Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

steering angle error Related Abstracts

2 Adaptive Beamforming with Steering Error and Mutual Coupling between Antenna Sensors

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao

Abstract:

Owing to close antenna spacing between antenna sensors within a compact space, a part of data in one antenna sensor would outflow to other antenna sensors when the antenna sensors in an antenna array operate simultaneously. This phenomenon is called mutual coupling effect (MCE). It has been shown that the performance of antenna array systems can be degraded when the antenna sensors are in close proximity. Especially, in a systems equipped with massive antenna sensors, the degradation of beamforming performance due to the MCE is significantly inevitable. Moreover, it has been shown that even a small angle error between the true direction angle of the desired signal and the steering angle deteriorates the effectiveness of an array beamforming system. However, the true direction vector of the desired signal may not be exactly known in some applications, e.g., the application in land mobile-cellular wireless systems. Therefore, it is worth developing robust techniques to deal with the problem due to the MCE and steering angle error for array beamforming systems. In this paper, we present an efficient technique for performing adaptive beamforming with robust capabilities against the MCE and the steering angle error. Only the data vector received by an antenna array is required by the proposed technique. By using the received array data vector, a correlation matrix is constructed to replace the original correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector. Then, the mutual coupling matrix due to the MCE on the antenna array is estimated through a recursive algorithm. An appropriate estimate of the direction angle of the desired signal can also be obtained during the recursive process. Based on the estimated mutual coupling matrix, the estimated direction angle, and the reconstructed correlation matrix, the proposed technique can effectively cure the performance degradation due to steering angle error and MCE. The novelty of the proposed technique is that the implementation procedure is very simple and the resulting adaptive beamforming performance is satisfactory. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides much better beamforming performance without requiring complicated complexity as compared with the existing robust techniques.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, mutual coupling effect, recursive algorithm, steering angle error

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1 Signal Processing Techniques for Adaptive Beamforming with Robustness

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao

Abstract:

Adaptive beamforming using antenna array of sensors is useful in the process of adaptively detecting and preserving the presence of the desired signal while suppressing the interference and the background noise. For conventional adaptive array beamforming, we require a prior information of either the impinging direction or the waveform of the desired signal to adapt the weights. The adaptive weights of an antenna array beamformer under a steered-beam constraint are calculated by minimizing the output power of the beamformer subject to the constraint that forces the beamformer to make a constant response in the steering direction. Hence, the performance of the beamformer is very sensitive to the accuracy of the steering operation. In the literature, it is well known that the performance of an adaptive beamformer will be deteriorated by any steering angle error encountered in many practical applications, e.g., the wireless communication systems with massive antennas deployed at the base station and user equipment. Hence, developing effective signal processing techniques to deal with the problem due to steering angle error for array beamforming systems has become an important research work. In this paper, we present an effective signal processing technique for constructing an adaptive beamformer against the steering angle error. The proposed array beamformer adaptively estimates the actual direction of the desired signal by using the presumed steering vector and the received array data snapshots. Based on the presumed steering vector and a preset angle range for steering mismatch tolerance, we first create a matrix related to the direction vector of signal sources. Two projection matrices are generated from the matrix. The projection matrix associated with the desired signal information and the received array data are utilized to iteratively estimate the actual direction vector of the desired signal. The estimated direction vector of the desired signal is then used for appropriately finding the quiescent weight vector. The other projection matrix is set to be the signal blocking matrix required for performing adaptive beamforming. Accordingly, the proposed beamformer consists of adaptive quiescent weights and partially adaptive weights. Several computer simulation examples are provided for evaluating and comparing the proposed technique with the existing robust techniques.

Keywords: Robustness, adaptive beamforming, steering angle error, signal blocking

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