Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Stem Cell Related Abstracts

10 Osteogenesis in Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived from Human Turbinate

Authors: A. Reum Son, Jin Seon Kwon, Seung Hun Park, Hai Bang Lee, Moon Suk Kim

Abstract:

These days, stem cell therapy is focused on for promising source of treatment in clinical human disease. As a supporter of stem cells, in situ-forming hydrogels with growth factors and cells appear to be a promising approach in tissue engineering. To examine osteogenic differentiation of hTMSCs which is one of mesenchymal stem cells in vivo in an injectable hydrogel, we use a methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone blockcopolymer (MPEG-PCL) solution with osteogenic factors. We synthesized MPEG-PCL hydrogel and measured viscosity to check sol-gel transition. In order to demonstrate osteogenic ability of hTMSCs, we conducted in vitro osteogenesis experiment. Then, to confirm the cell cytotoxicity, we performed WST-1 with hTMSCs and MPEG-PCL. As the result of in vitro experiment, we implanted cell and hydrogel mixture into animal model and checked degree of osteogenesis with histological analysis and amount of expression genes. Through these experimental data, MPEG-PCL hydrogel has sol-gel transition in temperature change and is biocompatible with stem cells. In histological analysis and gene expression, hTMSCs are very good source of osteogenesis with hydrogel and will use it to tissue engineering as important treatment method. hTMSCs could be a good adult stem cell source for usability of isolation and high proliferation. When hTMSCs are used as cell therapy method with in situ-formed hydrogel, they may provide various benefits like a noninvasive alternative for bone tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: Stem Cell, Tissue Engineering, injectable hydrogel, osteogenic differentiation

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9 In silico Repopulation Model of Various Tumour Cells during Treatment Breaks in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

Authors: Loredana G. Marcu, David Marcu, Sanda M. Filip

Abstract:

Advanced head and neck cancers are aggressive tumours, which require aggressive treatment. Treatment efficiency is often hindered by cancer cell repopulation during radiotherapy, which is due to various mechanisms triggered by the loss of tumour cells and involves both stem and differentiated cells. The aim of the current paper is to present in silico simulations of radiotherapy schedules on a virtual head and neck tumour grown with biologically realistic kinetic parameters. Using the linear quadratic formalism of cell survival after radiotherapy, altered fractionation schedules employing various treatment breaks for normal tissue recovery are simulated and repopulation mechanism implemented in order to evaluate the impact of various cancer cell contribution on tumour behaviour during irradiation. The model has shown that the timing of treatment breaks is an important factor influencing tumour control in rapidly proliferating tissues such as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Furthermore, not only stem cells but also differentiated cells, via the mechanism of abortive division, can contribute to malignant cell repopulation during treatment.

Keywords: Radiation, Stem Cell, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, tumour repopulation

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8 Seal and Heal Miracle Ointment: Effects of Cryopreserved and Lyophilized Amniotic Membrane on Experimentally Induced Diabetic Balb/C Mice

Authors: Elizalde D. Bana

Abstract:

Healing restores continuity and form through cell replication; hence, conserving structural integrity. In response to the worldwide pressing problem of chronic wounds in the healthcare delivery system, the researcher aims to provide effective intervention to preserve the structural integrity of the person. The wound healing effects of cryopreserved and lyophilized amniotic membrane (AM) of a term fetus embedded into two (2) concentrations (1.5 % and 1.0 %) of absorption-based ointment has been evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model 1x1 cm size. The total protein concentration in full term fetus was determined by the Biuret and Bradford methods, which are based on UV-visible spectroscopy. The percentages of protein presence in 9.5 mg (Mass total sample) of Amniotic membrane ranges between 14.77 – 14.46 % in Bradford method, while slightly lower to 13.78 – 13.80 % concentration in Biuret method, respectively. Bradford method evidently showed higher sensitivity for proteins than Biuret test. Overall, the amniotic membrane is composed principally of proteins in which a copious amount of literature substantially proved its healing abilities. After which, an area of 1 cm by 1 cm skin tissue was excised to its full thickness from the dorsolateral aspect of the isogenic mice and was applied twice a day with the ointment formulation having two (2) concentrations for the diabetic group and non-diabetic group. The wounds of each animal were left undressed and its area was measured every other day by a standard measurement formula from day 2,4,6,8,10,12 and 14. By the 14th day, the ointment containing 1.5 % of AM in absorption-based ointment applied to non-diabetic and diabetic group showed 100 % healing. The wound areas in the animals treated with the standard antibiotic, Mupirocin Ointment (Brand X) showed a 100% healing by the 14th day but with traces of scars, indicating that AM prepared from cryopreservation and lyophilization, at that given concentration, had a better wound healing property than the standard antibiotic. Four (4) multivariate tests were used which showed a significant interaction between days and treatments, meaning that the ointments prepared in two differing concentrations and induced in different groups of the mice had a significant effect on the percent of contraction over time. Furthermore, the evaluations of its effectiveness to wound healing were all significant although in differing degrees. It is observed that the higher the concentrations of amniotic membrane, the more effective are the results.

Keywords: Biomedical, Stem Cell, Wounds, Healing, amniotic membrane ointments

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7 Induction of HIV-1 Resistance: The New Approaches Based on Gene Modification and Stem Cell Engineering

Authors: Alieh Farshbaf

Abstract:

Introduction: Current anti-retroviral drugs have some restrictions for treatment of HIV-1 infection. The efficacy of retroviral drugs is not same in different infected patients and the virus rebound from latent reservoirs after stopping them. Recently, the engineering of stem cells and gene therapy provide new approaches to eliminate some drug problems by induction of resistance to HIV-1. Literature review: Up to now, AIDS-restriction genes (ARGs) were suitable candidate for gene and cell therapies, such as cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5). In this manner, CCR5 provide effective cure in Berlin and Boston patients by inducing of HIV-1 resistance with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. It is showed that Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) could induce HIV-1 resistance in stem cells of infected patients by homologous recombination or non-end joining mechanism and eliminate virus loading after returning the modified cells. Then, gene modification by HIV restriction factors, as TRIM5, introduced another gene candidate for HIV by interfering in infection process. These gene modifications/editing provided by stem cell futures that improve treatment in refractory disease such as HIV-1. Conclusion: Although stem cell transplantation has some complications, but in compare to retro-viral drugs demonstrated effective cure by elimination of virus loading. On the other hand, gene therapy is cost-effective for an infected patient than retroviral drugs payment in a person life-long. The results of umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation showed that gene and cell therapy will be applied easier than previous treatment of AIDS with high efficacy.

Keywords: Stem Cell, Cell Engineering, AIDS, gene modification

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6 CCR5 as an Ideal Candidate for Immune Gene Therapy and Modification for the Induced Resistance to HIV-1 Infection

Authors: Alieh Farshbaf, Tayyeb Bahrami

Abstract:

Introduction: Cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) is known as a main co-receptor in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Many studies showed 32bp deletion (Δ32) in CCR5 gene, provide natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals. Inducing the resistance mechanism by CCR5 in HIV-1 infected patients eliminated many problems of highly-active-anti retroviral therapy (HAART) drugs like as low safety, side-effects and virus rebounding from latent reservoirs. New treatments solved some restrictions that are based on gene modification and cell therapy. Literature review: The stories of the “Berlin and Boston patients” showed autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT) could provide effective cure of HIV-1 infected patients. Furthermore, gene modification by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) demonstrated another successful result again. Despite the other studies for gene therapy by ∆32 genotype, there is another mutation -CCR5 ∆32/m303- that provides HIV-1 resistant. It is a heterozygote genotype for ∆32 and T→A point mutation at nucleotide 303. These results approved the key role of CCR5 gene. Conclusion: Recent studies showed immune gene therapy and cell therapy could provide effective cure for refractory disease like as HIV. Eradication of HIV-1 from immune system was not observed by HAART, because of reloading virus genome from latent reservoirs after stopping them. It is showed that CCR5 could induce natural resistant to HIV-1 infection by the new approaches based on stem cell transplantation and gene modifying.

Keywords: Stem Cell, HIV-1, gene modification, CCR5, immune gene therapy

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5 Efficacy of Umbilical Cord Lining Stem Cells For Wound Healing in Diabetic Murine Model

Authors: Fui Ping Lim, Wen Choong Chua, Toan Thang Phan

Abstract:

Aim: This study investigates the roles of Cord Lining Stem Cells (CLSCs) as potential therapeutic agents for diabetic wounds. Method: 20 genetically diabetic db/db mice were randomly assigned to two arms; (i) control group received placebo treatment (sham media or cells delivery material), and (ii) active comparator received CLSCs. Two full-thickness wounds, each sized 10mm X 10mm were created, one on each side of the midline on the back of the mice. Digital pictures were taken on day 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24, 28. Wound areas were analyzed with ImageJ TM software and calculated as percentage of the original wound. Time to closure was defined as the day the wound bed was completely epithelized and filled with new tissues. Results: The CLSCs-treated wounds, showed a significant increase in the percentage of wound closure and achieved 100% closure of the wound sooner than the control group by an average of 3.7 days. The mice treated with CLSCs have a shorter wound closure time (mean closure day: 19.8 days) as compared to the control group (mean closure day: 23.5 days). Conclusion: Our preliminary findings inferred that CLSCs treated wound achieved higher percentage of wound closure within a shorter duration of time.

Keywords: Stem Cell, Wound, cord lining stem cell, diabetic wound

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4 A Mathematical Description of a Growing Cell Colony Based on the Mechanical Bidomain Model

Authors: Debabrata Auddya, Bradley J. Roth

Abstract:

The mechanical bidomain model is used to describe a colony of cells growing on a substrate. Analytical expressions are derived for the intracellular and extracellular displacements. Mechanotransduction events are driven by the difference between the displacements in the two spaces, corresponding to the force acting on integrins. The equation for the displacement consists of two terms: one proportional to the radius that is the same in the intracellular and extracellular spaces (the monodomain term) and one that is proportional to a modified Bessel function that is responsible for mechanotransduction (the bidomain term). The model predicts that mechanotransduction occurs within a few length constants of the colony’s edge, and an expression for the length constant contains the intracellular and extracellular shear moduli and the spring constant of the integrins coupling the two spaces. The model predictions are qualitatively consistent with experiments on human embryonic stem cell colonies, in which differentiation is localized near the edge.

Keywords: Stem Cell, stress-strain, integrin, cell colony, mechanical bidomain model, traction force

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3 Ultrasound Mechanical Index as a Parameter Affecting of the Ability of Proliferation of Cells

Authors: Z. Hormozi Moghaddam, M. Mokhtari-Dizaji, M. Movahedin, M. E. Ravari

Abstract:

Mechanical index (MI) is used for quantifying acoustic cavitation and the relationship between acoustic pressure and the frequency. In this study, modeling of the MI was applied to provide treatment protocol and to understand the effective physical processes on reproducibility of stem cells. The acoustic pressure and MI equations are modeled and solved to estimate optimal MI for 28, 40, 150 kHz and 1 MHz frequencies. Radial and axial acoustic pressure distribution was extracted. To validate the results of the modeling, the acoustic pressure in the water and near field depth was measured by a piston hydrophone. Results of modeling and experiments show that the model is consistent well to experimental results with 0.91 and 0.90 correlation of coefficient (p<0.05) for 1 MHz and 40 kHz. Low intensity ultrasound with 0.40 MI is more effective on the proliferation rate of the spermatogonial stem cells during the seven days of culture, in contrast, high MI has a harmful effect on the spermatogonial stem cells. This model provides proper treatment planning in vitro and in vivo by estimating the cavitation phenomenon.

Keywords: Modeling, Stem Cell, Ultrasound, mechanical index

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2 Ageing Gingiva: A New Hope for Autologous Stem Cell Therapy

Authors: Ankush M. Dewle, Suditi Bhattacharya, Prachi R. Abhang, Savita Datar, Ajay J. Jog, Rupesh K. Srivastava, Geetanjali Tomar

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from ageing gingival tissues, in order to suggest their potential role in autologous stem cell therapy for old individuals. Methods: MSCs were isolated from gingival tissues of young (18-45 years) and old (above 45 years) donors by enzymatic digestion. MSCs were analysed for cfu-f, surface marker expression by flow-cytometry and multilineage differentiation potential. The angiogenic potential was compared in a chick embryo yolk sac membrane model. The aging and differentiation markers including SA-β-galactosidase and p21 respectively were analysed by staining and flow-cytometry analysis. Additionally, osteogenic markers such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured by flow-cytometry and RT-qPCR was performed for quantification of osteogenic gene expression. Alizarin Red S and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were also quantitated. Results: Gingival MSCs (GMSCs) from both the age groups were similar in their morphology and displayed cfu-f. They had similar expression of MSC surface markers and p21, comparable rate of proliferation and differentiated to all the four lineages. GMSCs from young donors had a higher adipogenic differentiation potential as compared to the old GMSCs. Moreover, these cells did not display a significant difference in ALP activity probably due to comparable expression of GR, VDR, and osteogenic genes. Conclusions: Ageing of GMSCs occurs at a much slower rate than stem cells from other sources. Thus we suggest GMSCs as an excellent candidate for autologous stem cell therapy in degenerative diseases of elderly individuals. Clinical Significance: GMSCs could help overcome the setbacks in clinical implementation of autologous stem cell therapy for regenerative medicine in all age group of patient.

Keywords: Stem Cell, Cell Therapy, Bone Regeneration, senescence

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1 Human Bone Marrow Stem Cell Behavior on 3D Printed Scaffolds as Trabecular Bone Grafts

Authors: Zeynep Busra Velioglu, Deniz Pulat, Beril Demirbakan, Burak Ozcan, Ece Bayrak, Cevat Erisken

Abstract:

Bone tissue has the ability to perform a wide array of functions including providing posture, load-bearing capacity, protection for the internal organs, initiating hematopoiesis, and maintaining the homeostasis of key electrolytes via calcium/phosphate ion storage. The most common cause for bone defects is extensive trauma and subsequent infection. Bone tissue has the self-healing capability without a scar tissue formation for the majority of the injuries. However, some may result with delayed union or fracture non-union. Such cases include reconstruction of large bone defects or cases of compromised regenerative process as a result of avascular necrosis and osteoporosis. Several surgical methods exist to treat bone defects, including Ilizarov method, Masquelete technique, growth factor stimulation, and bone replacement. Unfortunately, these are technically demanding and come with noteworthy disadvantages such as lengthy treatment duration, adverse effects on the patient’s psychology, repeated surgical procedures, and often long hospitalization times. These limitations associated with surgical techniques make bone substitutes an attractive alternative. Here, it was hypothesized that a 3D printed scaffold will mimic trabecular bone in terms of biomechanical properties and that such scaffolds will support cell attachment and survival. To test this hypothesis, this study aimed at fabricating poly(lactic acid), PLA, structures using 3D printing technology for trabecular bone defects, characterizing the scaffolds and comparing with bovine trabecular bone. Capacity of scaffolds on human bone marrow stem cell (hBMSC) attachment and survival was also evaluated. Cubes with a volume of 1 cm³ having pore sizes of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.25 mm were printed. The scaffolds/grafts were characterized in terms of porosity, contact angle, compressive mechanical properties as well cell response. Porosities of the 3D printed scaffolds were calculated based on apparent densities. For contact angles, 50 µl distilled water was dropped over the surface of scaffolds, and contact angles were measured using ‘Image J’ software. Mechanical characterization under compression was performed on scaffolds and native trabecular bone (bovine, 15 months) specimens using a universal testing machine at a rate of 0.5mm/min. hBMSCs were seeded onto the 3D printed scaffolds. After 3 days of incubation with fully supplemented Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium, the cells were fixed using 2% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde mixture. The specimens were then imaged under scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was determined by using EZQuant dsDNA Quantitation kit. Fluorescence was measured using microplate reader Spectramax M2 at the excitation and emission wavelengths of 485nm and 535nm, respectively. Findings suggested that porosity of scaffolds with pore dimensions of 0.5mm, 1.0mm and 1.25mm were not affected by pore size, while contact angle and compressive modulus decreased with increasing pore size. Biomechanical characterization of trabecular bone yielded higher modulus values as compared to scaffolds with all pore sizes studied. Cells attached and survived in all surfaces, demonstrating higher proliferation on scaffolds with 1.25mm pores as compared with those of 1mm. Collectively, given lower mechanical properties of scaffolds as compared to native bone, and biocompatibility of the scaffolds, the 3D printed PLA scaffolds of this study appear as candidate substitutes for bone repair and regeneration.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Stem Cell, bone repair

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