Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

stress-strain Related Abstracts

5 Stress and Strain Analysis of Notched Bodies Subject to Non-Proportional Loadings

Authors: Ayhan Ince

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytical simplified method for calculating elasto-plastic stresses strains of notched bodies subject to non-proportional loading paths is discussed. The method was based on the Neuber notch correction, which relates the incremental elastic and elastic-plastic strain energy densities at the notch root and the material constitutive relationship. The validity of the method was presented by comparing computed results of the proposed model against finite element numerical data of notched shaft. The comparison showed that the model estimated notch-root elasto-plastic stresses strains with good accuracy using linear-elastic stresses. The prosed model provides more efficient and simple analysis method preferable to expensive experimental component tests and more complex and time consuming incremental non-linear FE analysis. The model is particularly suitable to perform fatigue life and fatigue damage estimates of notched components subjected to non-proportional loading paths.

Keywords: Fatigue, elasto-plastic, stress-strain, notch analysis, nonprortional loadings, cyclic plasticity

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4 Experimental Uniaxial Tensile Characterization of One-Dimensional Nickel Nanowires

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan

Abstract:

Metallic nanowires with sub-micron and hundreds of nanometer diameter have a diversity of applications in nano/micro-electromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS). Characterizing the mechanical properties of such sub-micron and nano-scale metallic nanowires are tedious; require sophisticated and careful experimentation to be performed within high-powered microscopy systems (scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM)). Also, needed are nanoscale devices for placing the nanowires; loading them with the intended conditions; obtaining the data for load–deflection during the deformation within the high-powered microscopy environment poses significant challenges. Even picking the grown nanowires and placing them correctly within a nanoscale loading device is not an easy task. Mechanical characterizations through experimental methods for such nanowires are still very limited. Various techniques at different levels of fidelity, resolution, and induced errors have been attempted by material science and nanomaterial researchers. The methods for determining the load, deflection within the nanoscale devices also pose a significant problem. The state of the art is thus still at its infancy. All these factors result and is seen in the wide differences in the characterization curves and the reported properties in the current literature. In this paper, we discuss and present our experimental method, results, and discussions of uniaxial tensile loading and the development of subsequent stress–strain characteristics curves for Nickel nanowires. Nickel nanowires in the diameter range of 220–270 nm were obtained in our laboratory via an electrodeposition method, which is a solution based, template method followed in our present work for growing 1-D Nickel nanowires. Process variables such as the presence of magnetic field, its intensity; and varying electrical current density during the electrodeposition process were found to influence the morphological and physical characteristics including crystal orientation, size of the grown nanowires1. To further understand the correlation and influence of electrodeposition process variables, associated formed structural features of our grown Nickel nanowires to their mechanical properties, careful experiments within scanning electron microscope (SEM) were conducted. Details of the uniaxial tensile characterization, testing methodology, nanoscale testing device, load–deflection characteristics, microscopy images of failure progression, and the subsequent stress–strain curves are discussed and presented.

Keywords: nanowires, Nickel, electrodeposition, stress-strain, uniaxial tensile characterization

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3 Theoretical Stress-Strain Model for Confined Concrete by Rectangular Reinforcement

Authors: Mizam Dogan, Hande Gökdemir

Abstract:

In reinforced concrete elements, reinforcement steel bars are placed in concrete both longitudinal and lateral directions. The lateral reinforcement (called as confinement) which is used for confining circular RC elements is in a spiral shape. If the cross section of RC element is rectangular, stirrups should be rectangular too. At very high compressive stresses concrete will reach its limit strain value and therefore concrete outside the lateral reinforcement, which is not confined, will crush and start to spell. At this stage, concrete core of the RC element tries to expand laterally as a reason of high Poisson’s ratio value of concrete. Such a deformation is prevented by the lateral reinforcement which applies lateral passive pressure on concrete. At very high compressive stresses, the strength of reinforced column member rises to four times σ 2. This increase in strength of member is related to the properties of rectangular stirrups. In this paper, effect of stirrup step spacing to column behavior is calculated and presented confined concrete model is proved by numerical solutions.

Keywords: Solid, frame, stress-strain, confined concrete, concrete column, stirrup

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2 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Sung-Uk Wee

Abstract:

Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.

Keywords: Fatigue Life, tensile test, gas turbine blade, stress-strain

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1 A Mathematical Description of a Growing Cell Colony Based on the Mechanical Bidomain Model

Authors: Debabrata Auddya, Bradley J. Roth

Abstract:

The mechanical bidomain model is used to describe a colony of cells growing on a substrate. Analytical expressions are derived for the intracellular and extracellular displacements. Mechanotransduction events are driven by the difference between the displacements in the two spaces, corresponding to the force acting on integrins. The equation for the displacement consists of two terms: one proportional to the radius that is the same in the intracellular and extracellular spaces (the monodomain term) and one that is proportional to a modified Bessel function that is responsible for mechanotransduction (the bidomain term). The model predicts that mechanotransduction occurs within a few length constants of the colony’s edge, and an expression for the length constant contains the intracellular and extracellular shear moduli and the spring constant of the integrins coupling the two spaces. The model predictions are qualitatively consistent with experiments on human embryonic stem cell colonies, in which differentiation is localized near the edge.

Keywords: Stem Cell, stress-strain, integrin, cell colony, mechanical bidomain model, traction force

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