Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Storage Related Abstracts

43 The Dynamics of Microorganisms in Dried Yogurt Storages at Different Temperatures

Authors: Jaruwan Chutrtong

Abstract:

Yoghurt is a fermented milk product. The process of making yogurt involves fermenting milk with live and active bacterial cultures by adding bacteria directly to the dairy product. It is usually made with a culture of Lactobacillus sp. (L. acidophilus or L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus. Many people like to eat it plain or flavored and it's also use as ingredient in many dishes. Yogurt is rich in nutrients including the microorganism which have important role in balancing the digestion and absorption of the boy.Consumers will benefit from lactic acid bacteria more or less depending on the amount of bacteria that lives in yogurt while eating. When purchasing yogurt, consumers should always check the label for live cultures. Yoghurt must keep in refrigerator at 4°C for up to ten days. After this amount of time, the cultures often become weak. This research studied freezing dry yogurt storage by monitoring on the survival of microorganisms when stored at different temperatures. At 300°C, representative room temperature of country in equator zone, number of lactic acid bacteria reduced 4 log cycles in 10 week. At 400°C, representative temperature in summer of country in equator zone, number of lactic acid bacteria also dropped 4 log cycle in 10 week, similar as storage at 300°C. But drying yogurt storage at 400°C couldn’t reformed to be good character yogurt as good as storage at 400°C only 4 week storage too. After 1 month, it couldn’t bring back the yogurt form. So if it is inevitable to keep yogurt powder at a temperature of 40°C, yoghurt is maintained only up to 4 weeks.

Keywords: Dynamic, Storage, temperature, dry yoghurt

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42 Battery/Supercapacitor Emulator for Chargers Functionality Testing

Authors: S. Farag, A. Kuperman

Abstract:

In this paper, design of solid-state battery/super capacitor emulator based on dc-dc boost converter is described. The emulator mimics charging behavior of any storage device based on a predefined behavior set by the user. The device is operated by a two-level control structure: high-level emulating controller and low-level input voltage controller. Simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the emulator operation.

Keywords: Energy, Storage, Battery, charger, super capacitor

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41 Utilization of CD-ROM Database as a Storage and Retrieval System by Students of Nasarawa State University Keffi

Authors: Suleiman Musa

Abstract:

The utilization of CD-ROM as a storage and retrieval system by Nasarawa State University Keffi (NSUK) Library is crucial in preserving and dissemination of information to students and staff. This study investigated the utilization of CD-ROM Database storage and retrieval system by students of NUSK. Data was generated using structure questionnaire. One thousand and fifty two (1052) respondents were randomly selected among post-graduate and under-graduate students. Eight hundred and ten (810) questionnaires were returned, but only five hundred and ninety three (593) questionnaires were well completed and useful. The study found that post-graduate students use CD-ROM Databases more often than the under-graduate students in NSUK. The result of the study revealed that knowledge about CD-ROM Database 33.22% got it through library staff. 29.69% use CD-ROM once a month. Large number of users 45.70% purposely uses CD-ROM Databases for study and research. In fact, lack of users’ orientation amount to 58.35% of problems faced, while 31.20% lack of trained staff make it more difficult for utilization of CD-ROM Database. Major numbers of users 38.28% are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, while a good number of them 27.99% are satisfied. Then 1.52% is highly dissatisfied but could not give reasons why. However, to ensure effective utilization of CD-ROM Database storage and retrieval system by students of NSUK, the following recommendations are made: effort should be made to encourage under-graduate in using CD-ROM Database. The institution should conduct orientation/induction course for students on CD-ROM Databases in the library. There is need for NSUK to produce in house databases on their CD-ROM for easy access by users.

Keywords: Utilization, Storage, Retrieval, students, CD-ROM databases

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40 Diffusion Mechanism of Aroma Compound (2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline) in Rice During Storage

Authors: Mary Ann U. Baradi, Arnold R. Elepaño, Manuel Jose C. Regalado

Abstract:

Aromatic rice has become popular and continues to command higher price than ordinary rice because of its distinctive scent that makes it special. Freshly harvested aromatic rice exhibits strong aromatic scent but decreases with time and conditions during storage. Of the many volatile compounds in aromatic rice, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is a major compound that gives rice its popcorn-like aroma. The diffusion mechanism of 2AP in rice was investigated. Semi-empirical models explaining 2AP diffusion as affected by temperature and duration were developed. Storage time and temperature affected 2AP loss via diffusion. The amount of 2AP in rice decreased with time. Free 2AP, being volatile, is lost due to diffusion. Storage experiment indicated rapid 2AP loss during the first five weeks and subsequently leveled off afterwards; attaining level of starch bound 2AP. Decline of 2AP during storage followed exponential equation and exhibited four stages; i.e. the initial, second, third and final stage. Free 2AP is easily lost while bound 2AP is left, only to be released upon exposure to high temperature such as cooking. Both free and bound 2AP is found in endosperm while free 2AP is in the bran. Around 63–67% of total 2AP was lost in brown and milled rice of MS 6 paddy kept at ambient. Samples stored at higher temperature (27°C) recorded higher 2AP loss than those kept at lower temperature (15°C). The study should be able to guide processors in understanding and controlling parameters in storage to produce high quality rice.

Keywords: Storage, aromatic rice, diffusion mechanism

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39 Study on the Quality of Biscuits Prepared from Wheat Flour and Cassava Flour

Authors: M. A. Alim, Ramim Tanver Rahman, Muhammad Mahbub Sobhan

Abstract:

This study reports on processing of biscuits using skinned, treated and dried cassava flour. Five samples of biscuits S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6 containing 8, 16, 24, 32, and 40% cassava flour with wheat flour and a control sample (S1) containing no cassava flour were processed. The weights of all the biscuit samples were higher than that of control biscuit. The biscuit containing cassava flour was lower width than the control biscuit. The spread ratio of biscuits with 16% cassava flour was higher than other combinations of cassava flour. No remarkable changes in moisture content, peroxide value, fatty acid value, texture, and flavor were observed up to 4 months of storage in ambient conditions (27° to 35°C). A decreasing trend in color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability was observed with the increased incorporation of cassava flour. The sample S1 (no cassava flour) secured the highest overall acceptability and sample S6 (40% cassava flour) obtained the lowest overall acceptability. It is recommended that good quality cassava flour fortified biscuits may be processed in industrial-scale substituting the wheat flour by cassava flour up to 24% levels.

Keywords: Storage, Shelf Life, wheat flour, biscuit, cassava flour, spread ratio

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38 Coupling Heat Transfer by Natural Convection and Thermal Radiation in a Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: R. Hariti, M. Saighi, H. Saidani-Scott

Abstract:

A numerical simulation of natural convection double diffusion, coupled with thermal radiation in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank is carried out. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The radiative transfer equation is solved using the discrete coordinate method. This numerical simulation is used to determine the temperature profiles, stream function, velocity vectors and variation of the heat flux density for unsteady laminar natural convection. Furthermore, the influence of thermal radiation on the heat transfer has been investigated and the results obtained were compared to those found in the literature. Good agreement between the results obtained by the numerical method and those taken on site for the temperature values.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, Storage, Thermal radiation, Liquefied Natural Gas, natural convection, tank

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37 Financial Analysis of Feasibility for a Heat Utilization System Using Rice Straw Pellets: Heating Energy Demand and the Collection and Storage Method in Nanporo, Japan

Authors: T. Furuichi, A. Fujiyama, S. Hariya, K.Ishii

Abstract:

Rice straw pellets are a promising fuel as a renewable energy source. Financial analysis is needed to make a utilization system using rise straw pellets financially feasible, considering all regional conditions including stakeholders related to the collection and storage, production, transportation and heat utilization. We conducted the financial analysis of feasibility for a heat utilization system using rice straw pellets which has been developed for the first time in Nanporo, Hokkaido, Japan. Especially, we attempted to clarify the effect of factors required for the system to be financial feasibility, such as the heating energy demand and collection and storage method of rice straw. The financial feasibility was found to improve when increasing the heating energy demand and collecting wheat straw in August separately from collection of rice straw in November because the costs of storing rice straw and producing pellets were reduced. However, the system remained financially unfeasible. This study proposed a contractor program funded by a subsidy from Nanporo local government where a contracted company, instead of farmers, collects and transports rice straw in order to ensure the financial feasibility of the system, contributing to job creation in the region.

Keywords: Collection, Storage, rice straw, pellets, heating energy demand

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36 Effects of Artificial Sweeteners on the Quality Parameters of Yogurt during Storage

Authors: Muhammad Imran, Hafiz Arbab Sakandar, Sabahat Yaqub, Ayesha Sameen, Sarfraz Ahmad

Abstract:

Yoghurt is one of the famous nutritious fermented milk products which have myriad of positive health effects on human beings and curable against different intestinal diseases. This research was conducted to observe effects of different artificial sweeteners on the quality parameters of yoghurt with relation to storage. Some people are allergic to natural sweeteners so artificial sweetener will be helpful for them. Physical-chemical, Microbiology and various sensory evaluation tests were carried out with the interval of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. It was outcome from this study that addition of artificial sweeteners in yoghurt has shown much harmful effects on the yoghurt microorganisms and other physicochemical parameters from quality point of view. Best results for acceptance were obtained when aspartame was added in yoghurt at level of 0.022 percent. In addition, growth of beneficial microorganisms in yoghurt was also improved as well as other sensory attributes were enhanced by the addition of aspartame.

Keywords: Storage, Quality Parameters, yoghurt, artificial sweetener

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35 Enhancement of Seed Longevity in Japonica Rice Cultivars Using Weed Rice

Authors: Jun-Hyeon Cho, Ji-Yoon Lee, Young-Bo Sohn, Dong-Jin Shin, You-Chun Song, Dong-Soo Park, Min-Hee Nam, Young-Up Kwon

Abstract:

Seed germination is a main factor in japonica rice cultivation. For japonica strains unlike indica lines, fast loss of germination ability during storage leads to risk of seeding and deterioration in the quality. To resolve these problems, germplasms screening for longevity was conducted using six days of compulsory aging stress of high temperature (50℃) and humidity (~95% RH). ‘Dharial’, a weedy rice collected in Bangladesh, was chosen as a source of seed longevity for long term storage. The strong germination trait originated from ‘Dharial’ was incorporated into Korean elite japonica cultivars, ‘Ilmi’ and ‘Gopum’, through backcross method. The germination ratio was evaluated after two years of room temperature storage conditions. A high germination ratio of 80.5% in donor plant of ‘Dharial’ and 77.3% in an introgression line were observed based on the two years of storage while the recurrent japonica cultivars, ‘Ilmi’ and ‘Gopum’, were failed in germination. As a result, we investigated the changes of quality affected by germination ability during storage. A gentle slope of palatability which is one of the measurement items for indirect selection indicator of high eating quality in japonica varieties was studied in a high germination ratio introgression line during storage. The introgression line could be useful to increase longevity and quality of japonica rice seed if molecular breeding strategy such as QTLs analysis is combined.

Keywords: Storage, Rice, Longevity, Germination

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34 Rapid Processing Techniques Applied to Sintered Nickel Battery Technologies for Utility Scale Applications

Authors: J. D. Marinaccio, I. Mabbett, C. Glover, D. Worsley

Abstract:

Through use of novel modern/rapid processing techniques such as screen printing and Near-Infrared (NIR) radiative curing, process time for the sintering of sintered nickel plaques, applicable to alkaline nickel battery chemistries, has been drastically reduced from in excess of 200 minutes with conventional convection methods to below 2 minutes using NIR curing methods. Steps have also been taken to remove the need for forming gas as a reducing agent by implementing carbon as an in-situ reducing agent, within the ink formulation.

Keywords: Energy, Batteries, Storage, Iron, Nickel

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33 Market Acceptance of Irradiated Food in the City of Piracicaba, Brazil

Authors: Fabrício José Piacente, Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Sônia Maria De Stefano Piedade, Valter Arthur

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The increasing concern in relation to safety and hygiene of food consumption makes it so that food conservation is studied. Food radiation is a technique used for conservation, but many consumers associate this technique with dangers such as environmental contamination and development of diseases. This research had the objective of evaluating the acceptance of radiated products by the consumer market in the city of Piracicaba/SP-Brasil. The methodology adopted was the application of a questionnaire in the city’s supermarkets. After the application, the data was tabulated and analyzed. It was observed that the majority of interviewees would not eat irradiated food. The unfamiliarity and questions about the safety of irradiated food were the main causes of your rejection.

Keywords: Storage, questionnaire, irradiation, market acceptance

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32 Oxidative Stability of Methyl and Ethyl Microalgae Biodiesel with Synthetic Antioxidants

Authors: Matthieu Tubino, Willian L. G. Silva, Fabio R. M. Batista

Abstract:

Microalgae can be considered a potential source of oil for biodiesel synthesis since this microorganism can grow rapidly in either fresh or salty water, not competing with food production. There are several favorable conditions in Brazil for this type of culture due to the country’s great amount of water. Another very positive aspect of this type of culture is its ability to fix atmospheric CO2, contributing to the reduction of greenhouse gases and their effects on global warming. Despite this biodiesel environmental advantages it degrades resulting in changes in its physical and chemical properties. In this work, the methyl and ethyl microalgae biodiesel oxidative stability was studied in the absence and presence of a synthetic antioxidant. The synthetic antioxidants used were propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), at a 0,12% (w/w) concentration. The biodiesel mixture was kept in a sealed glass flask, sheltered from light, and at room temperature (about 25 ºC) for 180 days. During this period, aliquots from this biodiesel were subjected to induced degradation by the Rancimat method, which determines an important quality parameter, provided in the current methods, and is used to monitor the degradation processes that occur in the biodiesel over time. The induction period (IP) expresses the biodiesel oxidative stability. It was stablished that the minimum accepted IP value for biodiesel is 8 hours. The results show that ethylic biodiesel increased its IP value from 7,6 hours to 31 hours when using PG, and to 67 hours when using TBHQ, exceeding the minimum accepted IP value. When the antioxidants were added to the methylic biodiesel samples, the IP was raised to 28 hours when using PG, and to 62 hours when using TBHQ. These values were maintained throughout the entire period of study (180 days). On the other hand, the biodiesel samples without additives maintained an IP above the allowed value for only 30 days. Therefore, in order to preserve microalgae biodiesel for longer periods of time, it is necessary to add antioxidants to both derivatives, i.e., the ethylic and methylic.

Keywords: Storage, Biodiesel, Microalgae, oxidative stability, synthetic antioxidants

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31 Assessment of Physical Characteristics of Maize (Zea Mays) Stored in Metallic Silos

Authors: B. A. Alabadan, E. S. Ajayi, C. A. Okolo

Abstract:

The storage losses recorded globally in maize (Zea mays) especially in the developing countries is worrisome. Certain degenerating changes in the physical characteristics (PC) of the grain occur due to the interaction between the stored maize and the immediate environment especially during long storage period. There has been tremendous reduction in the storage losses since the evolution of metallic silos. This study was carried out to assess the physical quality attributes of maize stored in 2500 MT and 1 MT metallic silos for a period of eight months. The PC evaluated includes percentage moisture content MC, insect damage ID, foreign matters FM, hectolitre weight HC, mould M and germinability VG. The evaluation of data obtained was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) for windows evaluation version to determine significant levels and trend of deterioration (P < 0.05) for all the values obtained using Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Duncan’s multivariate test. The result shows that the PC are significant with duration of storage at (P < 0.05) except MI and FM that are significant at (P > 0.05) irrespective of the size of the metallic silos. The average mean deviation for physical properties from the control in respect to duration of storage are as follows: MC 10.0 ±0.00%, HC 72.9 ± 0.44% ID 0.29 ± 0.00%, BG 0.55±0.05%, MI 0.00 ± 0.65%, FM 0.80± 0.20%, VG 100 ± 0.03%. The variables that were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with the position of grain in the bulk are VG, MI and ID while others are insignificant at (p > 0.05). Variables were all significant (p < 0.05) with the duration of storage with (0.00) significant levels, irrespective of the size of the metallic silos, but were insignificant with the position of the grain in the bulk (p > 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that there is a slight decrease of the following variables, with time, HC, MC, and V, probably due to weather fluctuations and grain respiration, while FM, BG, ID and M were found to increase slightly probably due to insect activity in the bigger silos and loss of moisture. The size of metallic silos has no remarkable influence on the PC of stored maize (Zea mays). Germinability was found to be better with the 1 MT silos probably due to its hermetic nature. Smaller size metallic silos are preferred for storage of seeds but bigger silos largely depend on the position of the grains in the bulk.

Keywords: Storage, maize, physical characteristics, silo

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30 Effect of Operating Conditions on the Process Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride

Authors: Y. Kerboua Ziari, A. Babou, Y. Kerkoub

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The risks of depletion of fossil fuel reserves and environmental problems caused by their consumption cause to consider alternative energy solutions. Hydrogen appears as a serious solution because its combustion produces only water. The objective of this study is to digitally analyze the effect of operating conditions on the process of absorption of hydrogen in a tank of metal hydride alloy Lanthanum - Nickel (LaNi 5). For this modeling of heat transfer and mass in the tank was carried .The results of numerical weather prediction are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Energy, Simulation, Storage, Hydrogen, Fuel

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29 Polyphenol Stability and Antioxidant Properties of Freeze-Dried Sour Cherry Encapsulates

Authors: Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Gordana Ćetković, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić, Sonja Đilas, Mirjana Jakišić

Abstract:

Despite the recommended amount of daily intake of fruits, the consumption in modern age remains very low. Therefore there is a need for delivering valuable phytochemicals into the human body through different foods by developing functional food products fortified with natural bioactive compounds from plant sources. Recently, a growing interest rises in exploiting the fruit and vegetable by-products as sources of phytochemicals such as polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins etc. Cherry contain high amounts of polyphenols, which are known to display a wide range of biological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial or anti-carcinogenic activities, improvement of vision, induction of apoptosis and neuroprotective effects. Also, cherry pomace, a by-product in juice processing, can also be promising source of phenolic compounds. However, the application of polyphenols as food additives is limited because after extraction these compounds are susceptible to degradation. Microencapsulation is one of the alternative approaches to protect bioactive compounds from degradation during processing and storage. Freeze-drying is one of the most used microencapsulation methods for the protection of thermosensitive and unstable molecules. In this study sour cherry pomace was extracted with food-grade solvent (50% ethanol) to be suitable for application in products for human use. Extracted polyphenols have been concentrated and stabilized on whey (WP) and soy (SP) proteins. Encapsulation efficiency in SP was higher (94.90%), however not significantly (p<0.05) from the one in WP (90.10%). Storage properties of WP and SP encapsulate in terms of total polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity was tested for 6 weeks. It was found that the retention of polyphenols after 6 weeks in WP and SP (67.33 and 69.30%, respectively) was similar. The content of anthocyanins has increased in WP (for 47.97%), while their content in SP has very slightly decreased (for 1.45%) after 6-week storage period. In accordance with anthocyanins the decrease in antioxidant activity in WP (87.78%) was higher than in SP (43.02%). According to the results obtained in this study, the technique reported herewith can be used for obtaining quality encapsulates for their further use as functional food additives, and, on the other hand, for fruit waste valorization.

Keywords: Storage, polyphenols, microencapsulation, cherry pomace

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28 A Cloud Computing System Using Virtual Hyperbolic Coordinates for Services Distribution

Authors: Telesphore Tiendrebeogo, Oumarou Sié

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Cloud computing technologies have attracted considerable interest in recent years. Thus, these latters have become more important for many existing database applications. It provides a new mode of use and of offer of IT resources in general. Such resources can be used “on demand” by anybody who has access to the internet. Particularly, the Cloud platform provides an ease to use interface between providers and users, allow providers to develop and provide software and databases for users over locations. Currently, there are many Cloud platform providers support large scale database services. However, most of these only support simple keyword-based queries and can’t response complex query efficiently due to lack of efficient in multi-attribute index techniques. Existing Cloud platform providers seek to improve performance of indexing techniques for complex queries. In this paper, we define a new cloud computing architecture based on a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) and design a prototype system. Next, we perform and evaluate our cloud computing indexing structure based on a hyperbolic tree using virtual coordinates taken in the hyperbolic plane. We show through our experimental results that we compare with others clouds systems to show our solution ensures consistence and scalability for Cloud platform.

Keywords: Cloud, Scalability, Storage, Consistency, virtual coordinates, hyperbolic plane

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27 Storage Influence on Physico-Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Jamun Drink Prepared From Two Types of Pulp

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Mahreen Akhtar, Sidrah

Abstract:

In this paper, Jamun (Syzygium cumini; Myrtaceae) drink enriched with jamun pulp and seed was assessed for different physicochemical parameters (titratable acidity, pH, TSS, ascorbic acid, and total sugars and reducing sugars) and phytochemical aspects at every 15 days interval till 60 days storage period. Jamun pulp both with seed and without seed were used at levels of 7, 10 and 13 percent to prepare jamun drink in six combinations; T1 (7% pulp without seed), T2 (10% pulp without seed), T3 (13% pulp without seed), T4 (7% pulp with seed), T5 (10% pulp with seed), T6 (13% pulp with seed). Storage period resulted decrease in pH (4.18 to 4.08) and ascorbic acid (21.92%) significantly along with phenolic contents (6.13 to 4.85g of GAE/kg) and antioxidant activity (70.68 to 48.62 percent) within treatments. All treatments showed significant increases in total sugars (11.59 to 11.80%), reducing sugars (2.30 to 2.50%), TSS (12.2 to 13.32 °B) and acidity (0.23% to 0.31%) during storage. Treatments T3, T5 and T6 showed best results in terms of all physicochemical parameters during storage. Statistically significant differences were obtained among sensory parameters as a function of pulp type and concentration, while treatment T5 (10% pulp with seed) obtained highest score (7.16) in terms of all sensory parameters. It can be concluded that nutrient rich jamun drink can be prepared as an attempt to add value to the underutilized jamun fruit of Pakistan.

Keywords: Storage, antioxidant activity, physicochemical, Jamun beverage

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26 Effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) Coating in Combination with MGSO4 on Some Guava Cultivars

Authors: Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Randhawa

Abstract:

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a vital source of minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber and antioxidants. Owing to highly perishable nature and proning towards chilling injury, diseases, insect-pests and physical damage the main drawbacks of guava after harvesting, present study was designed. Due to its delicacy in physiology, economic importance, effects of pre and postharvest factors and maturity indices, guava fruits should be given prime importance for good quality attributes. In this study guava fruits were stored at 10°C with 80% relative humidity after treating with different levels of sulphate salt of magnesium followed by dipping in cellulose based edible coating hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). The main objective of this coating was to enhance the shelf life of guava by inhibiting the respiration and also by binding the dissolved solids with salt application. Characterization for quality attributes including physical, physiological and bio chemical analysis was performed after every 7 days interval till the fruit remains edible during the storage period of 4 weeks. Finally, data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded on statistical basis that Surahi variety (treated with 5% MgSO4) showed best storage stability and kept its original quality up to almost 23 days during storage.

Keywords: Storage, edible coating, guava cultivars, physicochemical attributes

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25 Exploring the Physicochemical and Quality Attributes of Potato Cultivars during Subsequent Storage

Authors: Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Adnan Amjad

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) popularly known as ‘the king of vegetables’, has emerged as fourth most important food crop after rice, wheat and maize. Potato contains carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. The antioxidants of potatoes especially vitamin C helps in reducing cancer, cardiovascular diseases and high blood pressure by binding free radicals. Physical characteristics and some major chemical properties of potato tubers at fresh and stored stages were investigated. Two varieties of potatoes, Sante (V1) having white colour and Lal moti (V2) with red colour were stored for 3 months and analysis were performed after each month interval. Physical and chemical attributes including weight loss, sprouting, specific gravity, pH, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugars) and vitamin C were analyzed before and after storage. Value of weight loss at zero day was null but it increased to 6.45% after 90 days on average in both cultivars and sprouting increased gradually at the end of 90 days. Moreover total sugars were 3.10% at zero day but increased to 9.30% after 90 days. Ascorbic acid was decreased during storage from 17.49(mg/100g) to 3.79. Both varieties of potato were stored at 60C and 120C temperatures with 85% relative humidity in order to prolong their acceptability in the market. The storage conditions influence the potatoes quality and consequently their acceptability to consumer. The data was analyzed statistically and clarifies that total sugars, weight loss, sprouting and specific gravity increase during the storage period while ascorbic acid (Vit-C) and pH decreased. Among both varieties that were stored at 60C and 120C, Sante (V1) was better than Lal moti (V2) due to less physicochemical and quality changes at 60C as compared to store at 120C.

Keywords: Storage, physicochemical, potato, quality attributes

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24 Exploring the Effect of Cellulose Based Coating Incorporated with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on Shelf Life Extension of Kinnow (Citrus reticulata blanco) Cultivar

Authors: Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Atif Randhawa

Abstract:

Kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco) is nutritious and perishable fruit with high juice content, and also rich source of vitamin-C. In Pakistan, kinnow export is limited due to inadequate post-harvest handling and lack of satisfactory storage practices. Considering these issues, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) coating in combination with CaCl2 and MgSO4 on shelf life extension of kinnow. Fruits were treated with different levels of CaCl2 and MgSO4 followed by HPMC coating (3 and 5%) and stored at 10°C with 80% relative humidity for 6 weeks. Fruits were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters on weekly basis. During this study lower fruit firmness (0.24Nm-2), loss in weight (0.64%) and ethylene production (0.039 µL•kg-1•hr-1) was observed in fruits treated with 1% CaCl2 + 1% MgSO4 + 5% HPMC (T6) during storage of 42 days. Minimum chilling injury indexes 0.22% and 0.61% were recorded in treatments T4 and T6, respectively. T6 showed higher values of titerable acidity (0.29%) and ascorbic acid contents (39.82mg/100g). Minimum TSS (9.62°Brix) was found in fruits of T6. Overall T6 showed significantly better results for various parameters, as compared to all other treated and control fruits.

Keywords: Storage, physicochemical, firmness, kinnow coating

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23 Storage Study of Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa.) Fruit and Pulp of Cv. Pant Sujata

Authors: B. R. Jana, Madhumita Singh

Abstract:

Storage study of bael fruit and pulp were conducted at ICAR-RCER, Research Centre Ranchi to find out suitable storage life to extent the availability of the fruit and produce the value added product in form of fruit. The cultivar under storage is Pant Sujata. CFB box packing resulted in minimum 21 % PLW during 2010-11 during its 28-35 days storage under ambient temperature. CFB box and Gunny bag retains maximum total sugar (17.3-17.4 °B) after 28 days storage. Bael pulp of cultivar Pant Sujata can be stored up to 2 months at 4 °C with good quality condition. Treatments were highly significant in the characters such as T.S.S., acidity, reducing sugar and total sugar. Storage conditions and treatments interaction were insignificant in all characters except acidity. The maximum T.S.S. of 21.87 °B has been found in sample treated with 800 ppm benzoic acid when kept for two months at 4 °C temperature. This treatment also resulted in retaining the maximum reducing sugar (8.09 %) and total sugar content (9.52 %) at same storage condition than other treatments. From the present experiments, it is concluded that CFB box packing and pulp storage with 800 ppm benzoic acid at 4 °C are important to extent the availability of bael for two months.

Keywords: Storage, Fruits, Pulp, bael, benzoic acid

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22 Assessment of the Change in Strength Properties of Biocomposites Based on PLA and PHA after 4 Years of Storage in a Highly Cooled Condition

Authors: Karolina Mazur, Stanislaw Kuciel

Abstract:

Polylactides (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are the two groups of biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic polymers most commonly utilised in medicine and rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to determine the changes in the strength properties and the microstructures taking place in biodegradable polymer composites during their long-term storage in a highly cooled environment (i.e. a freezer at -24ºC) and to initially assess the durability of such biocomposites when used as single-use elements of rehabilitation or medical equipment. It is difficult to find any information relating to the feasibility of long-term storage of technical products made of PLA or PHA, but nonetheless, when using these materials to make products such as casings of hair dryers, laptops or mobile phones, it is safe to assume that without storing in optimal conditions their degradation time might last even several years. SEM images and the assessment of the strength properties (tensile, bending and impact testing) were carried out and the density and water sorption of two polymers, PLA and PHA (NaturePlast PLE 001 and PHE 001), filled with cellulose fibres (corncob grain – Rehofix MK100, Rettenmaier&Sohne) up to 10 and 20% mass were determined. The biocomposites had been stored at a temperature of -24ºC for 4 years. In order to find out the changes in the strength properties and the microstructure taking place after such a long time of storage, the results of the assessment have been compared with the results of the same research carried out 4 years before. Results shows a significant change in the manner of fractures – from ductile with developed surface for the PHA composite with corncob grain when the tensile testing was performed directly after the injection into a more brittle state after 4 years of storage, which is confirmed by the strength tests, where a decrease of deformation is observed at point of fracture. The research showed that there is a way of storing medical devices made out of PLA or PHA for a reasonably long time, as long as the required temperature of storage is met. The decrease of mechanical properties found during tensile testing and bending for PLA was less than 10% of the tensile strength, while the modulus of elasticity and deformation at fracturing slightly rose, which may implicate the beginning of degradation processes. The strength properties of PHA are even higher after 4 years of storage, although in that case the decrease of deformation at fracturing is significant, reaching even 40%, which suggests its degradation rate is higher than that of PLA. The addition of natural particles in both cases only slightly increases the biodegradation.

Keywords: Biocomposites, Storage, PHA, PLA

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21 Application of 1-MCP on ‘Centro’ Melon at Different Days after Harvest

Authors: L. P. L. Nguyen, G. Hitka, T. Zsom, Z. Kókai

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This study is aimed to investigate the influence of postharvest delays of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on prolonging the storage potential of melon. Melons were treated with 625-650 ppb 1-MCP at 10 °C for 24 hours on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day after harvest. Decreased ethylene production and retarded softening of melon fruits after 7 days of storage at 10 °C plus 3 days of shelflife were obtained by 1-MCP applications. 1-MCP strongly affected the chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and hue angle values of melon. After shelf-life, the peel color of treated melon was slow in turning to yellow compared to the control. Additionally, firmness of melons treated on the first day after harvest was 38% higher than that of the control fruit. Results showed that fruits treated on the 1st and the 3rd day after harvest could maintain the quality of melon.

Keywords: treatment, Storage, muskmelon

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20 Evolutions of Structural Properties of Native Phospho Casein (NPC) Powder during Storage

Authors: Sarah Nasser, Anne Moreau, Alain Hedoux, Romain Jeantet, Guillaume Delaplace

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Background: Spray dryed powders containing some caseins are commonly produced in dairy industry. It is widely admitted that the structure of casein evolves during powder storage, inducing a loss of solubility. However few studies evaluate accurately the destabilization mechanisms at molecular and mesoscopic level, in particular for Native Phospho Casein powder (NPC). Consequently, at the state of the art, it is very difficult to assess which secondary structure change or crosslinks initiate insolubility during storage. To address this issue, controlled ageing conditions have been applied to a NPC powder (which was obtained by spray drying a concentrate containing a higher content of casein (90%), whey protein (8%) and lactose (few %)). Evolution of structure and loss of solubility, with the effects of temperature and time of storage were systematically reported. Methods: FTIR spectroscopy, Raman and Circular Dichroism were used to monitor changes of secondary structure in dry powder and in solution after rehydration. Besides, proteomic tools and electrophoresis have been performed after varying storage conditions for evaluating aggregation and post translational modifications, like lactosylation or phosphorylation. Finally, Tof Sims and MEB were used to follow in parallel evolution of structure in surface and skin formation due to storage. Results + conclusion: These results highlight the important role of storage temperature in the stability of NPC. It is shown that this is not lactosylation at the heart of formation of aggregates, as advanced in others publications This is almost the rise of multitude post translational modifications (chemical cross link), added to disulphide bridges (physical cross link) wich contribute to the destabilisation of structure and aggregation of casein. A relative quantification of each kind of cross link, source of aggregates, is proposed. In addition, it has been proved that migration of lipids and formation of skin in surface during the ageing also explains the evolution of structure casein and thus the alterations of functional properties of NPC powder.

Keywords: Storage, Powder, casein, cross link

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19 Storage Method for Parts from End of Life Vehicles' Dismantling Process According to Sustainable Development Requirements: Polish Case Study

Authors: M. Kosacka, I. Kudelska

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Vehicle is one of the most influential and complex product worldwide, which affects people’s life, state of the environment and condition of the economy (all aspects of sustainable development concept) during each stage of lifecycle. With the increase of vehicles’ number, there is growing potential for management of End of Life Vehicle (ELV), which is hazardous waste. From one point of view, the ELV should be managed to ensure risk elimination, but from another point, it should be treated as a source of valuable materials and spare parts. In order to obtain materials and spare parts, there are established recycling networks, which are an example of sustainable policy realization at the national level. The basic object in the polish recycling network is dismantling facility. The output material streams in dismantling stations include waste, which very often generate costs and spare parts, that have the biggest potential for revenues creation. Both outputs are stored into warehouses, according to the law. In accordance to the revenue creation and sustainability potential, it has been placed a strong emphasis on storage process. We present the concept of storage method, which takes into account the specific of the dismantling facility in order to support decision-making process with regard to the principles of sustainable development. The method was developed on the basis of case study of one of the greatest dismantling facility in Poland.

Keywords: Sustainability, Storage, dismantling, end of life vehicles

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18 Effect of Seasons and Storage Methods on Seed Quality of Slender Leaf (Crotalaria Sp.) in Western Kenya

Authors: Faith Maina

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Slender leaf (Crotalaria brevidens and Crotalaria ochroleuca), African indigenous vegetables, are an important source of nutrients, income and traditional medicines in Kenya. However, their production is constrained by poor quality seed, due to lack of standardized agronomic and storage practices. Factors that affect the quality of seed in storage include the duration of storage, seed moisture, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen pressure during storage, diseases, and pests. These factors vary with the type of storage method used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of various storage methods on seed quality of slender leaf and recommend the best methods of seed storage to the farmers in Western Kenya. Seeds from various morphotypes of slender leaf that had high germination percentage (90%) were stored in pots, jars, brown paper bags and polythene bags in Kakamega and Siaya. Other seeds were also stored in a freezer at the University of Eldoret. In Kakamega County average room temperature was 23°C and relative humidity was 85% during the storage period of May to July 2006. Between December and February 2006 the average room temperature was 26°C while relative humidity was 80% in the same county. In Siaya County, the average room temperature was 25°C and relative humidity was 80% during storage period of May to July 2006. In the same county, the average temperature was 28°C and relative humidity 65% during the period of December and February 2006. Storage duration was 90 days for each season. Seed viability and vigour, was determined for each storage method. Data obtained from storage experiments was subjected to ANOVA and T-tests using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS). Season of growth and storage methods significantly influenced seed quality in Kakamega and Siaya counties. Seeds from the long rains season had higher seed quality than those grown during the short rains season. Generally, seeds stored in pots, brown paper bags, jars and freezer had higher seed quality than those stored in polythene bags. It was concluded that in order to obtain high-quality seeds farmers should store slender leaf seeds in pots or brown paper bags or plastic jars or freezer.

Keywords: Quality, Storage, Seed, Crotalaria sp

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17 Effect of Drying Condition on the Wheat Germ Stability Using Fluidized-Bed Dryer

Authors: J. M. Hung, J. S. Chan, M. I. Kuo, D. S. Chan, C. P. Lu

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Wheat germ is a by-product obtained from wheat milling and it contains highly concentrated nutrients. Due to highly lipase and lipoxygenase activities, wheat germ products can easily turn into rancid flavor and cause a short life. The objective of this study is to control moisture content and retard lipid hydrolysis by fluidized-bed drying. The raw wheat germ of 2 kg was dried with a vertical batch fluidized bed with the following varying conditions, inlet air temperature of 50, 80 and 120°C, inlet air velocity of 3.62 m/s. The experiment was designed to obtain a final product at around 40°C with water activity of 0.3 ± 0.1. Changes in the moisture content, water activity, enzyme activity of dried wheat germ during storage were measured. Results showed the fluidized-bed drying was found to reduce moisture content, water activity and lipase activity of raw wheat germ. After drying wheat germ, moisture content and water activity were between 5.8% to 7.2% and 0.28 to 0.40 respectively during 12 weeks of storage. The variation range of water activity indicated to retard lipid oxidation. All drying treatments displayed inactivation of lipase, except for drying condition of 50°C which showed relative high enzyme activity. During storage, lipase activity increased slowly during the first 6 weeks of storage and reached a plateau for another 6 weeks. As a result, using a fluidized-bed dryer was found to be effective drying technique in improving storage stability of wheat germ.

Keywords: Stability, Storage, lipase, wheat germ, fluidized-bed dryer

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16 The Effect of Inulin on Aflatoxin M1 Binding Ability of Probiotic Bacteria in Yoghurt

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Banu Sancak, Mevlude Kizil

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Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) represents mutagenic, carcinogenic, hepatotoxic and immunosuppressive properties, and shows adverse effect on human health. Recently the use of probiotics are focused on AFM1 detoxification because of the fact that probiotic strains have a binding ability to AFM1. Moreover, inulin is a prebiotic to improve the ability of probiotic bacteria. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inulin on AFM1 binding ability of some probiotic bacteria. Yoghurt samples were manufactured by using skim milk powder artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml. Different samples were prepared for the study as: first sample consists of yoghurt starter bacteria (L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus), the second sample consists of starter and L. plantarum, starter and B. bifidum ATCC were added to the third sample, starter and B. animalis ATCC 27672 were added to the forth sample, and the fifth sample is a binary culture consisted of starter and B. bifidum and B. animalis. Moreover, the same work groups were prepared with inulin (4%). The samples were incubated at 42°C for 4 hours, then stored for three different time interval (1,5 and 10 days). The toxin was measured by the ELISA. When inulin was added to work groups, there was significant change on AFM1 binding ability at least one sample in all groups except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (68.7%) in samples with inulin were found in the group which B. bifidum was added, whereas the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (44.4%) in samples with inulin was found in the fifth sample. The most impressive effect of inulin was found on B.bifidum. In this study, it was obtained that there was a significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in the all groups with inulin except the one with L. plantarum (p<0.05). Consequently, results show that AFM1 detoxification by probiotics have a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Besides, inulin has different effects on AFM1 binding ability of each probiotic bacteria strain.

Keywords: Probiotics, Storage, inulin, aflatoxin M1

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15 The Effect of Probiotic Bacteria on Aflatoxin M1 Detoxification in Phosphate Buffer Saline

Authors: Sumeyra Sevim, Gulsum Gizem Topal, Mercan Merve Tengilimoglu-Metin, Mevlude Kizil

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Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a major toxic and carcinogenic molecule in milk and milk products. Therefore, it poses a risk for public health. Probiotics can be biological agent to remove AFM1. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of probiotic bacteria on AFM1 detoxification in phosphate buffer saline. The PBS samples artificially contaminated with AFM1 at concentration 100 pg/ml were prepared with probiotics bacteria that including monoculture (L. plantarum, B. bifidum ATCC, B. animalis ATCC 27672) and binary culture (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophiles, B. bifidum ATCC + B. animalis ATCC 27672, L. plantarum+B. bifidum ATCC, L. plantarum+ B. animalis ATCC 27672). The samples were incubated at 37°C for 4 hours and stored for 1, 5 and 10 days. The toxin was measured by the ELISA. The highest levels of AFM1 binding ability (63.6%) in PBS were detected yoghurt starter bacteria, while L. plantarum had the lowest levels of AFM1 binding ability (35.5%) in PBS. In addition, it was found that there was significant effect of storage on AFM1 binding ability in all groups except the one including B. animalis (p < 0.05). Consequently, results demonstrate that AFM1 detoxification by probiotic bacteria has a potential application to reduce toxin concentrations in yoghurt. Moreover, probiotic strains can react with itself as synergic or antagonist.

Keywords: Probiotics, Storage, ELISA, aflatoxin M1

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14 Energy-Saving Methods and Principles of Energy-Efficient Concept Design in the Northern Hemisphere

Authors: Yulia A. Kononova, Znang X. Ning

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Nowadays, architectural development is getting faster and faster. Nevertheless, modern architecture often does not meet all the points, which could help our planet to get better. As we know, people are spending an enormous amount of energy every day of their lives. Because of the uncontrolled energy usage, people have to increase energy production. As energy production process demands a lot of fuel sources, it courses a lot of problems such as climate changes, environment pollution, animals’ distinction, and lack of energy sources also. Nevertheless, nowadays humanity has all the opportunities to change this situation. Architecture is one of the most popular fields where it is possible to apply new methods of saving energy or even creating it. Nowadays we have kinds of buildings, which can meet new willing. One of them is energy effective buildings, which can save or even produce energy, combining several energy-saving principles. The main aim of this research is to provide information that helps to apply energy-saving methods while designing an environment-friendly building. The research methodology requires gathering relevant information from literature, building guidelines documents and previous research works in order to analyze it and sum up into a material that can be applied to energy-efficient building design. To mark results it should be noted that the usage of all the energy-saving methods applied to a design project of building results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling. As a conclusion it can be stated that developing methods of passive house design can decrease the need of energy production, which is an important issue that has to be solved in order to save planet sources and decrease environment pollution.

Keywords: Storage, Passive House, Energy-Efficient Building, accumulation, superinsulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 129