Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

strain Related Abstracts

23 Structural Behavior of Lightweight Concrete Made With Scoria Aggregates and Mineral Admixtures

Authors: M. Shannag, A. Charif, S. Naser, F. Faisal, A. Karim

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Structural lightweight concrete is used primarily to reduce the dead-load weight in concrete members such as floors in high-rise buildings and bridge decks. With given materials, it is generally desired to have the highest possible strength/unit weight ratio with the lowest cost of concrete. The work presented herein is part of an ongoing research project that investigates the properties of concrete mixes containing locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and mineral admixtures. Properties considered included: workability, unit weight, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength. Test results indicated that developing structural lightweight concretes (SLWC) using locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and specific blends of silica fume and fly ash seems to be feasible. The stress-strain diagrams plotted for the structural LWC mixes developed in this investigation were comparable to a typical stress-strain diagram for normal weight concrete with relatively larger strain capacity at failure in case of LWC.

Keywords: fly ash, stress, silica fume, lightweight concrete, scoria, strain

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22 Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with 100% Spin- Polarization in the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 Superlattice under Uniaxial Strain

Authors: Jiwuer Jilili, Udo Schwingenschlogl, Fabrizio Cossu

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By first-principles calculations we investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the (LaMnO3)2/(SrTiO3)2 superlattice. We find that a monoclinic C2h symmetry is energetically favorable and that the spins order ferromagnetically. Under both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain the electronic structure of the superlattice shows a half-metallic character. In particular, a fully spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas, which traces back to the Ti 3dxy orbitals, is achieved under compressive uniaxial strain.

Keywords: strain, superlattice, manganite

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21 Improvement of Performance for R. C. Beams Made from Recycled Aggregate by Using Non-Traditional Admixture

Authors: A. H. Yehia, M. M. Rashwan, K. A. Assaf, K. Abd el Samee

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The aim of this work is to use an environmental, cheap; organic non-traditional admixture to improve the structural behavior of sustainable reinforced concrete beams contains different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate. The used admixture prepared by using wastes from vegetable oil industry. Under and over reinforced concrete beams made from natural aggregate and different ratios of recycled concrete aggregate were tested under static load until failure. Eight beams were tested to investigate the performance and mechanism effect of admixture on improving deformation characteristics, modulus of elasticity and toughness of tested beams. Test results show efficiency of organic admixture on improving flexural behavior of beams contains 20% recycled concrete aggregate more over the other ratios.

Keywords: Toughness, strain, deflection, modulus of elasticity, recycled concrete aggregate, non-traditional admixture, under and over reinforcement

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20 Influence of the Paint Coating Thickness in Digital Image Correlation Experiments

Authors: Jesús A. Pérez, Sam Coppieters, Dimitri Debruyne

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In the past decade, the use of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques has increased significantly in the area of experimental mechanics, especially for materials behavior characterization. This non-contact tool enables full field displacement and strain measurements over a complete region of interest. The DIC algorithm requires a random contrast pattern on the surface of the specimen in order to perform properly. To create this pattern, the specimen is usually first coated using a white matt paint. Next, a black random speckle pattern is applied using any suitable method. If the applied paint coating is too thick, its top surface may not be able to exactly follow the deformation of the specimen, and consequently, the strain measurement might be underestimated. In the present article, a study of the influence of the paint thickness on the strain underestimation is performed for different strain levels. The results are then compared to typical paint coating thicknesses applied by experienced DIC users. A slight strain underestimation was observed for paint coatings thicker than about 30μm. On the other hand, this value was found to be uncommonly high compared to coating thicknesses applied by DIC users.

Keywords: strain, digital image correlation, paint coating thickness

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19 Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Unbonded Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Fares Jnaid, Riyad Aboutaha

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In this paper, a nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out using ANSYS software to build a model able of predicting the behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams with unbonded reinforcement. The FEA model was compared to existing experimental data by other researchers. The existing experimental data consisted of 16 beams that varied from structurally sound beams to beams with unbonded reinforcement with different unbonded lengths and reinforcement ratios. The model was able to predict the ultimate flexural strength, load-deflection curve, and crack pattern of concrete beams with unbonded reinforcement. It was concluded that when the when the unbonded length is less than 45% of the span, there will be no decrease in the ultimate flexural strength due to the loss of bond between the steel reinforcement and the surrounding concrete regardless of the reinforcement ratio. Moreover, when the reinforcement ratio is relatively low, there will be no decrease in ultimate flexural strength regardless of the length of unbond.

Keywords: FEA, strain, ANSYS, unbond

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18 Bond-Slip Response of Reinforcing Bars Embedded in High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: Lee Siong Wee, Tan Kang Hai, Yang En-Hua

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This paper presents the results of an experimental study undertaken to evaluate the local bond stress-slip response of short embedment of reinforcing bars in normal concrete (NC) and high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC) blocks. Long embedment was investigated as well to gain insights on the distribution of strain, slip, bar stress and bond stress along the bar especially in post-yield range. A total of 12 specimens were tested, by means of pull-out of the reinforcing bars from concrete blocks. It was found that the enhancement of local bond strength can be reached up to 50% and ductility of the bond behavior was improved significantly if HPFRCC is used. Also, under a constant strain at loaded end, HPFRCC has delayed yielding of bars at other location from the loaded end. Hence, the reduction of bond stress was slower for HPFRCC in comparison with NC. Due to the same reason, the total slips at loaded end for HPFRCC was smaller than NC as expected. Test results indicated that HPFRCC has better bond slip behavior which makes it a suitable material to be employed in anchorage zone such as beam-column joints.

Keywords: strain, bond stress, slip, high performance fiber reinforced cement composites

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17 Identification of High Stress Regions in Proximal Femur During Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: Hossein Kheirollahi, Yunhua Luo

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Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, stress, strain, hip fracture

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16 Some Factors Affecting Reproductive Traits in Nigerian Indigenous Chickens under Intensive Management System

Authors: A. A. Ibrahim, A. O. Raji, J. Aliyu

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The study was carried out to assess the fertility, early and late embryonic mortalities as well as hatchability by strain, season and hen’s weight in Nigerian indigenous chickens reared on deep litter. Four strains (normal feathered, naked neck, frizzle and dwarf) of hens maintained at a mating ratio of 1 cock to 4 hens, fed breeders mash and water ad libitum were used in a three year experiment. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS package and the means, where significant, were separated using the least significant difference (LSD). There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of strain on all the traits studied. Fertility was generally high (84.29 %) in all the strains. Early embryonic mortality was significantly lowest (P < 0.01) in naked neck which had the highest late embryonic mortality (P < 0.001). Hatchability was significantly highest (P < 0.01) in normal feathered (80.23 %) and slightly depressed in frizzle (74.95 %) and dwarf (72.27 %) while naked neck had the lowest (60.80 %). Season of the year had significant effects on early embryonic mortality. Dry hot season significantly (P < 0.05) depressed fertility while early embryonic mortality was depressed in the wet season (15.33 %). Early and late embryonic mortalities significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing weight of hen. Dwarf, frizzle and normal feathered hens could be used to improve hatchability as well as reduce early and late embryonic mortalities in Nigerian indigenous chickens.

Keywords: Indigenous, Fertility, Chicken, strain, hatchability

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15 Polyurethane Membrane Mechanical Property Study for a Novel Carotid Covered Stent

Authors: Keping Zuo, Jia Yin Chia, Gideon Praveen Kumar Vijayakumar, Foad Kabinejadian, Fangsen Cui, Pei Ho, Hwa Liang Leo

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Carotid artery is the major vessel supplying blood to the brain. Carotid artery stenosis is one of the three major causes of stroke and the stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the first leading cause of disability in most developed countries. Although there is an increasing interest in carotid artery stenting for treatment of cervical carotid artery bifurcation therosclerotic disease, currently available bare metal stents cannot provide an adequate protection against the detachment of the plaque fragments over diseased carotid artery, which could result in the formation of micro-emboli and subsequent stroke. Our research group has recently developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet retaining the ability to preserve the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid therosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical property of PU membrane of different concentration configurations in order to refine the stent coating technique and enhance the clinical performance of our novel carotid covered stent. Results from this study also provide necessary material property information crucial for accurate simulation analysis for our stents. Method: Medical grade Polyurethane (ChronoFlex AR) was used to prepare PU membrane specimens. Different PU membrane configurations were subjected to uniaxial test: 22%, 16%, and 11% PU solution were made by mixing the original solution with proper amount of the Dimethylacetamide (DMAC). The specimens were then immersed in physiological saline solution for 24 hours before test. All specimens were moistened with saline solution before mounting and subsequent uniaxial testing. The specimens were preconditioned by loading the PU membrane sample to a peak stress of 5.5 Mpa for 10 consecutive cycles at a rate of 50 mm/min. The specimens were then stretched to failure at the same loading rate. Result: The results showed that the stress-strain response curves of all PU membrane samples exhibited nonlinear characteristic. For the ultimate failure stress, 22% PU membrane was significantly higher than 16% (p<0.05). In general, our preliminary results showed that lower concentration PU membrane is stiffer than the higher concentration one. From the perspective of mechanical properties, 22% PU membrane is a better choice for the covered stent. Interestingly, the hyperelastic Ogden model is able to accurately capture the nonlinear, isotropic stress-strain behavior of PU membrane with R2 of 0.9977 ± 0.00172. This result will be useful for future biomechanical analysis of our stent designs and will play an important role for computational modeling of our covered stent fatigue study.

Keywords: Nonlinear, stress, strain, carotid artery, hyperelastic, covered stent

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14 The Effect of Stent Coating on the Stent Flexibility: Comparison of Covered Stent and Bare Metal Stent

Authors: Keping Zuo, Gideon Praveen Kumar Vijayakumar, Foad Kabinejadian, Fangsen Cui, Pei Ho, Hwa Liang Leo

Abstract:

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is the standard procedure for patients with severe carotid stenosis at high risk for carotid endarterectomy (CAE). A major drawback of CAS is the higher incidence of procedure-related stroke compared with traditional open surgical treatment for carotid stenosis - CEA, even with the use of the embolic protection devices (EPD). As the currently available bare metal stents cannot address this problem, our research group developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet maintaining the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of membrane coating on the stent flexibility in order to improve the clinical performance of our novel covered stents. A total of 21 stents were evaluated in this study: 15 self expanding bare nitinol stents and 6 PTFE-covered stents. 10 of the bare stents were coated with 11%, 16% and 22% Polyurethane(PU), 4%, 6.25% and 11% EE, as well as 22% PU plus 5 μm Parylene. Different laser cutting designs were performed on 4 of the PTFE covert stents. All the stents, with or without the covered membrane, were subjected to a three-point flexural test. The stents were placed on two supports that are 30 mm apart, and the actuator is applying a force in the exact middle of the two supports with a loading pin with radius 2.5 mm. The loading pin displacement change, the force and the variation in stent shape were recorded for analysis. The flexibility of the stents was evaluated by the lumen area preservation at three displacement bending levels: 5mm, 7mm, and 10mm. All the lumen areas in all stents decreased with the increase of the displacement from 0 to 10 mm. The bare stents were able to maintain 0.864 ± 0.015, 0.740 ± 0.025 and 0.597 ± 0.031of original lumen area at 5 mm, 7 mm and 10mm displacement respectively. For covered stents, the stents with EE coating membrane showed the best lumen area preservation (0.839 ± 0.005, 0.7334 ± 0.043 and 0.559 ± 0.014), whereas, the stents with PU and Parylene coating were only 0.662, 0.439 and 0.305. Bending stiffness was also calculated and compared. These results provided optimal material information and it was crucial for enhancing clinical performance of our novel covered stents.

Keywords: Nonlinear, stress, strain, carotid artery, hyperelastic, covered stent

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13 3-D Strain Imaging of Nanostructures Synthesized via CVD

Authors: Jong Woo Kim, Sohini Manna, Oleg Shpyrko, Eric E. Fullerton

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CVD techniques have emerged as a promising approach in the formation of a broad range of nanostructured materials. The realization of many practical applications will require efficient and economical synthesis techniques that preferably avoid the need for templates or costly single-crystal substrates and also afford process adaptability. Towards this end, we have developed a single-step route for the reduction-type synthesis of nanostructured Ni materials using a thermal CVD method. By tuning the CVD growth parameters, we can synthesize morphologically dissimilar nanostructures including single-crystal cubes and Au nanostructures which form atop untreated amorphous SiO2||Si substrates. An understanding of the new properties that emerge in these nanostructures materials and their relationship to function will lead to for a broad range of magnetostrictive devices as well as other catalysis, fuel cell, sensor, and battery applications based on high-surface-area transition-metal nanostructures. We use coherent X-ray diffraction imaging technique to obtain 3-D image and strain maps of individual nanocrystals. Coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) is a technique that provides the overall shape of a nanostructure and the lattice distortion based on the combination of highly brilliant coherent x-ray sources and phase retrieval algorithm. We observe a fine interplay of reduction of surface energy vs internal stress, which plays an important role in the morphology of nano-crystals. The strain distribution is influenced by the metal-substrate interface and metal-air interface, which arise due to differences in their thermal expansion. We find the lattice strain at the surface of the octahedral gold nanocrystal agrees well with the predictions of the Young-Laplace equation quantitatively, but exhibits a discrepancy near the nanocrystal-substrate interface resulting from the interface. The strain in the bottom side of the Ni nanocube, which is contacted on the substrate surface is compressive. This is caused by dissimilar thermal expansion coefficients between Ni nanocube and Si substrate. Research at UCSD support by NSF DMR Award # 1411335.

Keywords: Nanostructures, CVD, strain, CXRD

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12 Torsional Vibration of Carbon Nanotubes via Nonlocal Gradient Theories

Authors: Mustafa Arda, Metin Aydogdu

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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have many possible application areas because of their superior physical properties. Nonlocal Theory, which unlike the classical theories, includes the size dependency. Nonlocal Stress and Strain Gradient approaches can be used in nanoscale static and dynamic analysis. In the present study, torsional vibration of CNTs was investigated according to nonlocal stress and strain gradient theories. Effects of the small scale parameters to the non-dimensional frequency were obtained. Results were compared with the Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Lattice Dynamics. Strain Gradient Theory has shown more weakening effect on CNT according to the Stress Gradient Theory. Combination of both theories gives more acceptable results rather than the classical and stress or strain gradient theory according to Lattice Dynamics.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, stress, strain, torsional vibration, nonlocal gradient theory

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11 Structural Performance Evaluation of Power Boiler for the Pressure Release Valve in Consideration of the Thermal Expansion

Authors: Young-Chul Park, Jong-Kyu Kim, Young-Hun Lee, Tae-Gwan Kim

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In this study, Spring safety valve Heat - structure coupled analysis was carried out. Full analysis procedure and performing thermal analysis at a maximum temperature, them to the results obtained through to give an additional load and the pressure on the valve interior, and Disc holder Heat-Coupled structure Analysis was carried out. Modeled using a 3D design program Solidworks, For the modeling of the safety valve was used 3D finite element analysis program ANSYS. The final result to be obtained through the Analysis examined the stability of the maximum displacement and the maximum stress to the valve internal components occurring in the high-pressure conditions.

Keywords: deformation, stress, Finite Element Method, strain, gap, spring safety valve

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10 Injury Pattern of Field Hockey Players at Different Field Position during Game and Practice

Authors: Sujay Bisht

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The purpose of the study was to assess and examines the pattern of injury among the field hockey players at different field position during practice & game. It was hypothesized that the backfield might have the height rate of injury, followed by midfield. Methods: university level and national level male field hockey (N=60) are selected as a subject and requested to respond an anon questionnaire. Personal characteristics of each and individual players were also collected like (age, height, weight); field hockey professional information (level of play, year of experience, playing surface); players injury history (site, types, cause etc). The rates of injury per athlete per year were also calculated. Result: Around half of the injury occurred were to the lower limbs (49%) followed by head and face (30%), upper limbs (19%) and torso region (2%). Injuries included concussion, wounds, broken nose, ligament sprain, dislocation, fracture, and muscles strain and knee injury. The ligament sprain is the highest rate (40%) among the other types of injuries. After investigation and evaluation backfield players had the highest rate of risk of injury (1.10 injury/athletes-year) followed by midfield players (0.70 injury/athlete-year), forward players (0.45 injury/athlete-year) & goalkeeper was (0.37 injury/athlete-year). Conclusion: Due to the different field position the pattern & rate of injury were different. After evaluation, lower limbs had the highest rate of injury followed by head and face, upper limbs and torso respectively. It also revealed that not only there is a difference in the rate of injury between playing the position, but also in the types of injury sustain at a different position.

Keywords: Trauma, strain, sprain, astroturf, acute injury

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9 The Small Strain Effects to the Shear Strength and Maximum Stiffness of Post-Cyclic Degradation of Hemic Peat Soil

Authors: Z. Adnan, M. M. Habib

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The laboratory tests for measuring the effects of small strain to the shear strength and maximum stiffness development of post-cyclic degradation of hemic peat are reviewed in this paper. A series of laboratory testing has been conducted to fulfil the objective of this research to study the post-cyclic behaviour of peat soil and focuses on the small strain characteristics. For this purpose, a number of strain-controlled static, cyclic and post-cyclic triaxial tests were carried out in undrained condition on hemic peat soil. The shear strength and maximum stiffness of hemic peat are evaluated immediately after post-cyclic monotonic testing. There are two soil samples taken from West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil. Based on these laboratories and field testing data, it was found that the shear strength and maximum stiffness of peat soil decreased in post-cyclic monotonic loading than its initial shear strength and stiffness. In particular, degradation in shear strength and stiffness is more sensitive for peat soil due to fragile and uniform fibre structures. Shear strength of peat soil, τmax = 12.53 kPa (Beaufort peat, BFpt) and 36.61 kPa (Parit Nipah peat, PNpt) decreased than its initial 58.46 kPa and 91.67 kPa. The maximum stiffness, Gmax = 0.23 and 0.25 decreased markedly with post-cyclic, Gmax = 0.04 and 0.09. Simple correlations between the Gmax and the τmax effects due to small strain, ε = 0.1, the Gmax values for post-cyclic are relatively low compared to its initial Gmax. As a consequence, the reported values and patterns of both the West Johor and East Malaysia peat soil are generally the same.

Keywords: Shear Strength, strain, post-cyclic, maximum stiffness

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8 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine

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Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: temperature, strain, humidity, structural health monitoring (SHM), Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGS)

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7 Horizontal Stress Magnitudes Using Poroelastic Model in Upper Assam Basin, India

Authors: Rima Chatterjee, Jenifer Alam

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Upper Assam sedimentary basin is one of the oldest commercially producing basins of India. Being in a tectonically active zone, estimation of tectonic strain and stress magnitudes has vast application in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This East North East –West South West trending shelf-slope basin encompasses the Bramhaputra valley extending from Mikir Hills in the southwest to the Naga foothills in the northeast. Assam Shelf lying between the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Naga Thrust area is comparatively free from thrust tectonics and depicts normal faulting mechanism. The study area is bounded by the MBT and Main Central Thrust in the northwest. The Belt of Schuppen in the southeast, is bordered by Naga and Disang thrust marking the lower limit of the study area. The entire Assam basin shows low-level seismicity compared to other regions of northeast India. Pore pressure (PP), vertical stress magnitude (SV) and horizontal stress magnitudes have been estimated from two wells - N1 and T1 located in Upper Assam. N1 is located in the Assam gap below the Bramhaputra river while T1, lies in the Belt of Schuppen. N1 penetrates geological formations from top Alluvial through Dhekiajuli, Girujan, Tipam, Barail, Kopili, Sylhet and Langpur to the granitic basement while T1 in trusted zone crosses through Girujan Suprathrust, Tipam Suprathrust, Barail Suprathrust to reach Naga Thrust. Normal compaction trend is drawn through shale points through both wells for estimation of PP using the conventional Eaton sonic equation with an exponent of 1.0 which is validated with Modular Dynamic Tester and mud weight. Observed pore pressure gradient ranges from 10.3 MPa/km to 11.1 MPa/km. The SV has a gradient from 22.20 to 23.80 MPa/km. Minimum and maximum horizontal principal stress (Sh and SH) magnitudes under isotropic conditions are determined using poroelastic model. This approach determines biaxial tectonic strain utilizing static Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, SV, PP, leak off test (LOT) and SH derived from breakouts using prior information on unconfined compressive strength. Breakout derived SH information is used for obtaining tectonic strain due to lack of measured SH data from minifrac or hydrofracturing. Tectonic strain varies from 0.00055 to 0.00096 along x direction and from -0.0010 to 0.00042 along y direction. After obtaining tectonic strains at each well, the principal horizontal stress magnitudes are calculated from linear poroelastic model. The magnitude of Sh and SH gradient in normal faulting region are 12.5 and 16.0 MPa/km while in thrust faulted region the gradients are 17.4 and 20.2 MPa/km respectively. Model predicted Sh and SH matches well with the LOT data and breakout derived SH data in both wells. It is observed from this study that the stresses SV>SH>Sh prevailing in the shelf region while near the Naga foothills the regime changes to SH≈SV>Sh area corresponds to normal faulting regime. Hence this model is a reliable tool for predicting stress magnitudes from well logs under active tectonic regime in Upper Assam Basin.

Keywords: stress, strain, Eaton, poroelastic model

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6 Structure Domains Tuning Magnetic Anisotropy and Motivating Novel Electric Behaviors in LaCoO₃ Films

Authors: Yongqi Dong, Dechao Meng, Qiyuan Feng, Zhangzhang Cui, Xiang Hu, Haoliang Huang, Genhao Liang, Huanhua Wang, Hua Zhou, Hawoong Hong, Jinghua Guo, Qingyou Lu, Xiaofang Zhai, Yalin Lu

Abstract:

Great efforts have been taken to reveal the intrinsic origins of emerging ferromagnetism (FM) in strained LaCoO₃ (LCO) films. However, some macro magnetic performances of LCO are still not well understood and even controversial, such as magnetic anisotropy. Determining and understanding magnetic anisotropy might help to find the true causes of FM in turn. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) was the first time to be directly observed in high-quality LCO films with different thickness. The in-plane (IP) and out of plane (OOP) remnant magnetic moment ratio of 30 unit cell (u.c.) films is as large as 20. The easy axis lays in the OOP direction with an IP/OOP coercive field ratio of 10. What's more, the PMA could be simply tuned by changing the thickness. With the thickness increases, the IP/OOP magnetic moment ratio remarkably decrease with magnetic easy axis changing from OOP to IP. Such a huge and tunable PMA performance exhibit strong potentials in fundamental researches or applications. What causes PMA is the first concern. More OOP orbitals occupation may be one of the micro reasons of PMA. A cluster-like magnetic domain pattern was found in 30 u.c. with no obvious color contrasts, similar to that of LaAlO₃/SrTiO₃ films. And the nanosize domains could not be totally switched even at a large OOP magnetic field of 23 T. It indicates strong IP characters or none OOP magnetism of some clusters. The IP magnetic domains might influence the magnetic performance and help to form PMA. Meanwhile some possible nonmagnetic clusters might be the reason why the measured moments of LCO films are smaller than the calculated values 2 μB/Co, one of the biggest confusions in LCO films.What tunes PMA seems much more interesting. Totally different magnetic domain patterns were found in 180 u.c. films with cluster magnetic domains surrounded by < 110 > cross-hatch lines. These lines were regarded as structure domain walls (DWs) determined by 3D reciprocal space mapping (RSM). Two groups of in-plane features with fourfold symmetry were observed near the film diffraction peaks in (002) 3D-RSM. One is along < 110 > directions with a larger intensity, which is well match the lines on the surfaces. The other is much weaker and along < 100 > directions, which is from the normal lattice titling of films deposited on cubic substrates. The < 110 > domain features obtained from (103) and (113) 3D-RSMs exhibit similar evolution of the DWs percentages and magnetic behavior. Structure domains and domain walls are believed to tune PMA performances by transform more IP magnetic moments to OOP. Last but not the least, thick films with lots of structure domains exhibit different electrical transport behaviors. A metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) and an angular dependent negative magnetic resistivity were observed near 150 K, higher than FM transition temperature but similar to that of spin-orbital coupling related 1/4 order diffraction peaks.

Keywords: Magnetic Anisotropy, Magnetic Domain, strain, structure domain, domain wall

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5 Evaluating the Impact of Early Maternal Incarceration on Male Delinquent Behavior during Emerging Adulthood through the Mediating Mechanism of Mastery

Authors: Richard Abel

Abstract:

In the United States, increased incarceration rates have caused many adolescents to feel the strain of parental absence. This absence is then manifest through adolescent feelings of parental rejection. Additionally, upon reentry maternal incarceration may be related to adolescents experienced perceived excessive disciple. It is possible parents engage in this manner of discipline attempting to prevent the child from taking the same path to incarceration as the parent. According to General Strain Theory, adolescents encountering strain are likely to experience negative emotions. The emotion that is most likely to lead to delinquency is anger through reduced inhibitions and motivation to act. Additionally, males are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior, regardless of experiencing strain. This is not the case for every male who experiences maternal incarceration, parental rejection, excessive discipline, or anger. There are protective factors that enable agency within individuals. One such protective factor is mastery, or the perception that one is in control of his or her own future. The model proposed in this research suggests maternal incarceration is associated with increased parental rejection and excessive discipline in males. Males experiencing parental rejection and excessive discipline are likely to experience increased anger, which is then associated with increases in delinquent behavior. This model explores whether agency, in the form of mastery, mediates the relationship between strains and negative emotions, or between negative emotions and delinquent behavior. The Kaplan Longitudinal and Multigenerational Study (KLAMS) dataset is uniquely situated to analyze this model providing longitudinal data collected from both parents and their offspring. Maternal incarceration is constructed using parental responses such that the mother was incarcerated after the child’s birth, and any incarceration that happened prior to birth is excluded. The remaining variables of the study are all constructed from varying waves of the adolescent survey. Parental rejection, along with control variables for age, race, parental socioeconomic status, neighborhood effects, delinquent peers, and prior delinquent behavior are all constructed using Wave I data. To increase causal inference, the negative emotion of anger and the mediating variable of mastery are measured during Wave II. Lastly, delinquent behavior is measured at Wave III. Results of the analysis show expected relationships such that adolescent males encountering maternal incarceration show increased perception of parental rejection and excessive discipline. Additionally, there is a positive relationship between parental rejection and excessive discipline at Wave I and feelings of anger at Wave II for males. For males experiencing either of these strains in Wave I, feelings of anger in Wave II are found to be associated with increased delinquent behavior in Wave III. Mastery was found to mediate the relationship between both parental rejection and excessive discipline and anger, but no such mediation occurs in the relationship between anger and delinquency, regardless of the strain being experienced. These findings suggest adolescent males who feel they are in control of their own lives are less likely to experience negative emotions produced by the occurrence of strain, thereby decreasing male engagement in delinquent behavior later in life.

Keywords: Delinquency, strain, mastery, maternal incarceration

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4 A Hard Day's Night: Persistent Within-Individual Effects of Job Demands and the Role of Recovery Processes

Authors: Helen Pluut, Remus Ilies, Nikos Dimotakis, Maral Darouei

Abstract:

This study aims to examine recovery from work as an important daily activity with implications for workplace behavior. Building on affective events theory and the stressor-detachment model as frameworks, this paper proposes and tests a comprehensive within-individual model that uncovers the role of recovery processes at home in linking workplace demands (e.g., workload) and stressors (e.g., workplace incivility) to next-day organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Our sample consisted of 126 full-time employees in a large Midwestern University. For a period of 16 working days, these employees were asked to fill out 3 electronic surveys while at work. The first survey (sent out in the morning) measured self-reported sleep quality, recovery experiences the previous day at home, and momentary effect. The second survey (sent out close to the end of the workday) measured job demands and stressors as well as OCBs, while the third survey in the evening assessed job strain. Data were analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that job demands and stressors at work made it difficult to unwind properly at home and have a good night’s sleep, which had repercussions for next day’s morning effect, which, in turn, influenced OCBs. It can be concluded that processes of recovery are vital to an individual’s daily effective functioning and behavior at work, but recovery may become impaired after a hard day’s work. Thus, our study sheds light on the potentially persistent nature of strain experienced as a result of work and points to the importance of recovery processes to enable individuals to avoid such cross-day spillover. Our paper will discuss this implication for theory and practice as well as potential directions for future research.

Keywords: Recovery, Affect, strain, organizational citizenship behavior, job demands

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3 Characterization of Shrinkage-Induced Cracking of Clay Soils

Authors: Ahmad El Hajjar, Joanna Eid, Salima Bouchemella, Tariq Ouahbi, Benoit Duchemin, Said Taibi

Abstract:

In our present society, raw earth presents an alternative as an energy-saving building material for dealing with climate and environmental issues. Nevertheless, it has a sensitivity to water, due to the presence of fines, which has a direct effect on its consistency. This can be expressed during desiccation, by shrinkage deformations resulting in cracking that begins once the internal tensile stresses developed, due to suction, exceed the tensile strength of the material. This work deals with the evolution of the strain of clay samples, from the beginning of shrinkage until the initiation of crack, using the DIC (Digital Image Correlation) technique. In order to understand the origin of cracking, desiccation is studied for different boundary conditions and depending on the intrinsic characteristics of the material. On the other hand, a study of restrained shrinkage is carried out on the ring test to investigate the ultimate tensile strength from which the crack begins in the dough of clay. The purpose of this test is to find the type of reinforcement adapted to thwart in the cracking of the material. A microscopic analysis of the damaged area is necessary to link the macroscopic mechanisms of cracking to the various physicochemical phenomena at the microscopic scale in order to understand the different microstructural mechanisms and their impact on the macroscopic shrinkage.

Keywords: cracking, strain, digital image correlation, clayey soil, shrinkage

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2 Low Plastic Deformation Energy to Induce High Superficial Strain on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Authors: Patricia Fernandez, Emigdio Mendoza, Cristian Gomez

Abstract:

Magnesium alloys have generated great interest for several industrial applications because their high specific strength and low density make them a very attractive alternative for the manufacture of various components; however, these alloys present a limitation with their hexagonal crystal structure that limits the deformation mechanisms at room temperature likewise the molding components alternatives, it is for this reason that severe plastic deformation processes have taken a huge relevance recently because these, allow high deformation rates to be applied that induce microstructural changes where the deficiency in the sliding systems is compensated with crystallographic grains reorientations or crystal twinning. The present study reports a statistical analysis of process temperature, number of passes and shear angle with respect to the shear stress in severe plastic deformation process denominated 'Equal Channel Angular Sheet Drawing (ECASD)' applied to the magnesium alloy AZ31B through Python Statsmodels libraries, additionally a Post-Hoc range test is performed using the Tukey statistical test. Statistical results show that each variable has a p-value lower than 0.05, which allows comparing the average values of shear stresses obtained, which are in the range of 7.37 MPa to 12.23 MPa, lower values in comparison to others severe plastic deformation processes reported in the literature, considering a value of 157.53 MPa as the average creep stress for AZ31B alloy. However, a higher stress level is required when the sheets are processed using a shear angle of 150°, due to a higher level of adjustment applied for the shear die of 150°. Temperature and shear passes are important variables as well, but there is no significant impact on the level of stress applied during the ECASD process. In the processing of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets, ECASD technique is evidenced as a viable alternative in the modification of the elasto-plastic properties of this alloy, promoting the weakening of the basal texture, which means, a better response to deformation, whereby, during the manufacture of parts by drawing or stamping processes the formation of cracks on the surface can be reduced, presenting an adequate mechanical performance.

Keywords: plastic deformation, Magnesium, strain, sheet drawing

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1 Residual Stress Around Embedded Particles in Bulk YBa2Cu3Oy Samples

Authors: Anjela Koblischka-Veneva, Michael R. Koblischka

Abstract:

To increase the flux pinning performance of bulk YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO or Y-123) superconductors, it is common to employ secondary phase particles, either Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211) particles created during the growth of the samples or additionally added (nano)particles of various types, embedded in the superconducting Y-123 matrix. As the crystallographic parameters of all the particles indicate a misfit to Y-123, there will be residual strain within the Y-123 matrix around such particles. With a dedicated analysis of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data obtained on various bulk, Y-123 superconductor samples, the strain distribution around such embedded secondary phase particles can be revealed. The results obtained are presented in form of Kernel Average Misorientation (KAM) mappings. Around large Y-211 particles, the strain can be so large that YBCO subgrains are formed. Therefore, it is essential to properly control the particle size as well as their distribution within the bulk sample to obtain the best performance. The impact of the strain distribution on the flux pinning properties is discussed.

Keywords: strain, EBSD, Bulk superconductors, YBa2Cu3Oy

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