Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

straw Related Abstracts

5 Semen Characteristics of Ram Semen Frozen in Straw and Pellet in Three Type of Cold Plates

Authors: Abdurzag Kerban

Abstract:

Preservation of semen had a major impact on sheep genetic breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of ram spermatozoa after freezing pellet using cold surfaces made from cattle fat and paraffin wax. A pool of three to four ejaculates were pooled from six rams within a period of ten weeks. Semen was diluted in egg yolk-Tris diluent and processed in 0.25 ml straw and 0.1 ml pellets. Motility was evaluated after dilution, before freezing and post-thawing at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hour incubation. Viability index, acrosome integrity and leakage of intracellular enzymes (aspartat aminotransferase and alkline phosphatase) were also evaluated. Spermatozoa exhibited highly significant percentages of motility at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hours incubation after thawing and viability index in 0.25 ml straw and 0.1 ml pellets on cattle fat plate as compared to ram spermatozoa frozen on paraffin wax. In conclusion, cattle fat plate could be used as the cold surface of choice for freezing ram semen in form of pellets. Such form of frozen semen could be used as efficiently as semen frozen in straws. This simple method is economical with little expensive equipment or supplies, and may provide an efficient technique to cryopreserve ram spermatozoa in developing countries.

Keywords: freezing, ram semen, straw, pellet

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4 Effect of Feed Additive on Cryopreservation of Barki Ram Semen

Authors: Abdurzag Kerban, Mostfa M. Abou-Ahmed, Abdelrof M. Ghallab, Mona H. Shaker

Abstract:

Preservation of semen had a major impact on sheep genetic breeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected fat, probiotic and zinc-enriched diets on semen freezability. Twenty two Barki rams were randomly assigned into four groups; Group I (n=5) was fed the basal diet enriched with 3.7% of dry fat/kg concentration/day, Group II (n=5) was fed a basal diet-enriched with 10gm of probiotic /head/day, Group III (n=6) was fed on the basal diet enriched with 100 ppm of 10% zinc chelated with methionine/kg dry matter/day and Group IV (n=6) was served as control. A pool of three to four ejaculates were pooled from rams within a period of ten weeks. Semen was diluted in egg yolk-Tris diluent and processed in 0.25 ml straw. Motility was evaluated after dilution, before freezing and post-thawing at 0, 1, 2 and 3 hour incubation. Viability index, acrosome integrity and leakage of intracellular enzymes (Aspartat aminotransferase and Alkline phosphatase) were also evaluated. Spermatozoa exhibited highly significant (P<0.01) percentages of motility at 0, 1, 2, and 3 hours incubation after thawing, viability index and acrosome integrity in rams fed a diet enriched with protected fat and zinc groups as compared with probiotic and control groups. Also, the mean value of extracellular leakage of AST was significantly lower in fat and zinc group as compared with probiotic and control groups. In conclusion, semen freezability was improved in animals fed a diet fortified with fat and zinc with no significant improvement in animals fed the probiotic-enriched diet.

Keywords: Feed Additives, freezing, straw, Barki ram semen

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3 Physico-Chemical and Microbial Changes of Organic Fertilizers after Compositing Processes under Arid Conditions

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Med Tahar

Abstract:

The physico-chemical properties of poultry droppings indicate that this waste can be an excellent way to enrich the soil with low fertility that is the case in arid soils (low organic matter content), but its concentrations in some microbial and chemical components make them potentially dangerous and toxic contaminants if they are used directly in fresh state. On other hand, the accumulation of plant residues in the crop areas can become a source of plant disease and affects the quality of the environment. The biotechnological processes that we have identified appear to alleviate these problems. It leads to the stabilization and processing of wastes into a product of good hygienic quality and high fertilizer value by the composting test. In this context, a trial was conducted in composting operations in the region of Ouargla located in southern Algeria. Composing test was conducted in a completely randomized design experiment. Three mixtures were prepared, in pits of 1 m3 volume for each mixture. Each pit is composed by mixture of poultry droppings and crushed plant residues in amount of 40 and 60% respectively: C1: Droppings + Straw (P.D +S) , C2: Poultry Droppings + Olive Wastes (P.D+O.W) , C3: Poultry Droppings + Date palm residues (P.D+D.P). Before and after the composting process, physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, total carbon and total nitrogen) were studied. The stability of the biological system was noticed after 90 days. The results of physico-chemical and microbiological compost obtained from three mixtures: C1: (P.D +S) , C2: (P.D+O.W) and C3: (P.D +D.P) shows at the end of composting process, three composts characterized by the final products were characterized by their high agronomic and environmental interest with a good physico chemical characteristics in particularly a low C/N ratio with 15.15, 10.01 and 15.36 % for (P.D + S), (P.D. + O.W) and (P.D. +D.P), respectively, reflecting a stabilization and maturity of the composts. On the other hand, a significant increase of temperature was recorded at the first days of composting for all treatments, which is correlated with a strong reduction of the pathogenic micro flora contained in poultry dropings.

Keywords: Composting, straw, Arid environment, Date palm residues, Olive wastes, Pathogenic microorganisms, Poultry Droppings

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2 New Insulation Material for Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Razika Ihaddadene, Nabila Ihaddadene, Abdelwahaab Betka

Abstract:

1973 energy crisis (rising oil prices) pushed the world to consider other alternative energy resources to existing conventional energies consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons. Renewable energies such as solar, the wind and geothermal have received renewed interest, especially to preserve nature ( the low-temperature rise of global environmental problems). Solar energy as an available, cheap and environmental friendly alternative source has various applications such as heating, cooling, drying, power generation, etc. In short, there is no life on earth without this enormous nuclear reactor, called the sun. Among available solar collector designs, flat plate collector (FPC) is low-temperature applications (heating water, space heating, etc.) due to its simple design and ease of manufacturing. Flat plate collectors are permanently fixed in position and do not track the sun (non-concentrating collectors). They operate by converting solar radiation into heat and transferring that heat to a working fluid (usually air, water, water plus antifreeze additive) flowing through them. An FPC generally consists of the main following components: glazing, absorber plate of high absorptivity, fluid tubes welded to or can be an integral part of the absorber plate, insulation and container or casing of the above-mentioned components. Insulation is of prime importance in thermal applications. There are three main families of insulation: mineral insulation; vegetal insulation and synthetic organic insulation. The old houses of the inhabitants of North Africa were built of brick made of composite material that is clay and straw. These homes are characterized by their thermal comfort; i.e. the air inside these houses is cool in summer and warm in winter. So, the material composed from clay and straw act as a thermal insulation. In this research document, the polystyrene used as insulation in the ET200 flat plate solar collector is replaced by the cheapest natural material which is clay and straw. Trials were carried out on a solar energy demonstration system (ET 200). This system contains a solar collector, water storage tank, a high power lamp simulating solar energy and a control and command cabinet. In the experimental device, the polystyrene is placed under the absorber plate and in the edges of the casing containing the components of the solar collector. In this work, we have replaced the polystyrene of the edges by the composite material. The use of the clay and straw as insulation instead of the polystyrene increases temperature difference (T2-T1) between the inlet and the outlet of the absorber by 0.9°C; thus increases the useful power transmitted to water in the solar collector. Tank Water is well heated when using the clay and straw as insulation. However, it is less heated when using the polystyrene as insulation. Clay and straw material improves also the performance of the solar collector by 5.77%. Thus, it is recommended to use this cheapest non-polluting material instead of synthetic insulation to improve the performance of the solar collector.

Keywords: Solar Collector, Clay, polystyrene, straw, insulation material

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1 Soil Quality Response to Long-Term Intensive Resources Management and Soil Texture

Authors: Kristina Amaleviciute, Jonas Volungevicius, Dalia Feiziene, Virginijus Feiza, Agne Putramentaite, Sarunas Antanaitis

Abstract:

The investigations on soil conservation are one of the most important topics in modern agronomy. Soil management practices have great influence on soil physico-chemical quality and GHG emission. Research objective: To reveal the sensitivity and vitality of soils with different texture to long-term antropogenisation on Cambisol in Central Lithuania and to compare them with not antropogenised soil resources. Methods: Two long-term field experiments (loam on loam; sandy loam on loam) with different management intensity were estimated. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from 5-10, 15-20 and 30-35 cm depths. Soil available P and K contents were determined by ammonium lactate extraction, total N by the dry combustion method, SOC content by Tyurin titrimetric (classical) method, texture by pipette method. In undisturbed core samples soil pore volume distribution, plant available water (PAW) content were determined. A closed chamber method was applied to quantify soil respiration (SR). Results: Long-term resources management changed soil quality. In soil with loam texture, within 0-10, 10-20 and 30-35 cm soil layers, significantly higher PAW, SOC and mesoporosity (MsP) were under no-tillage (NT) than under conventional tillage (CT). However, total porosity (TP) under NT was significantly higher only in 0-10 cm layer. MsP acted as dominant factor for N, P and K accumulation in adequate layers. P content in all soil layers was higher under NT than in CT. N and K contents were significantly higher than under CT only in 0-10 cm layer. In soil with sandy loam texture, significant increase in SOC, PAW, MsP, N, P and K under NT was only in 0-10 cm layer. TP under NT was significantly lower in all layers. PAW acted as strong dominant factor for N, P, K accumulation. The higher PAW the higher NPK contents were determined. NT did not secure chemical quality within deeper layers than CT. Long-term application of mineral fertilisers significantly increased SOC and soil NPK contents primarily in top-soil. Enlarged fertilization determined the significantly higher leaching of nutrients to deeper soil layers (CT) and increased hazards of top-soil pollution. Straw returning significantly increased SOC and NPK accumulation in top-soil. The SR on sandy loam was significantly higher than on loam. At dry weather conditions, on loam SR was higher in NT than in CT, on sandy loam SR was higher in CT than in NT. NPK fertilizers promoted significantly higher SR in both dry and wet year, but suppressed SR on sandy loam during usual year. Not antropogenised soil had similar SOC and NPK distribution within 0-35 cm layer and depended on genesis of soil profile horizons.

Keywords: Fertilizers, Soil Tillage, soil texture, straw, long-term experiments

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0 Particleboard Production from Atmospheric Plasma Treated Wheat Straw Particles

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Petra Gajdacova, Milan Podlena, Miloš Pavelek, Matěj Hodoušek, Martin Böhm

Abstract:

Particle boards have being used in the civil engineering as a decking for load bearing and non-load bearing vertical walls and horizontal panels (e. g. floors, ceiling, roofs) in a large scale. When the straw is used as non-wood material for manufacturing of lignocellulosic panels, problems with wax layer on the surface of the material can occur. Higher percentage of silica and wax cause the problems with the adhesion of the adhesive and this is the reason why it is necessary to break the surface layer for the better bonding effect. Surface treatment of the particles cause better mechanical properties, physical properties and the overall better results of the composite material are reached. Plasma application is one possibility how to modify the surface layer. The aim of this research is to modify the surface of straw particles by using cold plasma treatment. Surface properties of lignocellulosic materials were observed before and after cold plasma treatment. Cold plasma does not cause any structural changes deeply in the material. There are only changes in surface layers, which are required. Results proved that the plasma application influenced the properties of surface layers and the properties of composite material.

Keywords: Composite, Surface treatment, cold plasma, straw, lignocellulosic materials

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