Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Stem Cells Related Abstracts

18 Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a Potential Source for Cell Therapy in Liver Disorders

Authors: Laila Montaser, Hala Gabr, Maha El-Bassuony, Gehan Tawfeek

Abstract:

Orthotropic liver transplantation (OLT) is the final procedure of both end stage and metabolic liver diseases. Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative for OLT, but the sources of hepatocytes are limited. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) can differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and are a potential alternative source for hepatocytes. The MSCs from bone marrow are a promising target population as they are capable of differentiating along multiple lineages and, at least in vitro, have significant expansion capability. MSCs from bone marrow may have the potential to differentiate in vitro and in vivo into hepatocytes. Our study examined whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are stem cells originated from human bone marrow, are able to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. Our aim was to investigate the differentiation potential of BM-MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. Adult stem cell therapy could solve the problem of degenerative disorders, including liver disease.

Keywords: Stem Cells, bone marrow, Differentiation, hepatocyte

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17 Molecular Detection of mRNA bcr-abl and Circulating Leukemic Stem Cells CD34+ in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Its Association with Clinical Parameters

Authors: B. Gonzalez-Yebra, H. Barajas, P. Palomares, M. Hernandez, O. Torres, M. Ayala, A. L. González, G. Vazquez-Ortiz, M. L. Guzman

Abstract:

Leukemia arises by molecular alterations of the normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transforming it into a leukemic stem cell (LSC) with high cell proliferation, self-renewal, and cell differentiation. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) originates from an LSC-leading to elevated proliferation of myeloid cells and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) originates from an LSC development leading to elevated proliferation of lymphoid cells. In both cases, LSC can be identified by multicolor flow cytometry using several antibodies. However, to date, LSC levels in peripheral blood (PB) are not established well enough in ALL and CML patients. On the other hand, the detection of the minimal residue disease (MRD) in leukemia is mainly based on the identification of the mRNA bcr-abl gene in CML patients and some other genes in ALL patients. There is no a properly biomarker to detect MDR in both types of leukemia. The objective of this study was to determine mRNA bcr-abl and the percentage of LSC in peripheral blood of patients with CML and ALL and identify a possible association between the amount of LSC in PB and clinical data. We included in this study 19 patients with Leukemia. A PB sample was collected per patient and leukocytes were obtained by Ficoll gradient. The immunophenotype for LSC CD34+ was done by flow cytometry analysis with CD33, CD2, CD14, CD16, CD64, HLA-DR, CD13, CD15, CD19, CD10, CD20, CD34, CD38, CD71, CD90, CD117, CD123 monoclonal antibodies. In addition, to identify the presence of the mRNA bcr-abl by RT-PCR, the RNA was isolated using TRIZOL reagent. Molecular (presence of mRNA bcr-abl and LSC CD34+) and clinical results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis was performed to determine statistically significant association. In total, 19 patients (8 patients with ALL and 11 patients with CML) were analyzed, 9 patients with de novo leukemia (ALL = 6 and CML = 3) and 10 under treatment (ALL = 5 and CML = 5). The overall frequency of mRNA bcr-abl was 31% (6/19), and it was negative in ALL patients and positive in 80% in CML patients. On the other hand, LSC was determined in 16/19 leukemia patients (%LSC= 0.02-17.3). The Novo patients had higher percentage of LSC (0.26 to 17.3%) than patients under treatment (0 to 5.93%). The amount of LSC was significantly associated with the amount of LSC were: absence of treatment, the absence of splenomegaly, and a lower number of leukocytes, negative association for the clinical variables age, sex, blasts, and mRNA bcr-abl. In conclusion, patients with de novo leukemia had a higher percentage of circulating LSC than patients under treatment, and it was associated with clinical parameters as lack of treatment, absence of splenomegaly and a lower number of leukocytes. The mRNA bcr-abl detection was only possible in the series of patients with CML, and molecular detection of LSC could be identified in the peripheral blood of all leukemia patients, we believe the identification of circulating LSC may be used as biomarker for the detection of the MRD in leukemia patients.

Keywords: Biomarkers, Leukemia, Stem Cells, flow cytometry

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16 Benign Osteoblastoma of the Mandible Resection and Replacement of the Defects with Decellularized Cattle Bone Scaffold with Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells

Authors: K. Mardaleishvili, G. Loladze, G. Shatirishivili, D. Chakhunashvili, A. Vishnevskaya, Z. Kakabadze

Abstract:

Benign osteoblastoma is a benign tumor of the bone, usually affecting the vertebrae and long tubular bones. It is a rarely seen tumor of the facial bones. The authors present a case of a 28-year-old male patient with a tumor in mandibular body. The lesion was radically resected and histological analysis of the specimen demonstrated features typical of a benign osteoblastoma. The defect of the jaw was reconstructed with titanium implants and decellularized and lyophilized cattle bone matrix with mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells transplantation. This presentation describes the procedures for rehabilitating a patient with decellularized bone scaffold in the region of the face, recovering the facial contours and esthetics of the patient.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Transplantation, facial bones, osteoblastoma

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15 Reconstructing Calvarial Bone Lesions Using PHBV Scaffolds and Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Rat

Authors: Esmaeil Biazar, Hamed Hosseinkazemi

Abstract:

For tissue engineering of bone, anatomical and operational reconstructions of damaged tissue seem to be vital. This is done via reconstruction of bone and appropriate biological joint with bone tissues of damaged areas. In this study the condition of biodegradable bed Nanofibrous PHBV and USSC cells were used to accelerate bone repair of damaged area. Hollow nanofabrication scaffold of damageable life was designed as PHBV by electrospinning and via determining the best factors such as the kind and amount of solvent, specific volume and rate. The separation of osseous tissue infiltration and evaluating its nature by flow cytometrocical analysis was done. Animal test including USSC as well as PHBV condition in the damaged bone was done in the rat. After 8 weeks the implanted area was analyzed using CT scan and was sent to histopathology ward. Finally, the rate and quality of reconstruction were determined after H and E coloring. Histomorphic analysis indicated a statistically significant difference between the experimental group of PHBV, USSC+PHBV and control group. Besides, the histopathologic analysis showed that bone reconstruction rate was high in the area containing USSC and PHBV, compared with area having PHBV and control group and consequently the reconstruction quality of bones and the relationship between the new bone tissues and surrounding bone tissues were high too. Using PHBR scaffold and USSC together could be useful in the amending of wide range of bone lesion.

Keywords: Stem Cells, nanofibrous PHBV, bone lesion, umbilical cord blood

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14 Analysis of iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neuron Susceptibility to Influenza and Excitotoxicity in Non-Affective Psychosis

Authors: Jamileh Ahmed, Helena Hernandez, Gabriel De Erausquin

Abstract:

H1N1 virus susceptibility of iPSC-derived DA neurons from schizophrenia patients and controls will compared. C57/BL-6 fibroblasts were reprogrammed into iPSCs using a lenti-viral vector containing SOKM genes. Pluripotency verification with the AP assay and immunocytochemistry ensured iPSC presence. The experimental outcome of ISPCs from DA neuron differentiation will be discussed in the Results section. Fibroblasts from patients and controls will be reprogrammed into iPSCs using a sendai-virus vector containing SOKM. IPSCs will be characterized using the AP assay, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. IPSCs will then be differentiated into DA neurons. Gene methylation will be compared for both groups with custom-designed microarrays.

Keywords: Neuroscience, Stem Cells, Schizophrenia, iPSCs

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13 The Role of Bone Marrow Stem Cells Transplantation in the Repair of Damaged Inner Ear in Albino Rats

Authors: Ahmed Gaber Abdel Raheem, Nashwa Ahmed Mohamed

Abstract:

Introduction: Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is largely caused by the degeneration of the cochlea. Therapeutic options for SNHL are limited to hearing aids and cochlear implants. The cell transplantation approach to the regeneration of hair cells has gained considerable attention because stem cells are believed to accumulate in the damaged sites and have the potential for the repair of damaged tissues. The aim of the work: was to assess the use of bone marrow transplantation in repair of damaged inner ear hair cells in rats after the damage had been inflicted by Amikacin injection. Material and Methods: Thirty albino rats were used in this study. They were divided into three groups. Each group ten rats. Group I: used as control. Group II: Were given Amikacin- intratympanic injection till complete loss of hearing function. This could be assessed by Distortion product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAEs) and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR). GroupIII: were given intra-peritoneal injection of bone marrow stem cell after complete loss of hearing caused by Amikacin. Clinical assessment was done using DPOAEs and / or auditory brain stem evoked potential (ABR), before and after bone marrow injection. Histological assessment of the inner ear was done by light and electron microscope. Also, Detection of stem cells in the inner ear by immunohistochemistry. Results: Histological examination of the specimens showed promising improvement in the structure of cochlea that may be responsible for the improvement of hearing function in rats detected by DPOAEs and / or ABR. Conclusion: Bone marrow stem cells transplantation might be useful for the treatment of SNHL.

Keywords: Stem Cells, amikacin, hair cells, sensorineural hearing loss

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12 Implementation of Cord- Blood Derived Stem Cells in the Regeneration of Two Experimental Models: Carbon Tetrachloride and S. Mansoni Induced Liver Fibrosis

Authors: Manal M. Kame, Hanan G. El-Baz, Zeinab A. Demerdash, Salwa M. Hassan, Faten M. Salah, Wafaa Mansour, Olfat Hammam

Abstract:

Cord blood (CB) derived Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSCs) with their multipotentiality hold great promise in liver regeneration. This work aims at evaluation of the therapeutic potentiality of USSCs in two experimental models of chronic liver injury induced either by S. mansoni infection in balb/c mice or CCL4 injection in hamsters. Isolation, propagation, and characterization of USSCs from CB samples were performed. USSCs were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and hepatocyte-like cells. Cells of the third passage were transplanted in two models of liver fibrosis: (1) Twenty hamsters were induced to liver fibrosis by repeated i. p. injection of 100 μl CCl4 /hamster for 8 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis and treated with i.h. injection of 3x106 USSCs (USSCs transplanted group), 10 hamsters with liver fibrosis (pathological control group), and 10 hamsters with healthy livers (normal control group). (2) Murine chronics S.mansoni model: twenty mice were induced to liver fibrosis with S. mansoni ceracariae (60 cercariae/ mouse) using the tail immersion method and left for 12 weeks. This model was designed as; 10 mice with liver fibrosis were transplanted with i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs (USSCs transplanted group). Other 2 groups were designed as in hamsters model. Animals were sacrificed 12 weeks after USSCs transplantation, and their liver sections were examined for detection of human hepatocyte-like cells by immunohistochemistry staining. Moreover, liver sections were examined for fibrosis level, and fibrotic indices were calculated. Sera of sacrificed animals were tested for liver functions. CB USSCs, with fibroblast-like morphology, expressed high levels of CD44, CD90, CD73 and CD105 and were negative for CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. USSCs showed high expression of transcripts for Oct4 and Sox2 and were in vitro differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes. In both animal models, in vitro induced hepatocyte-like cells were confirmed by cytoplasmic expression of glycogen, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin18. Livers of USSCs transplanted group showed engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as proved by cytoplasmic expression of human alpha-fetoprotein, cytokeratin18, and OV6. In addition, livers of this group showed less fibrosis than the pathological control group. Liver functions in the form of serum AST & ALT level and serum total bilirubin level were significantly lowered in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the fibrotic index was significantly lower (p< 0.001) in USSCs transplanted group than pathological control group. In addition liver sections, of i. v. injection of 1×106 USCCs of mice, stained with either H&E or sirius red showed diminished granuloma size and a relative decrease in hepatic fibrosis. Our experimental liver fibrosis models transplanted with CB-USSCs showed liver engraftment with human hepatocyte-like cells as well as signs of liver regeneration in the form of improvement in liver function assays and fibrosis level. These data provide hope that human CB- derived USSCs are introduced as multipotent stem cells with great potentiality in regenerative medicine & strengthens the concept of cellular therapy for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Transplantation, Liver Fibrosis, Cord Blood

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11 Positive Effects of Aerobic Exercise after Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Recovery of Dopaminergic Neurons and Promotion of Angiogenesis Markers in the Striatum of Parkinsonian Rats

Authors: S. A. Hashemvarzi, A. Heidarianpour, Z. Fallahmohammadi, M. Pourghasem, M. Kaviani

Abstract:

Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative in the central nervous system characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in loss of dopamine release in the striatum. Non-drug treatment options such as Stem cell transplantation and exercise have been considered for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise after bone marrow stem cells transplantation on recovery of dopaminergic neurons and promotion of angiogenesis markers in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into six groups: Normal (N), Sham (S), Parkinson’s (P), Stem cells transplanted Parkinson’s (SP), Exercised Parkinson’s (EP) and Stem cells transplanted + Exercised Parkinson’s (SEP). To create a model of Parkinson's, the striatum was destroyed by injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into the striatum through stereotaxic apparatus. Stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of femur and tibia of male rats with 6-8 weeks old. After cultivation, approximately 5×105 cells in 5 microliter of medium were injected into the striatum of rats through the channel. Aerobic exercise was included 8 weeks of running on the treadmill with a speed of 15 meters per minute. At the end, all subjects were decapitated and striatum tissues were separately isolated for measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels. Results: VEGF, DA and TH levels in the striatum of parkinsonian rats significantly increased in treatment groups (SP, EP and SEP), especially in SEP group compared to P group after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: The findings implicate that the BMSCs transplantation in combination with exercise would have synergistic effects leading to functional recovery, dopaminergic neurons recovery and promotion of angiogenesis marker in the striatum of parkinsonian rats.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Parkinson, treadmill training, neurotrophic factors

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10 Studying the Antiapoptotic Activity of Β Cells from Cord Blood Based Mesenchymal Stem Cells as an Approach to Treat Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parcha Sreenivasa Rao, P. Lakshmi

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Diabetes Mellitus is metabolic disorder, characterized by high glucose levels in the blood due to one of the reason i.e., the death of β cells. The lack of β cells leads to the reduced insulin levels. The β cell death generally occurs due to apoptosis induced by the several cytokines. IL-1β, IFN- ϒ and TNF –α cytokines that are generally cause apoptosis to the β cell. The nutrient based apoptosis is generally seen with high glucose and free fatty acids. It is also noted that the β cell death triggered by Fas ligand and its receptor Fas at the surface of the activated CD8+ T- lymphocytes. Reports also reveal that the β cell apoptosis is under control of the transcription factors NF-kB and STAT- 1. The arresting or opposing of the β cell apoptosis can be overcome by the different growth factors like GLP-1, growth hormone, prolactin, VEGF, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4, Vildagliptin, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid, trichistatin-A, XIAP, Bcl-2, FGF-21. Present investigation explains antiapoptotic property of the β cells derived from the mesenchymal stem cells of umbilical cord.

Keywords: Diabetes, Stem Cells, apoptosis, umblical cord

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9 Role of Nano Gelatin and Hydrogel Based Scaffolds in Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Husain S. Yawer, Vasim Raja Panwar, Nidhi Priya

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The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the role of nano-gelatin and Bioengineered Scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Tooth decay and early fall have each been one of the most prevailing dental disorders which cause physical and emotional suffering and compromise the patient's quality of life. The design of novel scaffolding materials will be based on mimicking the architecture of natural dental extracellular matrix which may provide as in vivo environments for proper cell growth. This methodology will involve the combination of nano-fibred gelatin as well as biodegradable hydrogel based tooth scaffold. We have measured and optimized the Dental Pulp Stem Cells growth profile in cultures carried out on collagen-coated plastic surface, however, for tissue regeneration study, we aim to develop an enhanced microenvironment for stem cell growth and dental tissue regeneration. We believe biomimetic cell adhesion and scaffolds might provide a near in vivo growth environment for proper growth and differentiation of human DPSCs, which further help in dentin/pulp tissue regeneration.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Scaffold, nano-gelatin, dental pulp

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8 A Strategy Therapy for Retinitis Pigmentosa Induced by Argon Laser in Rabbits by High Dose Adult Stem Cells

Authors: Hager E. Amer, Hany El Saftawy, Laila Rashed, Ahmed M. Ata, Fatma Metwally, Hesham Mettawei, Hossam E. Sayed, Tamer Adel, Kareem M. El Sawah

Abstract:

Aim: The purpose of this study is to regenerate the damaged photoreceptor cells as a result of argon laser as a model of Retinitis Pigmentosa in rabbits' retina by using adult stem cells from rabbits' bone marrow. Background: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited disorders that primarily affect photoreceptor and pigment epithelium function. RP leads to loss of the rod outer segment and shorten the photoreceptor layer and expose the photoreceptor cell body to high-pressure levels in oxygen (oxidative stress) leads to apoptosis to the rod and cone cells. In particular, there is no specific treatment for retinitis pigmentosa. Materials and Methods: Forty Two Giant (Rex) rabbits were used in this experiment divided into 3 groups: Group 1: Control (6 rabbits), Group 2: Argon laser radiated as a model of retinitis pigmentosa (12 rabbits), Group 3: Laser radiated and treated by 6 million stem cells (12 rabbits). The last two groups are divided each into two subgroups each subgroup contains 6 rabbits, the ophthalmological examination was performed on rabbits, blood samples and retina samples were taken after 25 days and after 36 days from the laser radiation (10 days and 21 days after stem cells insertion in group 3) to perform the biochemical analysis. Results: Compared to control Group, a decrease of ERG wave amplitude and antioxidant substances (Glutathione) in blood and retina in group 2, and an increase of oxidative stress substances (Nitric oxide, Malonaldehyde, and carponyl protein) and apoptotic substances (Advanced glycation end product and M-metalloproteinase) in blood and retina. Compared to group 2, mostly increases of antioxidant substances and ERG wave amplitude in group 3, and mostly decreases in oxidative stress substances and apoptotic substances. Conclusion: Insertion of 6 million stem cells intravitreous gives good results in regeneration of the damaged photoreceptor cells after 21 days.

Keywords: Stem Cells, apoptosis, Oxidative Stress, retinitis pigmentosa, argon laser

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7 Plasma Engineered Nanorough Substrates for Stem Cells in vitro Culture

Authors: Melanie Macgregor-Ramiasa, Isabel Hopp, Patricia Murray, Krasimir Vasilev

Abstract:

Stem cells based therapies are one of the greatest promises of new-age medicine due to their potential to help curing most dreaded conditions such as cancer, diabetes and even auto-immune disease. However, establishing suitable in vitro culture materials allowing to control the fate of stem cells remain a challenge. Amongst the factor influencing stem cell behavior, substrate chemistry and nanotopogaphy are particularly critical. In this work, we used plasma assisted surface modification methods to produce model substrates with tailored nanotopography and controlled chemistry. Three different sizes of gold nanoparticles were bound to amine rich plasma polymer layers to produce homogeneous and gradient surface nanotopographies. The outer chemistry of the substrate was kept constant for all substrates by depositing a thin layer of our patented biocompatible polyoxazoline plasma polymer on top of the nanofeatures. For the first time, protein adsorption and stem cell behaviour (mouse kidney stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells) were evaluated on nanorough plasma deposited polyoxazoline thin films. Compared to other nitrogen rich coatings, polyoxazoline plasma polymer supports the covalent binding of proteins. Moderate surface nanoroughness, in both size and density, triggers cell proliferation. In association with polyoxazoline coating, cell proliferation is further enhanced on nanorough substrates. Results are discussed in term of substrates wetting properties. These findings provide valuable insights on the mechanisms governing the interactions between stem cells and their growth support.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Differentiation, Nanotopography, gold nanoparticles, plasma polymer, oxazoline

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6 Regenerative Therapeutic Effect of Statin Nanoparticle-Loaded Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Masaaki Ii, Takashi Saito, Yasuhiko Tabata, Shintaro Nemoto

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Background: Clinical trials of autologous adipose-derived stem cell (AdSC) therapy for ischemic heart diseases (IHD) are now on-going. We have investigated the hypothesis that combination of AdSCs and statin, an agent with pleiotropic effects, could augment the therapeutic effect on myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results: Human AdSC functions with different doses of simvastatin-conjugated nanoparticle (STNP) uptake were evaluated by in vitro assays. STNP promoted the migration activity without changing the proliferation activity, and also up-regulated growth factors. Next, MI was induced by LAD ligation in nude mice, and the mice were assigned in the following groups 3 days after MI: 1) PBS (control), 2) NP-AdSCs (50000 cells), 3) STNP, and 4) STNP-AdSCs (50000 cells). Cardiac functional recovery assessed by echocardiography was improved at 4 weeks after surgery in STNP-AdSC group. Masson’s trichrome-stained sections revealed that LV fibrosis length was reduced, and the number of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes was less in STNP-AdSC group. Surprisingly, a number of de novo endogenous Nkx-2.5/GATA4 positive immature cardiomyocytes as well as massive vascular formation were observed in outer layer of infarcted myocardium despite of a few recruited/retained transfused STNP-AdSCs 4 weeks after MI in STNP-AdSC group. Finally, massive myocardial regeneration was observed 8 weeks after MI. Conclusions: Intravenously injected small number of statin nanoparticle-loaded hAdSCs exhibited a potent therapeutic effect inducing endogenous cardiac tissue regeneration.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Drug Delivery System, cardiac regeneration, statin

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5 Application of Bioreactors in Regenerative Dentistry: Literature Review

Authors: Neeraj Malhotra

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Background: Bioreactors in tissue engineering are used as devices that apply mechanical means to influence biological processes. They are commonly employed for stem cell culturing, growth and expansion as well as in 3D tissue culture. Contemporarily there use is well established and is tested extensively in the medical sciences, for tissue-regeneration and tissue engineering of organs like bone, cartilage, blood vessels, skin grafts, cardiac muscle etc. Methodology: Literature search, both electronic and hand search, was done using the following MeSH and keywords: bioreactors, bioreactors and dentistry, bioreactors & dental tissue engineering, bioreactors and regenerative dentistry. Articles published only in English language were included for review. Results: Bioreactors like, spinner flask-, rotating wall-, flow perfusion-, and micro-bioreactors and in-vivo bioreactor have been employed and tested for the regeneration of dental and like-tissues. These include gingival tissue, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, mucosa, cementum and blood vessels. Based on their working dynamics they can be customized in future for regeneration of pulp tissue and whole tooth regeneration. Apart from this, they have been successfully used in testing the clinical efficacy and biological safety of dental biomaterials. Conclusion: Bioreactors have potential use in testing dental biomaterials and tissue engineering approaches aimed at regenerative dentistry.

Keywords: Stem Cells, bioreactors, Biological Process, mechanical stimulation, regenerative dentistry

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4 Engineering Ligand-Free Biodegradable-Based Nanoparticles for Cell Attachment and Growth

Authors: Simone F. Medeiros, Amilton M. Santos, Isabela F. Santos, Rodolfo M. Moraes, Jaspreet K. Kular, Marcus A. Johns, Ram Sharma

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Tissue engineering aims to develop alternatives to treat damaged tissues by promoting their regeneration. Its basic principle is to place cells on a scaffold capable of promoting cell functions, and for this purpose, polymeric nanoparticles have been successfully used due to the ability of some macro chains to mimic the extracellular matrix and influence cell functions. In general, nanoparticles require surface chemical modification to achieve cell adhesion, and recent advances in their synthesis include methods for modifying the ligand density and distribution onto nanoparticles surface. However, this work reports the development of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles capable of promoting cellular adhesion without any surface chemical modification by ligands. Biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) were synthesized by solvent evaporation method. The produced nanoparticles were small in size (85 and 125 nm) and colloidally stable against time in aqueous solution. Morphology evaluation showed their spherical shape with small polydispersity. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured in the presence of PHBHV nanoparticles, and growth kinetics were compared to those grown on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). Cell attachment on non-tissue culture polystyrene (non-TCPS) pre-coated with nanoparticles was assessed and compared to attachment on TCPS. These findings reveal the potential of PHBHV nanoparticles for cell adhesion and growth, without requiring a matrix ligand to support cells, to be used as scaffolds, in tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, PHBHV, cellular attachment

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3 Biodegradable and Bioactive Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. M. Malagon Escandon, J. A. Arenas Alatorre, C. P. Chaires Rosas, N. A. Vazquez Torres, B. Hernandez Tellez, G. Pinon Zarate, M. Herrera Enriquez, A. E. Castell Rodriguez

Abstract:

The current approach to the treatment of bone defects involves the use of scaffolds that provide a biological and mechanically stable niche to favor tissue repair. Despite the significant progress in the field of bone tissue engineering, several main problems associated are attributed to giving a low biodegradation degree, does not promote osseointegration and regeneration, if the bone is not healing as well as expected or fails to heal, will not be given a proper ossification or new bone formation. The actual approaches of bone tissue regeneration are directed to the use of decellularized native extracellular matrices, which are able of retain their own architecture, mechanic properties, biodegradability and promote new bone formation because they are capable of conserving proteins and other factors that are founded in physiological concentrations. Therefore, we propose an extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds derived from bovine cancellous bone, which is processed by decellularization, demineralization, and hydrolysis of the collagen protein, these protocols have been successfully carried out in other organs and tissues; the effectiveness of its biosafety has also been previously evaluated in vivo and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In the specific case of bone, a more complex treatment is needed in comparison with other organs and tissues because is necessary demineralization and collagen denaturalization. The present work was made in order to obtain a temporal scaffold that succeed in degradation in an inversely proportional way to the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the maturation of the bone by the cells of the host.

Keywords: Bone, Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, Bioactive, biodegradable, extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds

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2 A Combination of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Low-Intensity Ultrasound for Knee Meniscus Regeneration: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Mohammad Nasb, Muhammad Rehan, Chen Hong

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Background Meniscus defects critically alter knee function and lead to degenerative changes. Regenerative medicine applications including stem cell transplantation have showed a promising efficacy in finding alternatives to overcome traditional treatment limitations. However, stem cell therapy remains limited due to the substantially reduced viability and inhibitory microenvironment. Since tissue growth and repair are under the control of biochemical and mechanical signals, several approaches have recently been investigated (e.g., low intensity pulsed ultrasound [LIPUS]) to promote the regeneration process. This study employed LIPUS to improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells to improve the regeneration of meniscus tissue. Methodology: The Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were transplanted into the epicenter of the injured meniscus in rabbits, which were randomized into two main groups: a treatment group (n=32 New Zealand rabbits) including 4 subgroups of 8 rabbits in each subgroup (LIPUS treatment, MSC treatment, LIPUS with MSC and control), and a second group (n=9) to track implanted cells and their progeny using green fluorescence protein (GFP). GFP consists of the MSC and LIPUS-MSC combination subgroups. Rabbits were then subjected to histological, immunohistochemistry, and MRI assessment. Results: The quantity of the newly regenerated tissue in the combination treatment group that had Ultrasound irradiation after mesenchymal stem cells were better at all end points. Likewise, Tissue quality scores were also greater in knees treated with both approaches compared with controls and single treatment at all end points, achieving significance at twelve and twenty-four weeks [p < 0.05], and [p = 0.008] at twelve weeks. Differentiation into type-I and II collagen-expressing cells were higher in the combination group at up to twenty-four weeks. Conclusions: the combination of mesenchymal stem cells and LIPUS showed greater adhering to the sites of meniscus injury, differentiate into cells resembling meniscal fibrochondrocytes, and improve both quality and quantity of meniscal regeneration.

Keywords: Stem Cells, Osteoarthritis, Regenerative medicine, knee

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1 CD133 and CD44 - Stem Cell Markers for Prediction of Clinically Aggressive Form of Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Ognen Kostovski, Svetozar Antovic, Rubens Jovanovic, Irena Kostovska, Nikola Jankulovski

Abstract:

Introduction:Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. The cancer stem cell (CSC) markers are associated with aggressive cancer types and poor prognosis. The aim of study was to determine whether the expression of colorectal cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44 could be significant in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Materials and methods: Our study included ninety patients (n=90) with CRC. Patients were divided into two subgroups: with metatstatic CRC and non-metastatic CRC. Tumor samples were analyzed with standard histopathological methods, than was performed immunohistochemical analysis with monoclonal antibodies against CD133 and CD44 stem cell markers. Results: High coexpression of CD133 and CD44 was observed in 71.4% of patients with metastatic disease, compared to 37.9% in patients without metastases. Discordant expression of both markers was found in 8% of the subgroup with metastatic CRC, and in 13.4% of the subgroup without metastatic CRC. Statistical analyses showed a significant association of increased expression of CD133 and CD44 with the disease stage, T - category and N - nodal status. With multiple regression analysis the stage of disease was designate as a factor with the greatest statistically significant influence on expression of CD133 (p <0.0001) and CD44 (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the coexpression of CD133 and CD44 have an important role in prediction of clinically aggressive form of CRC. Both stem cell markers can be routinely implemented in standard pathohistological diagnostics and can be useful markers for pre-therapeutic oncology screening.

Keywords: Stem Cells, colorectal carcinoma, CD133+, CD44+

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