical child abuse and parental physical intimate partner violence (IPV) using count data of frequency and severity of violence to predict adult ITFV. The current study used advanced statistical methods to test if increased childhood exposure would predict greater risk of ITFV. Methods: The study utilized 3 panels of prospective data from a cohort of 15 year olds (N=338) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods longitudinal study. The data were comprised of a stratified probability sample of seven ethnic/racial categories and three socio-economic status levels. Structural equation modeling was employed to test a hurdle regression model of dose-response to predict ITFV. A version of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to measure physical violence victimization, witnessing parental IPV and young adult IPV perpetration and victimization. Results: Consistent with previous findings, past 12 months incidence rates severity and frequency of interpersonal violence were highly skewed. While rates of parental and young adult IPV were about 40%, an unusually high rate of physical child abuse (57%) was reported. The vast majority of a number of acts of violence, whether minor or severe, were in the 1-3 range in the past 12 months. Reported frequencies of more than 5 times in the past year were rare, with less than 10% of those reporting more than six acts of minor or severe physical violence. As expected, minor acts of violence were much more common than acts of severe violence. Overall, regression analyses were not significant for the dose-response model of ITFV. Conclusions and implications: The results of the dose-response model were not significant due to a lack of power in the final sample (N=338). Nonetheless, the value of the approach was confirmed for the future research given the bi-modal nature of the distributions which suggest that in the context of both child physical abuse and physical IPV, there are at least two classes when frequency of acts is considered. Taking frequency into account in predictive models may help to better understand the relationship of exposure to ITFV outcomes. Further testing using hurdle regression models is suggested.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Intimate Partner Violence, intergenerational transmission of family violence, physical child abuse

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11 Empowering Leadership and Constructive Voice: A Sequential Mediation Analysis

Authors: Umamaheswara Rao Jada, Susmita Mukhopadhyay


In the present highly complex, dynamic and interdependent organizational environment, employees' ideas, opinions and suggestions which is technically referred to as ‘constructive employee voice’ is increasingly being recognized and valued. Literature has consistently demonstrated the relevance of leadership in employee voicing behavior, however the new form of leadership, ‘empowering leadership’ has not been given much attention. The study, therefore, devotes itself to the effort to explore the impact of this new form of leadership on employee voice behavior and the interplay with leader member exchange (LMX) and psychological safety as mediators in the same. The study utilizes structural equation modeling for analyzing the data collected from 310 Indian service industry employees through the questionnaire developed for the study. The findings of the study demonstrate the significant impact of empowering form of leadership on employees’ constructive voice behavior. Additionally, supporting results were observed for the mediating impact of leader member exchange (LMX) and psychological safety between empowering leadership and employees’ constructive voice behavior. The results of this study provide insights into the intervening mechanisms by linking leaders’ empowering behavior with employees’ constructive voice, while also highlighting the potential importance of LMX relationship in organizations and psychological safety in the context of constructive voice behavior. The study brings forth the relevance of the new form of leadership, ‘empowering leadership’ for fostering the better exchange of ideas, opinions, and suggestions between leaders and followers which tend to benefit the organization, providing empirical evidence of the sequential mediation of LMX and psychological safety. The piece of work is assumed to benefit the leaders in organizations by providing them the basis for adopting empowering form of leadership in light of results displayed.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, empowering leadership, psychological safety, constructive voice, leader member exchange (LMX), sequential mediation

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10 Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Residents for Urban Spatial Restructuring

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park, Taehyun Kim


Since the rapid economic development, Korea has recently entered a period of low growth due to population decline and aging. Due to the urbanization around the metropolitan area and the hollowing of local cities, the ecological capacity of a city is decreasing while ecological footprints are increasing, requiring a compact space plan for maintaining urban functions. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between urban spatial structure and residents' ecological footprints for sustainable spatial planning. To do this, we try to analyze the relationship between intra-urban spatial structure, such as net/gross density and service accessibility, and resident ecological footprints of food, housing, transportation, goods and services through survey and structural equation modeling. The results of the study will be useful in establishing an implementation plan for sustainable development goals (SDGs), especially for sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) and responsible consumption and production (SDG 12) in the future.

Keywords: Sustainability, Structural Equation Modeling, Ecological Footprint, Survey, Urban Spatial Structure

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9 Measuring Entrepreneurship Intentions among Nigerian University Graduates: A Structural Equation Modeling Technique

Authors: Eunice Oluwakemi Chukwuma-Nwuba


Nigeria is a developing country with an increasing rate of graduate unemployment. This has triggered successive government administrations to promote the variety of programmes to address the situation. However, none of these efforts yielded the desired outcome. Accordingly, in 2006 the government included entrepreneurship module in the curriculum of universities as a compulsory general programme for all undergraduate courses. This is in the hope that the programme will help to promote entrepreneurial mind-set and new venture creation among graduates and as a result reduce the rate of graduate unemployment. The study explores the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in promoting entrepreneurship. This study is significant in view of the endemic graduate unemployment in Nigeria and the social consequences such as youth restiveness and militancy. It is guided by the theory of planned behaviour. It employed the two-stage structural equation modelling (AMOS) to model entrepreneurial intentions as a function of innovative teaching methods, traditional teaching methods and culture Personal attitude and subjective norm are proposed to mediate the relationships between the exogenous and the endogenous variables. The first stage was tested using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) framework to confirm that the two groups assign the same meaning to the scale items and to obtain goodness-of-fit indices. The multi-group confirmatory factor analysis included the tests of configural, metric and scalar invariance. With the attainment of full configural invariance and partial metric and scalar invariance, the second stage – the structural model was applied hypothesising that, the entrepreneurial intentions of graduates (respondents who have participated in the compulsory entrepreneurship programme) will be higher than those of undergraduates (respondents who are yet to participate in the programme). The study uses the quasi-experimental design. The samples comprised 409 graduates (experimental group) and 402 undergraduates (control group) from six federal universities in Nigeria. Our findings suggest that personal attitude is positively related with entrepreneurial intentions, largely confirming prior literature. However, unlike previous studies, our results indicate that subjective norm has significant direct and indirect impact on entrepreneurial intentions indicating that reference people of the participants have important roles to play in their decision to be entrepreneurial. Furthermore, unlike the assertions in prior studies, the result suggests that traditional teaching methods have indirect effect on entrepreneurial intentions supporting that since personal characteristics can change in an educational situation, an education purposively directed at entrepreneurship might achieve similar results if not better. This study has implication for practice and theory. The research extends to the theoretical understanding of the formation of entrepreneurial intentions and explains the role of the reference others in relation to how graduates perceive entrepreneurship. Further, the study adds to the body of knowledge on entrepreneurship education in Nigeria universities and provides a developing country perspective. It proposes further research in the exploration of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions of graduates from across the country’s universities as necessary and imperative.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Entrepreneurship Education, entrepreneurial intention, theory of planned behaviour

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8 The Impact of Supply Chain Strategy and Integration on Supply Chain Performance: Supply Chain Vulnerability as a Moderator

Authors: Yi-Chun Kuo, Jo-Chieh Lin


The objective of a supply chain strategy is to reduce waste and increase efficiency to attain cost benefits, and to guarantee supply chain flexibility when facing the ever-changing market environment in order to meet customer requirements. Strategy implementation aims to fulfill common goals and attain benefits by integrating upstream and downstream enterprises, sharing information, conducting common planning, and taking part in decision making, so as to enhance the overall performance of the supply chain. With the rise of outsourcing and globalization, the increasing dependence on suppliers and customers and the rapid development of information technology, the complexity and uncertainty of the supply chain have intensified, and supply chain vulnerability has surged, resulting in adverse effects on supply chain performance. Thus, this study aims to use supply chain vulnerability as a moderating variable and apply structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine the relationships among supply chain strategy, supply chain integration, and supply chain performance, as well as the moderating effect of supply chain vulnerability on supply chain performance. The data investigation of this study was questionnaires which were collected from the management level of enterprises in Taiwan and China, 149 questionnaires were received. The result of confirmatory factor analysis shows that the path coefficients of supply chain strategy on supply chain integration and supply chain performance are positive (0.497, t= 4.914; 0.748, t= 5.919), having a significantly positive effect. Supply chain integration is also significantly positively correlated to supply chain performance (0.192, t = 2.273). The moderating effects of supply chain vulnerability on supply chain strategy and supply chain integration to supply chain performance are significant (7.407; 4.687). In Taiwan, 97.73% of enterprises are small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) focusing on receiving original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and original design manufacturer (ODM) orders. In order to meet the needs of customers and to respond to market changes, these enterprises especially focus on supply chain flexibility and their integration with the upstream and downstream enterprises. According to the observation of this research, the effect of supply chain vulnerability on supply chain performance is significant, and so enterprises need to attach great importance to the management of supply chain risk and conduct risk analysis on their suppliers in order to formulate response strategies when facing emergency situations. At the same time, risk management is incorporated into the supply chain so as to reduce the effect of supply chain vulnerability on the overall supply chain performance.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Supply Chain Integration, Supply Chain Performance, supply chain vulnerability

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7 Perception of Safety of Workers with Different Job Levels at Construction Sites

Authors: Muhammad Dawood Idrees, Arsalan Ansari


Construction industry is considered as one of the most dangerous industry because workers' safety is always a major concern due to extensive number of accidents, injuries, and casualties at worksites. There are various causes of accidents at construction sites, several factors are influencing on the perception of safety of workers and psychological factors are one of them. Perception of safety varies from region to region and it also varies by demographics of workers, such as gender, age, education, job level, etc. However, research on different level of workers, such as labor and managerial staff to evaluate the impact of psychological factor is limited. Objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of psychological factors with different job level of workers. An extensive literature review was conducted to find the casual relationship between psychological factors and perception of safety, and a hypothetical structure model was developed based upon literature review. A survey instrument based upon psychological factors was developed and data was obtained from several construction sites. Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) technique was adopted in order to examine the effect of psychological factors on the perception of safety of workers with different job levels of workers. The results of this analysis reveal that job security and organizational relationships are most affecting factors in labor staff, therefore job satisfaction, mental stress, and workload are dominant in managerial staff.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, accidents, job level of workers, perception of safety

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6 Analysis of Structural Modeling on Digital English Learning Strategy Use

Authors: Gyoomi Kim, Jiyoung Bae


The purpose of this study was to propose a framework that verifies the structural relationships among students’ use of digital English learning strategy (DELS), affective domains, and their individual variables. The study developed a hypothetical model based on previous studies on language learning strategy use as well as digital language learning. The participants were 720 Korean high school students and 430 university students. The instrument was a self-response questionnaire that contained 70 question items based on Oxford’s SILL (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning) as well as the previous studies on language learning strategies in digital learning environment in order to measure DELS and affective domains. The collected data were analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM). This study used quantitative data analysis procedures: Explanatory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Firstly, the EFA was conducted in order to verify the hypothetical model; the factor analysis was conducted preferentially to identify the underlying relationships between measured variables of DELS and the affective domain in the EFA process. The hypothetical model was established with six indicators of learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective, and social strategies) under the latent variable of the use of DELS. In addition, the model included four indicators (self-confidence, interests, self-regulation, and attitude toward digital learning) under the latent variable of learners’ affective domain. Secondly, the CFA was used to determine the suitability of data and research models, so all data from the present study was used to assess model fits. Lastly, the model also included individual learner factors as covariates and five constructs selected were learners’ gender, the level of English proficiency, the duration of English learning, the period of using digital devices, and previous experience of digital English learning. The results verified from SEM analysis proposed a theoretical model that showed the structural relationships between Korean students’ use of DELS and their affective domains. Therefore, the results of this study help ESL/EFL teachers understand how learners use and develop appropriate learning strategies in digital learning contexts. The pedagogical implication and suggestions for the further study will be also presented.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, SEM, Digital English Learning Strategy, DELS, individual variables, learners' affective domains

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5 Determinants of Mobile Payment Adoption among Retailers in Ghana

Authors: Ibrahim Masud, Yusheng Kong, Adam Diyawu Rahman


Mobile payment variously referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer, and mobile wallet refers to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device. Mobile payment systems have come to augment and to some extent try to replace the conventional payment methods like cash, cheque, or credit cards. This study examines mobile payment adoption factors among retailers in Ghana. A conceptual framework was adopted from the extant literature using the Technology Acceptance Model and the Theory of Reasoned action as the theoretical bases. Data for the study was obtained from a sample of 240 respondents through a structured questionnaire. The PLS-SEM was used to analyze the data through SPSS v.22 and SmartPLS v.3. The findings indicate that factors such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived security, competitive pressure and facilitating conditions are the main determinants of mobile payment adoption among retailers in Ghana. The study contributes to the literature on mobile payment adoption from developing country context.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Mobile Payment, technology acceptance model, retailers

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4 A Hybrid Model of Structural Equation Modelling-Artificial Neural Networks: Prediction of Influential Factors on Eating Behaviors

Authors: Maryam Kheirollahpour, Mahmoud Danaee, Amir Faisal Merican, Asma Ahmad Shariff


Background: The presence of nonlinearity among the risk factors of eating behavior causes a bias in the prediction models. The accuracy of estimation of eating behaviors risk factors in the primary prevention of obesity has been established. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a hybrid model of structural equation modeling (SEM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict eating behaviors. Methods: The Partial Least Square-SEM (PLS-SEM) and a hybrid model (SEM-Artificial Neural Networks (SEM-ANN)) were applied to evaluate the factors affecting eating behavior patterns among university students. 340 university students participated in this study. The PLS-SEM analysis was used to check the effect of emotional eating scale (EES), body shape concern (BSC), and body appreciation scale (BAS) on different categories of eating behavior patterns (EBP). Then, the hybrid model was conducted using multilayer perceptron (MLP) with feedforward network topology. Moreover, Levenberg-Marquardt, which is a supervised learning model, was applied as a learning method for MLP training. The Tangent/sigmoid function was used for the input layer while the linear function applied for the output layer. The coefficient of determination (R²) and mean square error (MSE) was calculated. Results: It was proved that the hybrid model was superior to PLS-SEM methods. Using hybrid model, the optimal network happened at MPLP 3-17-8, while the R² of the model was increased by 27%, while, the MSE was decreased by 9.6%. Moreover, it was found that which one of these factors have significantly affected on healthy and unhealthy eating behavior patterns. The p-value was reported to be less than 0.01 for most of the paths. Conclusion/Importance: Thus, a hybrid approach could be suggested as a significant methodological contribution from a statistical standpoint, and it can be implemented as software to be able to predict models with the highest accuracy.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Structural Equation Modeling, Hybrid Model, eating behavior patterns

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3 Global Developmental Delay and Its Association with Risk Factors: Validation by Structural Equation Modelling

Authors: Bavneet Kaur Sidhu, Manoj Tiwari


Global Developmental Delay (GDD) is a common pediatric condition. Etiologies of GDD might, however, differ in developing countries. In the last decade, sporadic families are being reported in various countries. As to the author’s best knowledge, many risk factors and their correlation with the prevalence of GDD have been studied but its statistical correlation has not been done. Thus we propose the present study by targeting the risk factor, prevalence and their statistical correlation with GDD. FMR1 gene was studied to confirm the disease and its penetrance. A complete questionnaire-based performance was designed for the statistical studies having a personal, past and present medical history along with their socio-economic status as well. Methods: We distributed the children’s age in 4 different age groups having 5-year intervals and applied structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, Karl Pearson correlation coefficient, and chi-square test.Result: A total of 1100 families were enrolled for this study; among them, 330 were clinically and biologically confirmed (radiological studies) for the disease, 204 were males (61.8%), 126 were females (38.18%). We found that 27.87% were genetic and 72.12 were sporadic, out of 72.12 %, 43.277% cases from urban and 56.72% from the rural locality, the mothers' literacy rate was 32.12% and working women numbers were 41.21%. Conclusions: There is a significant association between mothers' age and GDD prevalence, which is also followed by mothers' literacy rate and mothers' occupation, whereas there was no association between fathers' age and GDD.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, global developmental delay, FMR1 gene, spearman’ rank correlation coefficient

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2 Searching for an Effective Marketing in the Food Supplement Industry in Japan

Authors: Michiko Miyamoto


The market for "functional foods" and "foods with functional claims" that are effective in maintaining and improving health, has expanded year by year due to the entry of major food and beverage manufacturers following the introduction of the specified health food system in 1991 in Japan. To bring health claims related products or services to the market, it is necessary to let consumers to learn about these products or services; an effective marketing through advertising are important. This research proposes a framework for an effective advertisement medium for the food supplement industry by using survey data of 2,500 people.

Keywords: Functional foods, Marketing Strategy, Structural Equation Modeling, dietary supplements

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1 Using Structural Equation Modeling to Measure the Impact of Young Adult-Dog Personality Characteristics on Dog Walking Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Renata Roma, Christine Tardif-Williams


Engaging in daily walks with a dog (f.e. Canis lupus familiaris) during the COVID-19 pandemic may be linked to feelings of greater social-connectedness and global self-worth, and lower stress after controlling for mental health issues, lack of physical contact with others, and other stressors associated with the current pandemic. Therefore, maintaining a routine of dog walking might mitigate the effects of stressors experienced during the pandemic and promote well-being. However, many dog owners do not walk their dogs for many reasons, which are related to the owner’s and the dog’s personalities. Note that the consistency of certain personality characteristics among dogs demonstrates that it is possible to accurately measure different dimensions of personality in both dogs and their human counterparts. In addition, behavioural ratings (e.g., the dog personality questionnaire - DPQ) are reliable tools to assess the dog’s personality. Clarifying the relevance of personality factors in the context of young adult-dog relationships can shed light on interactional aspects that can potentially foster protective behaviours and promote well-being among young adults during the pandemic. This study examines if and how nine combinations of dog- and young adult-related personality characteristics (e.g., neuroticism-fearfulness) can amplify the influence of personality factors in the context of dog walking during the COVID-19 pandemic. Responses to an online large-scale survey among 440 (389 females; 47 males; 4 nonbinaries, Mage=20.7, SD= 2.13 range=17-25) young adults living with a dog in Canada were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). As extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism, measured through the five-factor model (FFM) inventory, are related to maintaining a routine of physical activities, these dimensions were selected for this analysis. Following an approach successfully adopted in the field of dog-human interactions, the FFM was used as the organizing framework to measure and compare the human’s and the dog’s personality in the context of dog walking. The dog-related personality dimensions activity/excitability, responsiveness to training, and fearful were correlated dimensions captured through DPQ and were added to the analysis. Two questions were used to assess dog walking. The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to check if the young adult’s responses about the dog were biased; no significant bias was observed. Activity/excitability and responsiveness to training in dogs were greatly associated with dog walking. For young adults, high scores in conscientiousness and extraversion predicted more walks with the dog. Conversely, higher scores in neuroticism predicted less engagement in dog walking. For participants high in conscientiousness, the dog’s responsiveness to training (standardized=0.14, p=0.02) and the dog’s activity/excitability (standardized=0.15, p=0.00) levels moderated dog walking behaviours by promoting more daily walks. These results suggest that some combinations in young adult and dog personality characteristics are associated with greater synergy in the young adult-dog dyad that might amplify the impact of personality factors on young adults’ dog-walking routines. These results can inform programs designed to promote the mental and physical health of young adults during the Covid-19 pandemic by highlighting the impact of synergy and reciprocity in personality characteristics between young adults and dogs.

Keywords: Structural Equation Modeling, Well-being, Personality, COVID-19 pandemic, dog walking

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