Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Stress Response Related Abstracts

9 Survival and Retention of the Probiotic Properties of Bacillus sp. Strains under Marine Stress Starvation Conditions and Their Potential Use as a Probiotic for Aquaculture Objectives

Authors: Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Fdhila Kais, Faouzi Lamari, Zeineb Hmila, Fathi Kamoun, Maria Ángeles Esteban, Amina Bakhrouf

Abstract:

Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food-production sector. However, one of the most serious problems regarding the culture of marine fishes is the mortality associated with pathogenic bacteria that occurs in the critical phases of larval development. Conventional approaches, such as the use of antimicrobial drugs to control diseases, have had limited success in the prevention or cure of aquatic diseases. Promising alternatives to antibiotics are probiotics, which are food supplements consisting of live microorganisms that benefit the host organism. In the search for more effective and environmentally friendly treatments with probionts against pathogenic species in shrimp larval culture, the probiotic properties of Bacillus strains isolated from Artemia culture such as antibacterial activity, adhesion, pathogenicity, toxicity and the effect of marine stress on viability and survival were investigated, as well as the changes occurring in their properties. Analyses showed that these bacteria corresponded to the genus Bacillus sp. Antagonism and adherence assays revealed that these strains have an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria in vitro and in vivo conditions and are fairly adherent. Challenge tests performed with Artemia larvae provided evidence that the tested Bacillus strains were neither pathogenic nor toxic to the host. The tested strains maintained their viability and their probiotic properties during the period of study. The results suggest that the tested strains have suffered changes allowing them to survive in seawater in the absence of nutrients and outside their natural host, identifying them as potential probiotic candidates for Artemia culture.

Keywords: Stress Response, bacillus, probiotic, cell viability

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8 Compared Psychophysiological Responses under Stress in Patients of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Depressive Disorder

Authors: Fu-Chien Hung, Chi‐Wen Liang

Abstract:

Background: People who suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) frequently complain about continuous tiredness, weakness or lack of strength, but without apparent organic etiology. The prevalence rate of the CFS is nearly from 3% to 20%, yet more than 80% go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as depression. The biopsychosocial model has suggested the associations among the CFS, depressive syndrome, and stress. This study aimed to investigate the difference between individuals with the CFS and with the depressive syndrome on psychophysiological responses under stress. Method: There were 23 participants in the CFS group, 14 participants in the depression group, and 23 participants in the healthy control group. All of the participants first completed the measures of demographic data, CFS-related symptoms, daily life functioning, and depressive symptoms. The participants were then asked to perform a stressful cognitive task. The participants’ psychophysiological responses including the HR, BVP and SC were measured during the task. These indexes were used to assess the reactivity and recovery rates of the automatic nervous system. Results: The stress reactivity of the CFS and depression groups was not different from that of the healthy control group. However, the stress recovery rate of the CFS group was worse than that of the healthy control group. Conclusion: The results from this study suggest that the CFS is a syndrome which can be independent from the depressive syndrome, although the depressive syndrome may include fatigue syndrome.

Keywords: Depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, Stress Response, misdiagnosis

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7 The Taxonomic and Functional Diversity in Edaphic Microbial Communities from Antarctic Dry Valleys

Authors: Sean T. S. Wei, Joy D. Van Nostrand, Annapoorna Maitrayee Ganeshram, Stephen B. Pointing

Abstract:

McMurdo Dry Valleys are a largely ice-free polar desert protected by international treaty as an Antarctic special managed area. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soil with extensive rocky outcrops. Several environmental stresses: low temperature, lack of liquid water, UV exposure and oligotrophic substrates, restrict the major biotic component to microorganisms. The bacterial diversity and the putative physiological capacity of microbial communities of quartz rocks (hypoliths) and soil of a maritime-influenced Dry Valleys were interrogated by two metagenomic approaches: 454 pyro-sequencing and Geochp DNA microarray. The most abundant phylum in hypoliths was Cyanobacteria (46%), whereas in solils Actinobacteria (31%) were most abundant. The Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes were the only other phyla to comprise >10% of both communities. Carbon fixation was indicated by photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic pathways for both hypolith and soil communities. The fungi accounted for polymer carbon transformations, particularly for aromatic compounds. The complete nitrogen cycling was observed in both communities. The fungi in particular displayed pathways related to ammonification. Environmental stress response pathways were common among bacteria, whereas the nutrient stress response pathways were more widely present in bacteria, archaea and fungi. The diversity of bacterialphage was also surveyed by Geochip. Data suggested that different substrates supported different viral families: Leviviridae, Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridiae were ubiquitous. However, Corticoviridae and Microviridae only occurred in wetter soils.

Keywords: Soil, Stress Response, Antarctica, hypolith, dry valleys, geochip, functional diversity

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6 Development and Validation of the Response to Stressful Situations Scale in the General Population

Authors: Célia Barreto Carvalho, Joana Cabral, Carolina da Motta, Marina Sousa, Ana Luísa Carvalho, Ermelindo Peixoto

Abstract:

The aim of the current study was to develop and validate a Response to Stressful Situations Scale (RSSS) for the Portuguese population. This scale assesses the degree of stress experienced in scenarios that can constitute positive, negative and more neutral stressors, and also describes the physiological, emotional and behavioral reactions to those events according to their intensity. These scenario include typical stressor scenarios relevant to patients with schizophrenia, which are currently absent from most scale, assessing specific risks that these stressors may bring on subjects, which may prove useful in non-clinical and clinical populations (i.e. patients with mood or anxiety disorders, schizophrenia). Results from Principal Components Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of on two adult samples from general population allowed to confirm a three-factor model with good fit indices: χ2 (144)= 370.211, p = 0.000; GFI = 0.928; CFI = 0.927; TLI = 0.914, RMSEA = 0.055, P( rmsea ≤ 0.005) = 0.096; PCFI = 0.781. Further data analysis on the scale revealed that RSSS is an adequate assessment tool of stress response in adults to be used in further research and clinical settings, with good psychometric characteristics, adequate divergent and convergent validity, good temporal stability and high internal consistency.

Keywords: Assessment, Stress Response, stress events, stress vulnerability

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5 Inactivation of Rhodotorula spp. 74 with Cold Atmospheric Plasma

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Tomislava Vukušić

Abstract:

High voltage electrical discharge is a new technology used for inactivation of pathogen microorganisms. Pathogen yeasts can cause diseases in humans if they are ingested. Nowadays new technologies have become the focus of researching all over the world. Rhodotorula is known as yeast that can cause diseases in humans. The aim of this study was to examine whether the high voltage electrical discharge treatment generated in gas phase has an influence on yeast reduction and recovery of Rhodotorula spp 74 in pure culture. Rhodotorula spp. 74 was treated in 200 mL of model solution. Treatment time (5 and 10 min), frequency (60 and 90 Hz) and injected gas (air or argon 99,99%) were changed. Titanium high voltage needle was used as high voltage electrode (positive polarity) through which air or argon was injected at the gas flow of 0.6 L/min. Experimental design and statistical analyses were obtained by Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA). The best inactivation rate 1.7 log10 reduction was observed after the 10 min of treatment, frequency of 90 Hz and injected air. Also with a longer treatment time inactivation rate was higher. After the 24 h recovery of treated samples was observed. Therefore the further optimization of method is needed to understand the mechanism of yeasts inactivation and cells recovery after the treatment. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project ‘Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods’.

Keywords: Stress Response, electrical discharge plasma, inactivation, rhodotorula spp. 74

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4 Inactivation and Stress Response of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium lt21 upon Cold Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Zoran Herceg, Višnja Stulić, Anet Režek Jambrak, Tomislava Vukušić

Abstract:

Today one of the greatest challenges are directed to the safety of food supply. If food pathogens are ingested they can cause human illnesses. Because of that new technologies that are effective in microbial reduction are developing to be used in food industries. One of such technology is cold gas phase plasma. Salmonella enterica was studied as one of the pathogenes that can be found in food. The aim of this work was to examine the inactivation rate and stress response of plasma treated cells of Salmonella enterica inoculated in apple juice. After the treatment cellular leakage, phenotypic changes in plasma treated cells-biofilm formation and degree of recovery were conducted. Sample volume was inoculated with 5 mL of pure culture of Salmonella enterica and 15 mL of apple juice. Statgraphics Centurion software (StatPoint Technologies, Inc., VA, USA) was used for experimental design and statistical analyses. Treatment time (1, 3, 5 min) and gas flow (40, 60, 80 L/min) were changed. Complete inactivation and 0 % of recovery after the 48 h was observed at these experimental treatments: 3 min; 40 L/min, 3 min; 80 L/min, 5 min; 40 L/min. Biofilm reduction was observed at all treated samples. Also, there was an increase in cellular leakage with a longer plasma treatment. Although there were a significant reduction and 0 % of recovery after the plasma treatments further investigation of the method is needed to clarify whether there are sensorial, physical and chemical changes in juices after the plasma treatment. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for the preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Stress Response, inactivation, salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium lt21, gas-phase plasma treatment

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3 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung

Abstract:

A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: Stress Response, force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, swelling response

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2 Unzipping the Stress Response Genes in Moringa oleifera Lam. through Transcriptomics

Authors: Vivian A. Panes, Raymond John S. Rebong, Miel Q. Diaz

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera Lam. is known mainly for its high nutritional value and medicinal properties contributing to its popular reputation as a 'miracle plant' in the tropical climates where it usually grows. The main objective of this study is to discover the genes and gene products involved in abiotic stress-induced activity that may impact the M. oleifera Lam. mature seeds as well as their corresponding functions. In this study, RNA-sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly were performed using two assemblers, Trinity and Oases, which produced 177,417 and 120,818 contigs respectively. These transcripts were then subjected to various bioinformatics tools such as Blast2GO, UniProt, KEGG, and COG for gene annotation and the analysis of relevant metabolic pathways. Furthermore, FPKM analysis was performed to identify gene expression levels. The sequences were filtered according to the 'response to stress' GO term since this study dealt with stress response. Clustered Orthologous Groups (COG) showed that the highest frequencies of stress response gene functions were those of cytoskeleton which make up approximately 14% and 23% of stress-related sequences under Trinity and Oases respectively, recombination, repair and replication at 11% and 14% respectively, carbohydrate transport and metabolism at 23% and 9% respectively and defense mechanisms 16% and 12% respectively. KEGG pathway analysis determined the most abundant stress-response genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at counts of 187 and 166 pathways for Oases and Trinity respectively, purine metabolism at 123 and 230 pathways, and biosynthesis of antibiotics at 105 and 102. Unique and cumulative GO term counts revealed that majority of the stress response genes belonged to the category of cellular response to stress at cumulative counts of 1,487 to 2,187 for Oases and Trinity respectively, defense response at 754 and 1,255, and response to heat at 213 and 208, response to water deprivation at 229 and 228, and oxidative stress at 508 and 488. Lastly, FPKM was used to determine the levels of expression of each stress response gene. The most upregulated gene encodes for thiamine thiazole synthase chloroplastic-like enzyme which plays a significant role in DNA damage tolerance. Data analysis implies that M. oleifera stress response genes are directed towards the effects of climate change more than other stresses indicating the potential of M. oleifera for cultivation in harsh environments because it is resistant to climate change, pathogens, and foreign invaders.

Keywords: Transcriptomics, Genes, Stress Response, Moringa oleifera

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1 Correlation between General Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Stress Response after One Month Practice of Moderate Intensity Physical Exercise

Authors: Mohita Singh, Sunil Sachdev, Amrita Singh

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Physical aerobic exercises promote positive changes in one’s mental health, intelligence, and ability to cope with stressful encounters. The present study was designed to explore the correlation between intelligence and stress parameters and to assess the correlation between the same parameters after the practice of one month of moderate-intensity physical exercise. Method: The study was conducted on thirty-five healthy male volunteer students to assess the correlation between stress parameters in subjects with varying level of general intelligence (GI) and emotional intelligence (EI). Correlation studies were again conducted after one month between the same parameters to evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity physical exercise (MIPE). Baseline values were recorded using standard scales. Result: IQ and EQ correlated negatively with both acute and chronic stress parameters and positively with each other. A positive correlation was found between acute and chronic stress. With the practice of one month of moderate-intensity physical exercise, there was significant increment between the parameters under study and hence improved results. Conclusion: MIPE improved correlation between GI, EI, stress parameters, and thus reduced stress and improved intelligence.

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, Stress Response, general intelligence, moderate intensity physical exercise

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