Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Stresses Related Abstracts

4 Structural Behaviour of Concrete Energy Piles in Thermal Loadings

Authors: E. H. N. Gashti, M. Malaska, K. Kujala


The thermo-mechanical behaviour of concrete energy pile foundations with different single and double U-tube shapes incorporated was analysed using the Comsol Multi-physics package. For the analysis, a 3D numerical model in real scale of the concrete pile and surrounding soil was simulated regarding actual operation of ground heat exchangers (GHE) and the surrounding ambient temperature. Based on initial ground temperature profile measured in situ, tube inlet temperature was considered to range from 6°C to 0°C (during the contraction process) over a 30-day period. Extra thermal stresses and deformations were calculated during the simulations and differences arising from the use of two different systems (single-tube and double-tube) were analysed. The results revealed no significant difference for extra thermal stresses at the centre of the pile in either system. However, displacements over the pile length were found to be up to 1.5-fold higher in the double-tube system than the single-tube system.

Keywords: Stresses, concrete energy piles, displacements, thermo-mechanical behaviour, soil-structure interactions

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3 Using High Performance Concrete in Finite Element Modeling of Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Structures

Authors: A. Aboubakr, E. Fehling, S. A. Mourad, M. Omar


Wind energy is one of the most effective renewable sources especially offshore wind energy although offshore wind technology is more costly to produce. It is well known that offshore wind energy can potentially be very cheap once infrastructure and researches improve. Laterally, the trend is to construct offshore wind energy to generate the electricity form wind. This leads to intensive research in order to improve the infrastructures. Offshore wind energy is the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind. The most important part in offshore wind turbine structure is the foundation and its connection with the wind tower. This is the main difference between onshore and offshore structures. Grouted connection between the foundation and the wind tower is the most important part of the building process when constructing wind offshore turbines. Most attention should be paid to the actual grout connection as this transfers the loads safely from tower to foundations and the soil also. In this paper, finite element analyses have been carried out for studying the behaviour of offshore grouted connection for wind turbine structures. ATENA program have been used for non-linear analysis simulation of the real structural behavior thus demonstrating the crushing, cracking, contact between the two materials and steel yielding. A calibration of the material used in the simulation has been carried out assuring an accurate model of the used material by ATENA program. This calibration was performed by comparing the results from the ATENA program with experimental results to validate the material properties used in ATENA program. Three simple patch test models with different properties have been performed. The research is concluded with a result that the calibration showing a good agreement between the ATENA program material behaviors and the experimental results.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Stresses, grouted connection, offshore wind energy turbines

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2 New Techniques to Decrease the Interfacial Stress in Steel Beams Strengthened With FRP Laminates

Authors: A. S. Bouchikhi, A. Megueni, S. Habibi


One major problem when using bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer is the presence of high inter facial stresses near the end of the composite laminate which might govern the failure of the strengthening schedule. It is known that the decrease of FRP plate thickness and the fitness of adhesive reduce the stress concentration at plate ends. Another way is to use a plate with a non uniform section or tapered ends and softer adhesive at the edges. In this paper, a comprehensive finite element (FE) study has been conducted to investigate the effect of mixed adhesive joints (MAJ) and tapering plate on the inter facial stress distribution in the adhesive layer, this paper presents the results of a study of application of two adhesives with different stiffnesses (bi-adhesive) along the joint strength length between the CFRP-strengthened steel beam for tapered and untapered plate on the distribution of inter facial stresses. A stiff adhesive was applied in the middle portion of the joint strength, while a low modulus adhesive was applied towards the edges prone to stress concentrations.

Keywords: Stresses, FRP, mixed adhesive joints, tapered plate, retrofitted beams bonded

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1 A Review on Silicon Based Induced Resistance in Plants against Insect Pests

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan, Muhammad Kamran, Iqra


Development of resistance in insect pests against various groups of insecticides has prompted the use of alternative integrated pest management approaches. Among these induced host plant resistance represents an important strategy as it offers a practical, cheap and long lasting solution to keep pests populations below economic threshold level (ETL). Silicon (Si) has a major role in regulating plant eco-relationship by providing strength to the plant in the form of anti-stress mechanism which was utilized in coping with the environmental extremes to get a better yield and quality end produce. Among biotic stresses, insect herbivore signifies one class against which Si provide defense. Silicon in its neutral form (H₄SiO₄) is absorbed by the plants via roots through an active process accompanied by the help of different transporters which were located in the plasma membrane of root cells or by a passive process mostly regulated by transpiration stream, which occurs via the xylem cells along with the water. Plants tissues mainly the epidermal cell walls are the sinks of absorbed silicon where it polymerizes in the form of amorphous silica or monosilicic acid. The noteworthy function of this absorbed silicon is to provide structural rigidity to the tissues and strength to the cell walls. Silicon has both direct and indirect effects on insect herbivores. Increased abrasiveness and hardness of epidermal plant tissues and reduced digestibility as a result of deposition of Si primarily as phytoliths within cuticle layer is now the most authenticated mechanisms of Si in enhancing plant resistance to insect herbivores. Moreover, increased Si content in the diet also impedes the efficiency by which insects transformed consumed food into the body mass. The palatability of food material has also been changed by Si application, and it also deters herbivore feeding for food. The production of defensive compounds of plants like silica and phenols have also been amplified by the exogenous application of silicon sources which results in reduction of the probing time of certain insects. Some studies also highlighted the role of silicon at the third trophic level as it also attracts natural enemies of insects attacking the crop. Hence, the inclusion of Si in pest management approaches can be a healthy and eco-friendly tool in future.

Keywords: Resistance, Stresses, phytoliths, defensive

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