Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Strengthening Related Abstracts

31 Behavior of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek


The paper deals with current issues in the research of advanced methods to increase the reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with the additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymer. The study evaluates deflection of a selected group of timber beams with concrete slab and additional CFRP reinforcement using different calculating methods and observes differences in results from different calculating methods. An elastic calculation method and evaluation with FEM analysis software were used.

Keywords: Strengthening, timber-concrete composite, fibre-reinforced polymer, theoretical analysis

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30 Influence of Strengthening with Perforated Steel Plates on the Behavior of Infill Walls and RC Frame

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Eray Ozbek, S. Oguzhan Akbas, Sabahattin Aykac


The contribution of the infill walls to the overall earthquake response of a structure is limited and this contribution is generally ignored in the analyses. Strengthening of the infill walls through different techniques has been and is being studied extensively in the literature to increase this limited contribution and the ductilities and energy absorption capacities of the infill walls to create non-structural components where the earthquake-induced energy can be absorbed without damaging the bearing components of the structural frame. The present paper summarizes an extensive research project dedicated to investigate the effects of strengthening the brick infill walls of a reinforced concrete (RC) frame on its lateral earthquake response. Perforated steel plates were used in strengthening due to several reasons, including the ductility and high deformation capacity of these plates, the fire resistant, recyclable and non-cancerogenic nature of mild steel, and the ease of installation and removal of the plates to the wall with the help of anchor bolts only. Furthermore, epoxy, which increases the cost and amount of labor of the strengthening process, is not needed in this technique. The individual behavior of the strengthened walls under monotonic diagonal and lateral reversed cyclic loading was investigated within the scope of the study. Upon achieving brilliant results, RC frames with strengthened infill walls were tested and are being tested to examine the influence of this strengthening technique on the overall behavior of the RC frames. Tests on the wall and frame specimens indicated that the perforated steel plates contribute to the lateral strength, rigidity, ductility and energy absorption capacity of the wall and the infilled frame to a major extent.

Keywords: Strengthening, infill wall, external plate, earthquake behavior

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29 Finite Element Analysis of RC Frames with Retrofitted Infill Walls

Authors: Ramazan Livaoğlu, M. Ömer Timurağaoğlu, Adem Doğangün


The evaluation of performance of infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames has been a significant challenge for engineers. The strengthening of infill walls has been an important concern to enhance the behavior of RC infilled frames. The aim of this study is to investigate the behaviour of retrofitted infill walls of RC frames using finite element analysis. For this purpose, a one storey, one bay infilled and strengthened infilled RC frame which have the same geometry and material properties with the frames tested in laboratory are modelled using different analytical approaches. A fibrous material is used to strengthen infill walls and frame. As a consequence, the results of the finite element analysis were evaluated of whether these analytical approaches estimate the behavior or not. To model the infilled and strengthened infilled RC frames, a finite element program ABAQUS is used. Finally, data obtained from the nonlinear finite element analysis is compared with the experimental results.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Strengthening, infill wall, infilled RC frames

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28 Experimental Analysis of Composite Timber-Concrete Beam with CFRP Reinforcement

Authors: O. Vlcek


The paper deals with current issues in research of advanced methods to increase reliability of traditional timber structural elements. It analyses the issue of strengthening of bent timber beams, such as ceiling beams in old (historical) buildings with additional concrete slab in combination with externally bonded fibre - reinforced polymer. The paper describes experimental testing of composite timber-concrete beam with FRP reinforcement and compares results with FEM analysis.

Keywords: Strengthening, Experimental Analysis, timber-concrete composite, fibre-reinforced polymer

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27 Effect of Fiber Orientation on the Mechanical Properties of Fabricated Plate Using Basalt Fiber

Authors: Sharmili Routray, Kishor Chandra Biswal


The use of corrosion resistant fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement is beneficial in structures particularly those exposed to deicing salts, and/or located in highly corrosive environment. Generally Glass, Carbon and Aramid fibers are used for the strengthening purpose of the structures. Due to the necessities of low weight and high strength materials, it is required to find out the suitable substitute with low cost. Recent developments in fiber production technology allow the strengthening of structures using Basalt fiber which is made from basalt rock. Basalt fiber has good range of thermal performance, high tensile strength, resistance to acids, good electro‐magnetic properties, inert nature, resistance to corrosion, radiation and UV light, vibration and impact loading. This investigation focuses on the effect of fibre content and fiber orientation of basalt fibre on mechanical properties of the fabricated composites. Specimen prepared with unidirectional Basalt fabric as reinforcing materials and epoxy resin as a matrix in polymer composite. In this investigation different fiber orientation are taken and the fabrication is done by hand lay-up process. The variation of the properties with the increasing number of plies of fiber in the composites is also studied. Specimens are subjected to tensile strength test and the failure of the composite is examined with the help of INSTRON universal testing Machine (SATEC) of 600 kN capacities. The average tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of BFRP plates are determined from the test Program.

Keywords: Fabrication, Strengthening, BFRP, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP)

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26 Recent Studies on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Members by Ferrocement

Authors: E. Lam, Z. D. Yang, B. Li, I. Ho, T. Wong, V. Wong


This paper reports some of the recent studies on strengthening of reinforced concrete members by ferrocement. Using mortar in ferrocement with high tensile strength, tensile properties of (high performance) ferrocement can be enhanced. In the proposed strengthening strategy, defective concrete cover of structural members is replaced by ferrocement so as to increase the load carrying capacity. This has been successfully applied to strengthen columns and beam-column joints. To facilitate the ease of application of the proposed strengthening strategy, mortar in ferrocement is applied through dry spray shotcrete.

Keywords: Strengthening, column, ferrocement, high performance ferrocement, dry, spray shotcrete, beam-column joint

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25 Strengthening and Toughening of Dental Porcelain by the Inclusion of an Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Reinforcing Phase

Authors: Rafaela Santos, Júlio Matias de Souza, Filipe Silva, Rubens Nascimento, Márcio Fredel, Buno Henriques


Dental porcelain composites reinforced and toughened by 20 wt.% tetragonal zirconia (3Y-TZP) were processed by hot pressing at 1000°C. Two types of particles were tested: yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) agglomerates and pre-sintered yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2–3%Y2O3) particles. The composites as well as the reinforcing particles were analyzed by the means of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The mechanical properties were obtained by the transverse rupture strength test, Vickers indentations and fracture toughness. Wear tests were also performed on the composites and monolithic porcelain. The best mechanical and wear results were displayed by the porcelain reinforced with the pre-sintered ZrO2–3%Y2O3 particles.

Keywords: Composites, Strengthening, Wear, porcelain, toughening, dental restoration, zirconia

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24 Seismic Assessment of RC Structures

Authors: Badla Oualid


A great number of existing buildings are designed without seismic design criteria and detailing rules for dissipative structural behavior. Thus, it is of critical importance that the structures that need seismic retrofitting are correctly identified, and an optimal retrofitting is conducted in a cost effective fashion. Among the retrofitting techniques available, steel braces can be considered as one of the most efficient solution among seismic performance upgrading methods of RC structures. This paper investigates the seismic behavior of RC buildings strengthened with different types of steel braces, X-braced, inverted V braced, ZX braced, and Zipper braced. Static non linear pushover analysis has been conducted to estimate the capacity of three story and six story buildings with different brace-frame systems and different cross sections for the braces. It is found that adding braces enhances the global capacity of the buildings compared to the case with no bracing and that the X and Zipper bracing systems performed better depending on the type and size of the cross section.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Strengthening, Pushover Analysis, RC frames, steel bracing

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23 Study of Stability of a Slope by the Soil Nailed Technique

Authors: Abdelhak Soudani


Using the limit equilibrium method in geotechnical field is very important for large projects. This work contributes to the understanding and analysis of the building unstable slopes by the technique of soil nailed with the used of software called GEO-SLOPE calculation based on limit equilibrium method. To achieve our objective, we began a review of the literature on landslides, and techniques of slope stability. Then, we presented a real case slope likely to slip through the realization of the EastWest Highway (M5 stretch between Khemis Miliana and Hoceinia). We also process the application of reinforcement technique nailed soil. The analysis is followed by a parametric study, which shows the impact of parameters given or chosen on various outcomes. Another method of reinforcement (use of micro-piles) has been suggested for improving the stability of the slope

Keywords: Strengthening, Slope Stability, slip, soil nail, GEO-SLOPE

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22 Bond Strength of Different Strengthening Systems: Concrete Elements under Freeze–Thaw Cycles and Salt Water Immersion Exposure

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Firas Al-Mahmoud, Jean-Michel Mechling


The long-term durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is often stated as being the main reason for the use of these materials. Indeed, structures externally or Near Surface Mounted (NSM) reinforced with Carbon Fibre Reinforcement Polymer CFRP are often in contact with temperature cycles and salt water immersion and other environmental conditions that reduce the expected durability of the system. Bond degradation is a frequent cause of premature failure of structural elements and environmental conditions are known to relate to such failures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of environmental exposure on the bond for different CFRP strengthening systems. Bending tests were conducted to evaluate the bond with and without environmental exposure. The specimens were strengthened with CFRP sheets, CFRP plates and NSM CFRP rods embedded in two filling materials: epoxy resin and mortar. Then, they were exposed to up to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. One freeze–thaw cycle consisted of four stages according to ASTM or immersed in 3.5% salted tap water. A total of thirty-six specimens were prepared for this purpose. Results showed a decrease in ultimate bond strength for specimens strengthened by CFRP sheets that were immersed in salt water for 120 days, while a reduction was shown for CFRP sheet and plate bonded specimens that were subjected to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. Exposing NSM CFRP rod strengthened specimens, embedded in resin or mortar, to freeze–thaw cycles or to immersion in salt water does not affect the bond strength.

Keywords: Durability, Strengthening, Bond, FRP, freeze–thaw

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21 Fracture Mechanics Modeling of a Shear-Cracked RC Beams Shear-Strengthened with FRP Sheets

Authors: Shahriar Shahbazpanahi, Alaleh Kamgar


So far, the conventional experimental and theoretical analysis in fracture mechanics have been applied to study concrete flexural- cracked beams, which are strengthened using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite sheets. However, there is still little knowledge about the shear capacity of a side face FRP- strengthened shear-cracked beam. A numerical analysis is herein presented to model the fracture mechanics of a four-point RC beam, with two inclined initial notch on the supports, which is strengthened with side face FRP sheets. In the present study, the shear crack is forced to conduct by using an initial notch in supports. The ABAQUS software is used to model crack propagation by conventional cohesive elements. It is observed that the FRP sheets play important roles in preventing the propagation of shear cracks.

Keywords: Strengthening, FRP, shear, crack

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20 An Experimental Investigation of Rehabilitation and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete T-Beams Under Static Monotonic Increasing Loading

Authors: Salem Alsanusi, Abdulla Alakad


An experimental investigation to study the behaviour of under flexure reinforced concrete T-Beams. Those Beams were loaded to pre-designated stress levels as percentage of calculated collapse loads. Repairing these beans by either reinforced concrete jacket, or by externally bolted steel plates were utilized. Twelve full scale beams were tested in this experimental program scheme. Eight out of the twelve beams were loaded under different loading levels. Tests were performed for the beams before and after repair with Reinforced Concrete Jacket (RCJ). The applied Load levels were 60%, 77% and 100% of the calculated collapse loads. The remaining four beams were tested before and after repair with Bolted Steel Plate (BSP). Furthermore, out previously mentioned four beams two beams were loaded to the calculated failure load 100% and the remaining two beams were not subjected to any load. The eight beams recorded for the RCJ test were repaired using reinforced concrete jacket. The four beams recorded for the BSP test were all repaired using steel plate at the bottom. All the strengthened beams were gradually loaded until failure occurs. However, in each loading case, the beams behaviour, before and after strengthening, were studied through close inspection of the cracking propagation, and by carrying out an extensive measurement of deformations and strength. The stress-strain curve for reinforcing steel and the failure strains measured in the tests were utilized in the calculation of failure load for the beams before and after strengthening. As a result, the calculated failure loads were close to the actual failure tests in case of beams before repair, ranging from 85% to 90% and also in case of beams repaired by reinforced concrete jacket ranging from 70% to 85%. The results were in case of beams repaired by bolted steel plates ranging from (50% to 85%). It was observed that both jacketing and bolted steel plate methods could effectively restore the full flexure capacity of the damaged beams. However, the reinforced jacket has increased the failure load by about 67%, whereas the bolted steel plates recovered the failure load.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Strengthening, Reinforced Concrete, beams deflection, bending stresses

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19 Comparative Spatial Analysis of a Re-Arranged Hospital Building

Authors: Burak Köken, Hatice D. Arslan, Bilgehan Y. Çakmak


Analyzing the relation networks between the hospital buildings which have complex structure and distinctive spatial relationships is quite difficult. The hospital buildings which require specialty in spatial relationship solutions during design and self-innovation through the developing technology should survive and keep giving service even after the disasters such as earthquakes. In this study, a hospital building where the load-bearing system was strengthened because of the insufficient earthquake performance and the construction of an additional building was required to meet the increasing need for space was discussed and a comparative spatial evaluation of the hospital building was made with regard to its status before the change and after the change. For this reason, spatial organizations of the building before change and after the change were analyzed by means of Space Syntax method and the effects of the change on space organization parameters were searched by applying an analytical procedure. Using Depthmap UCL software, connectivity, visual mean depth, beta and visual integration analyses were conducted. Based on the data obtained after the analyses, it was seen that the relationships between spaces of the building increased after the change and the building has become more explicit and understandable for the occupants. Furthermore, it was determined according to findings of the analysis that the increase in depth causes difficulty in perceiving the spaces and the changes considering this problem generally ease spatial use.

Keywords: Architecture, Strengthening, space syntax, hospital building

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18 Isolated Contraction of Deep Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle with Magnetic Nerve Root Stimulation: A Pilot Study

Authors: Shi-Uk Lee, Chae Young Lim


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of lumbar deep muscle thickness and cross-sectional area using ultrasonography with magnetic stimulation. Methods: To evaluate the changes of lumbar deep muscle by using magnetic stimulation, 12 healthy volunteers (39.6±10.0 yrs) without low back pain during 3 months participated in this study. All the participants were checked with X-ray and electrophysiologic study to confirm that they had no problems with their back. Magnetic stimulation was done on the L5 and S1 root with figure-eight coil as previous study. To confirm the proper motor root stimulation, the surface electrode was put on the tibialis anterior (L5) and abductor hallucis muscles (S1) and the hot spots of magnetic stimulation were found with 50% of maximal magnetic stimulation and determined the stimulation threshold lowering the magnetic intensity by 5%. Ultrasonography was used to assess the changes of L5 and S1 lumbar multifidus (superficial and deep) cross-sectional area and thickness with maximal magnetic stimulation. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness was evaluated with image acquisition program, ImageJ software (National Institute of Healthy, USA). Wilcoxon signed-rank was used to compare outcomes between before and after stimulations. Results: The mean minimal threshold was 29.6±3.8% of maximal stimulation intensity. With minimal magnetic stimulation, thickness of L5 and S1 deep multifidus (DM) were increased from 1.25±0.20, 1.42±0.23 cm to 1.40±0.27, 1.56±0.34 cm, respectively (P=0.005, P=0.003). CSA of L5 and S1 DM were also increased from 2.26±0.18, 1.40±0.26 cm2 to 2.37±0.18, 1.56±0.34 cm2, respectively (P=0.002, P=0.002). However, thickness of L5 and S1 superficial multifidus (SM) were not changed from 1.92±0.21, 2.04±0.20 cm to 1.91±0.33, 1.96±0.33 cm (P=0.211, P=0.199) and CSA of L5 and S1 were also not changed from 4.29±0.53, 5.48±0.32 cm2 to 4.42±0.42, 5.64±0.38 cm2. With maximal magnetic stimulation, thickness of L5, S1 of DM and SM were increased (L5 DM, 1.29±0.26, 1.46±0.27 cm, P=0.028; L5 SM, 2.01±0.42, 2.24±0.39 cm, P=0.005; S1 DM, 1.29±0.19, 1.67±0.29 P=0.002; S1 SM, 1.90±0.36, 2.30±0.36, P=0.002). CSA of L5, S1 of DM and SM were also increased (all P values were 0.002). Conclusions: Deep lumbar muscles could be stimulated with lumbar motor root magnetic stimulation. With minimal stimulation, thickness and CSA of lumbosacral deep multifidus were increased in this study. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the similar results in chronic low back pain patients are represented. Lumbar magnetic stimulation might have strengthening effect of deep lumbar muscles with no discomfort.

Keywords: Strengthening, Ultrasonography, Magnetic Stimulation, lumbar multifidus

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17 Flexural Properties of RC Beams Strengthened with A Composite Reinforcement Layer: FRP Grid and ECC

Authors: Yu-Zhou Zheng, Wen-Wei Wang


In this paper, a new strengthening technique for reinforced concrete (RC) beams is proposed by combining Basalt Fibre Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) grid and Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) as a composite reinforcement layer (CRL). Five RC beams externally bonded with the CRL at the soffit and one control RC beam was tested to investigate their flexural behaviour. The thickness of BFRP grids (i.e., 1mm, 3mm and 5mm) and the sizes of CRL in test program were selected as the test parameters, while the thickness of CRL was fixed approximately at 30mm. The test results showed that there is no debonding of CRL to occur obviously in the strengthened beams. The final failure modes were the concrete crushing or the rupture of BFRP grids, indicating that the proposed technique is effective in suppressing the debonding of externally bonded materials and fully utilizing the material strengths. Compared with the non-strengthened beam, the increments of crack loading for strengthened beams were 58%~97%, 15%~35% for yield loading and 4%~33% for the ultimate loading, respectively. An analytical model is also presented to predict the full-range load-deflection responses of the strengthened beams and validated through comparisons with the test results.

Keywords: Strengthening, ECC, RC beams, basalt fiber-reinforced polymer (BFRP) grid

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16 Experimental Study on Connection Method of Precast Beam-Column Using CFRPS

Authors: Rudy Djamaluddin, Herman Parung, Harmonis Rante, Victor Sampebulu


Many research of FRP strengthening on beam-column joint have been done. They used FRP as a strengthening material but not as a connection method. This paper presents a result of experimental-study on connection method of precast beam-column using CFRP sheet to investigate the possibility of CFRP sheet to be a connecting material. Six specimens were prepared and tested to investigate the behavior of CFRP-s connection capacity. The performance of two-connection method is presented in this paper. Three specimens have been tested so far, they were specimen without belt, specimen using one belt and monolith specimen as a control specimen. Result indicated that FRP joint system without belt reached higher capacity than joint system using one belt, but both are lower than monolith joint. Capacity of joint system without belt is 90.6% and 62.5% for the joint system using one belt, respectively compared to the control specimen.

Keywords: Strengthening, belt, CFRP-s, connection method

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15 Investigation on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Retrofitted with CFRP

Authors: Ehsan Mohseni


The aim of this thesis is to provide numerical analyses of reinforced concrete beams-column joints with/without CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) in order to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of strengthened beamcolumn joints. A comprehensive literature survey prior to this study revealed that published studies are limited to a handful only; the results are inconclusive and some are even contradictory. Therefore in order to improve on this situation, following that review, a numerical study was designed and performed as presented in this thesis. For the numerical study, dimensions, end supports, and characteristics of the beam and column models were the same as those chosen in an experimental investigation performed previously where ten beamcolumn joint were tested tofailure. Finite element analysis is a useful tool in cases where analytical methods are not capable of solving the problem due to the complexities associated with the problem. The cyclic behaviour of FRP strengthened reinforced concrete beam-columns joints is such a case. Interaction of steel (longitudinal and stirrups), concrete and FRP, yielding of steel bars and stirrups, cracking of concrete, the redistribution of stresses as some elements unload due to crushing or yielding and the confinement of concrete due to the presence of FRP are some of the issues that introduce the complexities into the problem.Numerical solutions, however, can provide further in formation about the behaviour in lieu of the costly experiments or complex closed form solutions. This thesis presents the results of a numerical study on beam-column joints subjected to cyclic loads that are strengthened with CFRP wraps or strrips in a variety of configurations. The analyses are performed by Abaqus finite element program and are calibrated with the experiments. A range of issues in beam-column joints including the cracking load, the ultimate load, lateral load-displacement curves of joints, are investigated.The numerical results for different configurations of strengthening are compared. Finally, the computed numerical results are compared with those obtained from experiments. the cracking load, the ultimate load, lateral load-displacement curves obtained from numerical analysis for all joints were in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.The results obtained from the numerical analysis in most cases implies that this method is conservative and therefore can be used in design applications with confidence.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Strengthening, CFRP, reinforced concrete joints

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14 Strengthening by Assessment: A Case Study of Rail Bridges

Authors: Evangelos G. Ilias, Panagiotis G. Ilias, Vasileios T. Popotas


The United Kingdom has one of the oldest railway networks in the world dating back to 1825 when the world’s first passenger railway was opened. The network has some 40,000 bridges of various construction types using a wide range of materials including masonry, steel, cast iron, wrought iron, concrete and timber. It is commonly accepted that the successful operation of the network is vital for the economy of the United Kingdom, consequently the cost effective maintenance of the existing infrastructure is a high priority to maintain the operability of the network, prevent deterioration and to extend the life of the assets. Every bridge on the railway network is required to be assessed every eighteen years and a structured approach to assessments is adopted with three main types of progressively more detailed assessments used. These assessment types include Level 0 (standardized spreadsheet assessment tools), Level 1 (analytical hand calculations) and Level 2 (generally finite element analyses). There is a degree of conservatism in the first two types of assessment dictated to some extent by the relevant standards which can lead to some structures not achieving the required load rating. In these situations, a Level 2 Assessment is often carried out using finite element analysis to uncover ‘latent strength’ and improve the load rating. If successful, the more sophisticated analysis can save on costly strengthening or replacement works and avoid disruption to the operational railway. This paper presents the ‘strengthening by assessment’ achieved by Level 2 analyses. The use of more accurate analysis assumptions and the implementation of non-linear modelling and functions (material, geometric and support) to better understand buckling modes and the structural behaviour of historic construction details that are not specifically covered by assessment codes are outlined. Metallic bridges which are susceptible to loss of section size through corrosion have largest scope for improvement by the Level 2 Assessment methodology. Three case studies are presented, demonstrating the effectiveness of the sophisticated Level 2 Assessment methodology using finite element analysis against the conservative approaches employed for Level 0 and Level 1 Assessments. One rail overbridge and two rail underbridges that did not achieve the required load rating by means of a Level 1 Assessment due to the inadequate restraint provided by U-Frame action are examined and the increase in assessed capacity given by the Level 2 Assessment is outlined.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Assessment, Strengthening, Bridges, buckling, non-linear modelling

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13 Analytical Investigation on Seismic Behavior of Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames Strengthened with Precast Diagonal Concrete Panels

Authors: Ceyhun Aksoylu, Rifat Sezer


In this study, a strengthening method applicable without any evacuation process was investigated. In this analytical study, the pushover analysis results carry out by using the software of SAP2000. For this purpose, 1/3 scaled, 1-bay and 2-story R/C seven frames having usual deficiencies faults produced, one of which were not strengthened, but having brick-infill wall and the other 3 frames with infill walls strengthened with various shaped of high strength-precast diagonal concrete panels. The prepared analytical models investigated under reversed-cyclic loading that resembles the seismic effect. As a result of the analytical study, the properties of the reinforced concrete frames, such as strength, rigidity, energy dissipation capacity, etc. were determined and the strengthened models were compared with the unstrengthened one having the same properties. As a result of this study, the contributions of precast diagonal concrete applied on the infill walls of the existing frame systems against seismic effects were introduced with its advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: Strengthening, Pushover Analysis, Seismic Effect, RC frame, infill wall, precast diagonal concrete panel

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12 Analysis of a Strengthening of a Building Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Nassereddine Attari


Each operation to strengthen or repair requires special consideration and requires the use of methods, tools and techniques appropriate to the situation and specific problems of each of the constructs. The aim of this paper is to study the pathology of building of reinforced concrete towards the earthquake and the vulnerability assessment using a non-linear Pushover analysis and to develop curves for a medium capacity building in order to estimate the damaged condition of the building.

Keywords: Earthquake, Strengthening, Pushover Analysis, Damage

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11 Strengthening of Concrete Slabs with Steel Beams

Authors: Mizam Dogan


In service life; structures can be damaged if they are subjected to dead and live loads which are greater than design values. For preventing this case; possible loads must be correctly calculated, structure must be designed according to determined loads, and structure must not be used out of its function. If loading case of the structure changes when its function changes; it must be reinforced for continuing it is new function. Reinforcement is a process that is made by increasing the existing strengths of structural system elements of the structure as reinforced concrete walls, beams, and slabs. Reinforcement can be done by casting reinforced concrete, placing steel and fiber structural elements. In this paper, reinforcing of columns and slabs of a structure of which function is changed is studied step by step. This reinforcement is made for increasing vertical and lateral load carrying capacity of the building. Not for repairing damaged structural system.

Keywords: Strengthening, RC slabs, seismic load, steel beam, structural irregularity

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10 Study of Debonding of Composite Material from a Deforming Concrete Beam Using Infrared Thermography

Authors: Igor Shardakov, Anton Bykov, Alexey Shestakov, Irina Glot


This article focuses on the cycle of experimental studies of the formation of cracks and debondings in the concrete reinforced with carbon fiber. This research was carried out in Perm National Research Polytechnic University. A series of CFRP-strengthened RC beams was tested to investigate the influence of preload and crack repairing factors on CFRP debonding. IRT was applied to detect the early stage of IC debonding during the laboratory bending tests. It was found that for the beams strengthened under load after crack injecting, СFRP debonding strain is 4-65% lower than for the preliminary strengthened beams. The beams strengthened under the load had a relative area of debonding of 2 times higher than preliminary strengthened beams. The СFRP debonding strain is weakly dependent on the strength of the concrete substrate. For beams with a transverse wrapping anchorage in support sections FRP debonding is not a failure mode.

Keywords: Quality Control, Strengthening, Non-Destructive Testing Methods, infrared thermography, IC debonding

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9 Experimental Studies of Sigma Thin-Walled Beams Strengthen by CFRP Tapes

Authors: Katarzyna Rzeszut, Ilona Szewczak


The review of selected methods of strengthening of steel structures with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tapes and the analysis of influence of composite materials on the steel thin-walled elements are performed in this paper. The study is also focused to the problem of applying fast and effective strengthening methods of the steel structures made of thin-walled profiles. It is worth noting that the issue of strengthening the thin-walled structures is a very complex, due to inability to perform welded joints in this type of elements and the limited ability to applying mechanical fasteners. Moreover, structures made of thin-walled cross-section demonstrate a high sensitivity to imperfections and tendency to interactive buckling, which may substantially contribute to the reduction of critical load capacity. Due to the lack of commonly used and recognized modern methods of strengthening of thin-walled steel structures, authors performed the experimental studies of thin-walled sigma profiles strengthened with CFRP tapes. The paper presents the experimental stand and the preliminary results of laboratory test concerning the analysis of the effectiveness of the strengthening steel beams made of thin-walled sigma profiles with CFRP tapes. The study includes six beams made of the cold-rolled sigma profiles with height of 140 mm, wall thickness of 2.5 mm, and a length of 3 m, subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Four beams have been strengthened with carbon fiber tape Sika CarboDur S, while the other two were tested without strengthening to obtain reference results. Based on the obtained results, the evaluation of the accuracy of applied composite materials for strengthening of thin-walled structures was performed.

Keywords: Strengthening, CFRP tapes, sigma profiles, steel thin-walled structures

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8 Finite Element Modeling and Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Coupled Shear Walls Strengthened with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites

Authors: Sara Honarparast, Omar Chaallal


Reinforced concrete (RC) coupled shear walls (CSWs) are very effective structural systems in resisting lateral loads due to winds and earthquakes and are particularly used in medium- to high-rise RC buildings. However, most of existing old RC structures were designed for gravity loads or lateral loads well below the loads specified in the current modern seismic international codes. These structures may behave in non-ductile manner due to poorly designed joints, insufficient shear reinforcement and inadequate anchorage length of the reinforcing bars. This has been the main impetus to investigate an appropriate strengthening method to address or attenuate the deficiencies of these structures. The objective of this paper is to twofold: (i) evaluate the seismic performance of existing reinforced concrete coupled shear walls under reversed cyclic loading; and (ii) investigate the seismic performance of RC CSWs strengthened with externally bonded (EB) carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. To this end, two CSWs were considered as follows: (a) the first one is representative of old CSWs and therefore was designed according to the 1941 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC, 1941) with conventionally reinforced coupling beams; and (b) the second one, representative of new CSWs, was designed according to modern NBCC 2015 and CSA/A23.3 2014 requirements with diagonally reinforced coupling beam. Both CSWs were simulated using ANSYS software. Nonlinear behavior of concrete is modeled using multilinear isotropic hardening through a multilinear stress strain curve. The elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain curve is used to simulate the steel material. Bond stress–slip is modeled between concrete and steel reinforcement in conventional coupling beam rather than considering perfect bond to better represent the slip of the steel bars observed in the coupling beams of these CSWs. The old-designed CSW was strengthened using CFRP sheets bonded to the concrete substrate and the interface was modeled using an adhesive layer. The behavior of CFRP material is considered linear elastic up to failure. After simulating the loading and boundary conditions, the specimens are analyzed under reversed cyclic loading. The comparison of results obtained for the two unstrengthened CSWs and the one retrofitted with EB CFRP sheets reveals that the strengthening method improves the seismic performance in terms of strength, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Strengthening, carbon fiber reinforced polymer, coupling beam, coupled shear wall, modern code, old code

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7 Transversal Connection Strengthening of T Section Beam Bridge with Brace System

Authors: Chen Chen


T section beam bridge has been widely used in China as it is low cost and easy to erect. Some of T section beam bridges only have end diagrams and the adjacent girders are connected by wet-joint along span, which leads to the damage of transversal connection becomes a serious problem in operation and maintenance. This paper presents a brace system to strengthen the transversal connection of T section beam bridge. The strengthening effect was discussed by experiments and finite element analysis. The results show that the proposed brace system can improve load transfer between adjacent girders. Based on experiments and FEA model, displacement of T section beam with proposed brace system reduced 14.9% and 19.1% respectively. Integral rigidity increased 19.4% by static experiments. The transversal connection of T section beam bridge can be improved efficiently.

Keywords: Strengthening, Experiment, T section beam bridge, transversal connection

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6 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič


For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: Machining, Strengthening, Surface Integrity, plasma sprayed coating

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5 Experimental Investigation of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) Beams Using Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) Wrap

Authors: Sana Gul, Furqan Farooq, Arslan Akbar


Inadequate design of seismic structures and use of Low Strength Concrete (LSC) remains the major aspect of structure failure. Parametric investigation (LSC) beams based on experimental work using externally applied Carbon Fiber Reinforce Polymer (CFRP) warp in flexural behavior is studied. The ambition is to know the behavior of beams under loading condition, and its strengthening enhancement after inducing crack is studied, Moreover comparison of results using abacus software is studied. Results show significant enhancement in load carrying capacity, experimental work is compared with abacus software. The research is based on the conclusion that various existing structure but inadequacy in seismic design could increase the load carrying capacity by applying CFRP techniques, which not only strengthened but also provide them to resist even larger potential earthquake by improving its strength as well as ductility.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Strengthening, Carbon Fiber, Ductility

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4 Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slabs Using Prestressing Bars

Authors: Robin Kalfat, Riadh Al-Mahaidi, Haifa Saleh, Kamiran Abduka


The effectiveness of using pre-stressing steel bars for shear strengthening of high strength reinforced concrete (RC) slabs was assessed. Two large-scale RC slabs were tested, one without shear reinforcement and the second strengthened against punching shear failure using pre-stressing steel bars. The two slabs had the same dimensions, flexural reinforcement ratio, loading and support arrangements. The experimental program including the method of strengthening, set up and instrumentation are described in this paper. The experimental results are analyzed and discussed in terms of the structural behavior of the RC slabs, the performance of pre-stressing steel bolts and failure modes. The results confirmed that the shear strengthening technique increased the shear capacity, ductility and yield capacity of the slab by up to 15%, 44%, and 22%, respectively compared to the unstrengthened slab. The strengthening technique also successfully contributed to changing the failure mode from a brittle punching shear mode to ductile flexural failure mode. Vic3D digital image correlation system (photogrammetry) was also used in this research. This technique holds several advantages over traditional contact instrumentations including that it is inexpensive, it produces results that are simple to analyze and it is remote visualization technique. The displacement profile along the span of the slab and rotation has been found and compared with the results obtained from traditional sensors. The performance of the photogrammetry technique was very good and the results of both measurements were in very close agreement.

Keywords: Photogrammetry, Strengthening, flat slab, punching shear

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3 Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece

Authors: Chrysanthos Maraveas, Argiris Plesias, Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Konstantinos Petronikolos


The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.

Keywords: Strengthening, earthquake resistance, Pushover Analysis, Reinforced Concrete, retrofit

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2 Frequency and Stiffness before and after Strengthening of a Confined Masonry Wall with and without Openings

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud


This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with and without openings. Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP wall strengthening are analysed. Definition of dynamic properties of models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the models. For their importance and value, many of masonry building has been classified into mankind’s historical and cultural heritage of highest category. Considering that many of these buildings were built in the past and should be properly strengthened. From past earthquakes, it has been observed that the behaviour of the masonry systems under seismic impacts is substantially influenced by the presence and the location of the openings as well. Shaking table tests are planned in order to deepen the understanding of the behaviour of confined masonry structures with or without openings. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS) – Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP and re-tested. The main targets of this research are assessment of the influence of location and the area of the opening on the load-bearing capacity, rigidity, and ductility of confined masonry, definition of appropriate systems for improvement of the stiffness, load capacity and ductility of the system and contribution in the assessment procedures proposed for masonry building in Eurocode 8.3.

Keywords: Masonry, Strengthening, Frequency, shaking table test, behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode

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