Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

stress intensity factor Related Abstracts

11 Obtain the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) in a Medium Containing a Penny-Shaped Crack by the Ritz Method

Authors: A. Tavangari, N. Salehzadeh


In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, the mode I stress intensity factor (SIF) of three-dimensional penny-Shaped crack is obtained in an isotropic elastic cylindrical medium with arbitrary dimensions under arbitrary loading at the top of the cylinder, by the semi-analytical method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method. This method that is based on minimizing the potential energy amount of the whole of the system, gives a very close results to the previous studies. Defining the displacements (elastic fields) by hypothetical functions in a defined coordinate system is the base of this research. So for creating the singularity conditions at the tip of the crack the appropriate terms should be found.

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, Ritz method

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10 Behavioral Study Circumferential and Longitudinal Cracks in a Steel Pipeline X65 and Repair Patch

Authors: Sadok Aboubakr


The mechanical behavior of cracks from several manufacturing defect in an oil pipeline, is characterized by the fact that defects'm taking several forms: circumferential, longitudinal and inclined crack that evolve over time. Increased lifetime of the constructions and in particular cylindrical tubes under internal pressure requires knowledge improving these defects during loading. From this study we simulated various forms of cracking and also their pipeline repair patch.

Keywords: Pressure, Shear Modulus, Young's modulus, stress intensity factor, Poisson's ratio, Longueur du pipeline, the angle of crack, crack length

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9 Calculating Stress Intensity Factor of Cracked Axis by Using a Meshless Method

Authors: S. Shahrooi, A. Talavari


Numeral study on the crack and discontinuity using element-free methods has been widely spread in recent years. In this study, for stress intensity factor calculation of the cracked axis under torsional loading has been used from a new element-free method as MLPG method. Region range is discretized by some dispersed nodal points. From method of moving least square (MLS) utilized to create the functions using these nodal points. Then, results of meshless method and finite element method (FEM) were compared. The results is shown which the element-free method was of good accuracy.

Keywords: crack, stress intensity factor, torsional loading, meshless method

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8 Numerical Investigation on Optimizing Fatigue Life in a Lap Joint Structure

Authors: P. Zamani, S. Mohajerzadeh, R. Masoudinejad, K. Farhangdoost


The riveting process is one of the important ways to keep fastening the lap joints in aircraft structures. Failure of aircraft lap joints directly depends on the stress field in the joint. An important application of riveting process is in the construction of aircraft fuselage structures. In this paper, a 3D finite element method is carried out in order to optimize residual stress field in a riveted lap joint and also to estimate its fatigue life. In continue, a number of experiments are designed and analyzed using design of experiments (DOE). Then, Taguchi method is used to select an optimized case between different levels of each factor. Besides that, the factor which affects the most on residual stress field is investigated. Such optimized case provides the maximum residual stress field. Fatigue life of the optimized joint is estimated by Paris-Erdogan law. Stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated using both finite element analysis and experimental formula. In addition, the effect of residual stress field, geometry, and secondary bending are considered in SIF calculation. A good agreement is found between results of such methods. Comparison between optimized fatigue life and fatigue life of other joints has shown an improvement in the joint’s life.

Keywords: Residual Stress, Fatigue Life, Taguchi method, stress intensity factor, riveting process

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7 Analysis of Three-Dimensional Cracks in an Isotropic Medium by the Semi-Analytical Method

Authors: Abdoulnabi Tavangari, Nasim Salehzadeh


We presume a cylindrical medium that is under a uniform loading and there is a penny shaped crack located in the center of cylinder. In the crack growth analysis, the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is a fundamental prerequisite. In the present study, according to the RITZ method and by considering a cylindrical coordinate system as the main coordinate and a local polar coordinate, the mode-I SIF of threedimensional penny-shaped crack is obtained. In this method the unknown coefficients will be obtained with minimizing the potential energy that is including the strain energy and the external force work. By using the hook's law, stress fields will be obtained and then by using the Irvine equations, the amount of SIF will be obtained near the edge of the crack. This question has been solved for extreme medium in the Tada handbook and the result of the present research has been compared with that.

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, penny-shaped crack, stress intensity factor, Ritz method, three-dimensional cracks

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6 Dynamic Modeling of Orthotropic Cracked Materials by X-FEM

Authors: S. Houcine Habib, B. Elkhalil Hachi, Mohamed Guesmi, Mohamed Haboussi


In this paper, dynamic fracture behaviors of cracked orthotropic structure are modeled using extended finite element method (X-FEM). In this approach, the finite element method model is first created and then enriched by special orthotropic crack tip enrichments and Heaviside functions in the framework of partition of unity. The mixed mode stress intensity factor (SIF) is computed using the interaction integral technique based on J-integral in order to predict cracking behavior of the structure. The developments of these procedures are programmed and introduced in a self-software platform code. To assess the accuracy of the developed code, results obtained by the proposed method are compared with those of literature.

Keywords: Composites, crack, X-FEM, stress intensity factor, dynamic orthotropic behavior

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5 Calculation of Stress Intensity Factors in Rotating Disks Containing 3D Semi-Elliptical Cracks

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Seyed Mohammad Navid Ghoreishi


Initiation and propagation of cracks may cause catastrophic failures in rotating disks, and hence determination of fracture parameter in rotating disks under the different working condition is very important issue. In this paper, a comprehensive study of stress intensity factors in rotating disks containing 3D semi-elliptical cracks under the different working condition is investigated. In this regard, after verification of modeling and analytical procedure, the effects of mechanical properties, rotational velocity, and orientation of cracks on Stress Intensity Factors (SIF) in rotating disks under centrifugal loading are investigated. Also, the effects of using composite patch in reduction of SIF in rotating disks are studied. By that way, the effects of patching design variables like mechanical properties, thickness, and ply angle are investigated individually.

Keywords: rotating disk, stress intensity factor, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), semi-elliptical crack

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4 Accuracy of VCCT for Calculating Stress Intensity Factor in Metal Specimens Subjected to Bending Load

Authors: Sanjin Kršćanski, Josip Brnić


Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) is a method used for calculating stress intensity factor (SIF) of a cracked body that is easily implemented on top of basic finite element (FE) codes and as such can be applied on the various component geometries. It is a relatively simple method that does not require any special finite elements to be used and is usually used for calculating stress intensity factors at the crack tip for components made of brittle materials. This paper studies applicability and accuracy of VCCT applied on standard metal specimens containing trough thickness crack, subjected to an in-plane bending load. Finite element analyses were performed using regular 4-node, regular 8-node and a modified quarter-point 8-node 2D elements. Stress intensity factor was calculated from the FE model results for a given crack length, using data available from FE analysis and a custom programmed algorithm based on virtual crack closure technique. Influence of the finite element size on the accuracy of calculated SIF was also studied. The final part of this paper includes a comparison of calculated stress intensity factors with results obtained from analytical expressions found in available literature and in ASTM standard. Results calculated by this algorithm based on VCCT were found to be in good correlation with results obtained with mentioned analytical expressions.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Bending, stress intensity factor, VCCT

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3 Mixed Mode Fracture Analyses Using Finite Element Method of Edge Cracked Heavy Spinning Annulus Pulley

Authors: Bijit Kalita, K. V. N. Surendra


Rotating disk is one of the most indispensable parts of a rotating machine. Rotating disk has found many applications in the diverging field of science and technology. In this paper, we have taken into consideration the problem of a heavy spinning disk mounted on a rotor system acted upon by boundary traction. Finite element modelling is used at various loading condition to determine the mixed mode stress intensity factors. The effect of combined shear and normal traction on the boundary is incorporated in the analysis under the action of gravity. The variation near the crack tip is characterized in terms of the stress intensity factor (SIF) with an aim to find the SIF for a wide range of parameters. The results of the finite element analyses carried out on the compressed disk of a belt pulley arrangement using fracture mechanics concepts are shown. A total of hundred cases of the problem are solved for each of the variations in loading arc parameter and crack orientation using finite element models of the disc under compression. All models were prepared and analyzed for the uncracked disk, disk with a single crack at different orientation emanating from shaft hole as well as for a disc with pair of cracks emerging from the same center hole. Curves are plotted for various loading conditions. Finally, crack propagation paths are determined using kink angle concepts.

Keywords: stress concentration, stress intensity factor, crack-tip deformations, static loading

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2 Mixed Mode Fracture Analyses Using Finite Element Method of Edge Cracked Heavy Annulus Pulley

Authors: Bijit Kalita, K. V. N. Surendra


The pulley works under both compressive loading due to contacting belt in tension and central torque due to cause rotation. In a power transmission system, the belt pulley assemblies offer a contact problem in the form of two mating cylindrical parts. In this work, we modeled a pulley as a heavy two-dimensional circular disk. Stress analysis due to contact loading in the pulley mechanism is performed. Finite element analysis (FEA) is conducted for a pulley to investigate the stresses experienced on its inner and outer periphery. In most of the heavy-duty applications, most frequently used mechanisms to transmit power in applications such as automotive engines, industrial machines, etc. is Belt Drive. Usually, very heavy circular disks are used as pulleys. A pulley could be entitled as a drum and may have a groove between two flanges around the circumference. A rope, belt, cable or chain can be the driving element of a pulley system that runs over the pulley inside the groove. A pulley is experienced by normal and shear tractions on its contact region in the process of motion transmission. The region may be belt-pulley contact surface or pulley-shaft contact surface. In 1895, Hertz solved the elastic contact problem for point contact and line contact of an ideal smooth object. Afterward, this hypothesis is generally utilized for computing the actual contact zone. Detailed stress analysis in such contact region of such pulleys is quite necessary to prevent early failure. In this paper, the results of the finite element analyses carried out on the compressed disk of a belt pulley arrangement using fracture mechanics concepts are shown. Based on the literature on contact stress problem induced in the wide field of applications, generated stress distribution on the shaft-pulley and belt-pulley interfaces due to the application of high-tension and torque was evaluated in this study using FEA concepts. Finally, the results obtained from ANSYS (APDL) were compared with the Hertzian contact theory. The study is mainly focused on the fatigue life estimation of a rotating part as a component of an engine assembly using the most famous Paris equation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) analyses have been performed using the open-source software. From the displacement computed using the images acquired at a minimum and maximum force, displacement field amplitude is computed. From these fields, the crack path is defined and stress intensity factors and crack tip position are extracted. A non-linear least-squares projection is used for the purpose of the estimation of fatigue crack growth. Further study will be extended for the various application of rotating machinery such as rotating flywheel disk, jet engine, compressor disk, roller disk cutter etc., where Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) calculation plays a significant role on the accuracy and reliability of a safe design. Additionally, this study will be progressed to predict crack propagation in the pulley using maximum tangential stress (MTS) criteria for mixed mode fracture.

Keywords: stress concentration, stress intensity factor, contact stress, crack-tip deformations

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1 Simplified Stress Gradient Method for Stress-Intensity Factor Determination

Authors: Jeries J. Abou-Hanna


Several techniques exist for determining stress-intensity factors in linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis. These techniques are based on analytical, numerical, and empirical approaches that have been well documented in literature and engineering handbooks. However, not all techniques share the same merit. In addition to overly-conservative results, the numerical methods that require extensive computational effort, and those requiring copious user parameters hinder practicing engineers from efficiently evaluating stress-intensity factors. This paper investigates the prospects of reducing the complexity and required variables to determine stress-intensity factors through the utilization of the stress gradient and a weighting function. The heart of this work resides in the understanding that fracture emanating from stress concentration locations cannot be explained by a single maximum stress value approach, but requires use of a critical volume in which the crack exists. In order to understand the effectiveness of this technique, this study investigated components of different notch geometry and varying levels of stress gradients. Two forms of weighting functions were employed to determine stress-intensity factors and results were compared to analytical exact methods. The results indicated that the “exponential” weighting function was superior to the “absolute” weighting function. An error band +/- 10% was met for cases ranging from a steep stress gradient in a sharp v-notch to the less severe stress transitions of a large circular notch. The incorporation of the proposed method has shown to be a worthwhile consideration.

Keywords: Fracture Mechanics, Finite Element Method, stress intensity factor, stress gradient

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