Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

stream Related Abstracts

4 The Proposal of Modification of California Pipe Method for Inclined Pipe

Authors: Wojciech Dąbrowski, Joanna Bąk, Laurent Solliec

Abstract:

Nowadays technical and technological progress and constant development of methods and devices applied to sanitary engineering is indispensable. Issues related to sanitary engineering involve flow measurements for water and wastewater. The precise measurement is very important and pivotal for further actions, like monitoring. There are many methods and techniques of flow measurement in the area of sanitary engineering. Weirs and flumes are well–known methods and common used. But also there are alternative methods. Some of them are very simple methods, others are solutions using high technique. The old–time method combined with new technique could be more useful than earlier. Paper describes substitute method of flow gauging (California pipe method) and proposal of modification of this method used for inclined pipe. Examination of possibility of improving and developing old–time methods is direction of the investigation.

Keywords: Water, wastewater, Modification, improve, California pipe, sewerage, flow rate measurement, hydraulic monitoring, stream

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3 Reducing Energy Consumption and GHG Emission by Integration of Flare Gas with Fuel Gas Network in Refinery

Authors: N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi, M. Gholami

Abstract:

Gas flaring is one of the most GHG emitting sources in the oil and gas industries. It is also a major way for wasting such an energy that could be better utilized and even generates revenue. Minimize flaring is an effective approach for reducing GHG emissions and also conserving energy in flaring systems. Integrating waste and flared gases into the fuel gas networks (FGN) of refineries is an efficient tool. A fuel gas network collects fuel gases from various source streams and mixes them in an optimal manner, and supplies them to different fuel sinks such as furnaces, boilers, turbines, etc. In this article we use fuel gas network model proposed by Hasan et al. as a base model and modify some of its features and add constraints on emission pollution by gas flaring to reduce GHG emissions as possible. Results for a refinery case study showed that integration of flare gas stream with waste and natural gas streams to construct an optimal FGN can significantly reduce total annualized cost and flaring emissions.

Keywords: flaring, GHG emissions, stream, fuel gas network

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2 Ground Water Pollution Investigation around Çorum Stream Basin in Turkey

Authors: Sukru Dursun, Halil Bas, Unal Demiray

Abstract:

Water and ground water pollution at the most of the countries is important problem. Investigation of water pollution source must be carried out to save fresh water. Because fresh water sources are very limited and recent sources are not enough for increasing population of world. In this study, investigation was carried out on pollution factors effecting the quality of the groundwater in Çorum Stream Basin in Turkey. Effect of geological structure of the region and the interaction between the stream and groundwater was researched. For the investigation, stream and groundwater sampling were performed at rainy and dry seasons to see if there is a change on quality parameters. The results were evaluated by the computer programs and then graphics, distribution maps were prepared. Thus, degree of the quality and pollution were tried to understand. According to analysis results, because the results of streams and the ground waters are not so close to each other we can say that there is no interaction between the stream and the groundwater. As the irrigation water, the stream waters are generally in the range between C3S1 region and the ground waters are generally in the range between C3S1 and C4S2 regions according to US Salinity Laboratory Diagram. According to Wilcox diagram stream waters are generally good-permissible and ground waters are generally good permissible, doubtful to unsuitable and unsuitable type. Especially ground waters are doubtful to unsuitable and unsuitable types in dry season. It may be assumed that as the result of relative increase in concentration of salt minerals. Especially samples from groundwater wells bored close to gypsium bearing units have high hardness, electrical conductivity and salinity values. Thus for drinking and irrigation these waters are determined as unsuitable. As a result of these studies, it is understood that the groundwater especially was effected by the lithological contamination rather than the anthropogenic or the other types of pollution. Because the alluvium is covered by the silt and clay lithology it is not affected by the anthropogenic and the other foreign factors. The results of solid waste disposal site leachate indicate that this site would have a risk potential for pollution in the future. Although the parameters did not exceed the maximum dangerous values it does not mean that they will not be dangerous in the future, and this case must be taken into account.

Keywords: Geology, Hydrogeology, Environment, Pollution, Quality, Groundwater, stream, Çorum

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1 Effects of Watershed Erosion on Stream Channel Formation

Authors: Hong Zhou, Tiao Chang, Ivan Caballero

Abstract:

Streams carry water and sediment naturally by maintaining channel dimensions, pattern, and profile over time. Watershed erosion as a natural process has occurred to contribute sediment to streams over time. The formation of channel dimensions is complex. This study is to relate quantifiable and consistent channel dimensions at the bankfull stage to the corresponding watershed erosion estimation by the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Twelve sites of which drainage areas range from 7 to 100 square miles in the Hocking River Basin of Ohio were selected for the bankfull geometry determinations including width, depth, cross-section area, bed slope, and drainage area. The twelve sub-watersheds were chosen to obtain a good overall representation of the Hocking River Basin. It is of interest to determine how these bankfull channel dimensions are related to the soil erosion of corresponding sub-watersheds. Soil erosion is a natural process that has occurred in a watershed over time. The RUSLE was applied to estimate erosions of the twelve selected sub-watersheds where the bankfull geometry measurements were conducted. These quantified erosions of sub-watersheds are used to investigate correlations with bankfull channel dimensions including discharge, channel width, channel depth, cross-sectional area, and pebble distribution. It is found that drainage area, bankfull discharge and cross-sectional area correlates strongly with watershed erosion well. Furthermore, bankfull width and depth are moderately correlated with watershed erosion while the particle size, D50, of channel bed sediment is not well correlated with watershed erosion.

Keywords: watershed, channel, Sediment, stream

Procedia PDF Downloads 140