Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

strontium Related Abstracts

4 Effect of Strontium on Surface Roughness and Chip Morphology When Turning Al-Si Cast Alloy Using Carbide Tool Insert

Authors: Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Mohsen Marani Barzani, Saeed Farahany, Ramesh Singh

Abstract:

Surface roughness and chip morphology are important output in manufacturing product. In this paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various cutting speeds and feed rates on surface roughness and chip morphology in turning the Al-Si cast alloy and Sr-containing. Experimental trials carried out using coated carbide inserts. Experiments accomplished under oblique dry cutting when various cutting speeds 70, 130 and 250 m/min and feed rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mm/rev were used, whereas depth of cut kept constant at 0.05 mm. The results showed that Sr-containing Al-Si alloy have poor surface roughness in comparison to Al-Si alloy (base alloy). The surface roughness values reduce with cutting speed increment from 70 to 250 m/min. the size of chip changed with changing silicon shape in Al matrix. Also, the surface finish deteriorated with increase in feed rate from 0.5 mm/rev to 0.15 mm/rev.

Keywords: Morphology, Turning, surface roughness, strontium, chip

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3 Effect of Organics on Radionuclide Partitioning in Nuclear Fuel Storage Ponds

Authors: Hollie Ashworth, Sarah Heath, Nick Bryan, Liam Abrahamsen, Simon Kellet

Abstract:

Sellafield has a number of fuel storage ponds, some of which have been open to the air for a number of decades. This has caused corrosion of the fuel resulting in a release of some activity into solution, reduced water clarity, and accumulation of sludge at the bottom of the pond consisting of brucite (Mg(OH)2) and other uranium corrosion products. Both of these phases are also present as colloidal material. 90Sr and 137Cs are known to constitute a small volume of the radionuclides present in the pond, but a large fraction of the activity, thus they are most at risk of challenging effluent discharge limits. Organic molecules are known to be present also, due to the ponds being open to the air, with occasional algal blooms restricting visibility further. The contents of the pond need to be retrieved and safely stored, but dealing with such a complex, undefined inventory poses a unique challenge. This work aims to determine and understand the sorption-desorption interactions of 90Sr and 137Cs to brucite and uranium phases, with and without the presence of organic molecules from chemical degradation and bio-organisms. The influence of organics on these interactions has not been widely studied. Partitioning of these radionuclides and organic molecules has been determined through LSC, ICP-AES/MS, and UV-vis spectrophotometry coupled with ultrafiltration in both binary and ternary systems. Further detailed analysis into the surface and bonding environment of these components is being investigated through XAS techniques and PHREEQC modelling. Experiments were conducted in CO2-free or N2 atmosphere across a high pH range in order to best simulate conditions in the pond. Humic acid used in brucite systems demonstrated strong competition against 90Sr for the brucite surface regardless of the order of addition of components. Variance of pH did have a small effect, however this range (10.5-11.5) is close to the pHpzc of brucite, causing the surface to buffer the solution pH towards that value over the course of the experiment. Sorption of 90Sr to UO2 obeyed Ho’s rate equation and demonstrated a slow second-order reaction with respect to the sharing of valence electrons from the strontium atom, with the initial rate clearly dependent on pH, with the equilibrium concentration calculated at close to 100% sorption. There was no influence of humic acid seen when introduced to these systems. Sorption of 137Cs to UO3 was significant, with more than 95% sorbed in just over 24 hours. Again, humic acid showed no influence when introduced into this system. Both brucite and uranium based systems will be studied with the incorporation of cyanobacterial cultures harvested at different stages of growth. Investigation of these systems provides insight into, and understanding of, the effect of organics on radionuclide partitioning to brucite and uranium phases at high pH. The majority of sorption-desorption work for radionuclides has been conducted at neutral to acidic pH values, and mostly without organics. These studies are particularly important for the characterisation of legacy wastes at Sellafield, with a view to their safe retrieval and storage.

Keywords: Organics, Uranium, strontium, caesium, legacy wastes, sorption-desorption

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2 Study of Strontium Sorption onto Indian Bentonite

Authors: Pankaj Pathak, Susmita Sharma

Abstract:

Incessant industrial growth fulfill the energy demand of present day society, at the same time it produces huge amount of waste which could be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature. These wastes are coming out from different sources viz, nuclear power, thermal power, coal mines which contain different types of contaminants and one of the emergent contaminant is strontium, used in the present study. The isotope of strontium (Sr90) is radioactive in nature with half-life of 28.8 years and permissible limit of strontium in drinking water is 1.5 ppm. Above the permissible limit causes several types of diseases in human being. Therefore, safe disposal of strontium into ground becomes a biggest challenge for the researchers. In this context, bentonite is being used as an efficient material to retain strontium onto ground due to its specific physical, chemical and mineralogical properties which exhibits higher cation exchange capacity and specific surface area. These properties influence the interaction between strontium and bentonite, which is quantified by employing a parameter known as distribution coefficient. Batch test was conducted, and sorption isotherms were modelled at different interaction time. The pseudo first-order and pseudo second order kinetic models have been used to fit experimental data, which helps to determine the sorption rate and mechanism.

Keywords: Sorption, bentonite, strontium, interaction time

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1 Synthesis and in vitro Characterization of a Gel-Derived SiO2-CaO-P2O5-SrO-Li2O Bioactive Glass

Authors: Moghan Amirhosseinian, Morteza Elsa, Mehrnaz Aminitabar

Abstract:

Bioactive glasses (BGs) are a group of surface-reactive biomaterials used in clinical applications as implants or filler materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. Sol-gel technique was employed to prepare a SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass with nominal composition of 58S BG with the addition of Sr and Li modifiers which imparts special properties to the BG. The effect of simultaneous addition of Sr and Li on bioactivity and biocompatibility, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 and antibacterial property against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria were examined. BGs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy before and after soaking the samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time intervals to characterize the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on the surface of BGs. Structural characterization indicated that the simultaneous presence of 5% Sr and 5% Li in 58S-BG composition not only did not retard HA formation because of opposite effect of Sr and Li of the dissolution of BG in the SBF but also, stimulated the differentiation and proliferation of MC3T3-E1s. Moreover, the presence of Sr and Li on dissolution of the ions resulted in an increase in the mean number of DAPI-labeled nuclei which was in good agreement with live/dead assay. The result of antibacterial tests revealed that Sr and Li-substituted 58S BG exhibited a potential antibacterial effect against MRSA bacteria. Because of optimal proliferation and ALP activity of MC3T3-E1cells, proper bioactivity and high antibacterial potential against MRSA, BG-5/5 is suggested as a multifunctional candidate for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: Bioactive Glass, antibacterial activity, sol-gel, strontium

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