Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Steel Structure Related Abstracts

10 The Impact of Steel Connections on the Fire Resistance of Composite Buildings

Authors: Shuyuan Lin, Zhaohui Huang, Mizi Fan


In the majority of previous research into modelling large scale composite floor subjected to fire, the beam-to-column and beam-to-beam connections were assumed to behave either as pinned or rigid for simplicity, and the vertical shear and axial tension failures of the connection were not taken into account. We have recently developed robust two-noded connection models for modeling endplate and partial endplate steel connections under fire conditions. The main objective of this research is to systematically investigate the impact of the connections of protected beams, on the tensile membrane actions of supported floor slabs in which the failures of the connections, such as, axial tension, vertical shear and bending are accounted for. The models developed have very good numerical stability under a static solver condition, and can be used for large scale modelling of composite buildings in fire.

Keywords: Steel Structure, Fire, component-based model, beam-to-column connections

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9 Fatigue Tests of New Assembly Bolt Connections for Perspective Temporary Steel Railway Bridges

Authors: Marcela Karmazínová, Michal Štrba, Miln Pilgr


The paper deals with the problems of the actual behavior, failure mechanism and load-carrying capacity of the special bolt connection developed and intended for the assembly connections of truss main girders of perspective railway temporary steel bridges. Within the framework of this problem solution, several types of structural details of assembly joints have been considered as the conceptual structural design. Based on the preliminary evaluation of advantages or disadvantages of these ones, in principle two basic structural configurations so-called “tooth” and “splice-plate” connections have been selected for the subsequent detailed investigation. This investigation is mainly based on the experimental verification of the actual behavior, strain and failure mechanism and corresponding strength of the connection, and on its numerical modeling using FEM. This paper is focused only on the cyclic loading (fatigue) tests results of “splice-plate” connections and their evaluation, which have already been finished. Simultaneously with the fatigue tests, the static loading tests have been realized too, but these ones, as well as FEM numerical modeling, are not the subject of this paper.

Keywords: Failure mechanisms, Steel Structure, Fatigue Strength, cyclic loading, Bolt assembly connection, structural detail category, temporary railway bridge

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8 Studying Frame-Resistant Steel Structures under Near Field Ground Motion

Authors: S. A. Hashemi, A. Khoshraftar


This paper presents the influence of the vertical seismic component on the non-linear dynamics analysis of three different structures. The subject structures were analyzed and designed according to recent codes. This paper considers three types of buildings: 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings. The non-linear dynamics analysis of the structures with assuming elastic-perfectly-plastic behavior was performed using Ram Perform-3D software; the horizontal component was taken into consideration with and without the incorporation of the corresponding vertical component. Dynamic responses obtained for the horizontal component acting alone were compared with those obtained from the simultaneous application of both seismic components. The results show that the effect of the vertical component of the ground motion may increase the axial load significantly in the interior columns and consequently, the stories. The plastic mechanisms would be changed. The P-Delta effect is expected to increase. The punching base plate shear of the columns should be considered. Moreover, the vertical component increases the input energy when the structures exhibit inelastic behavior and are taller.

Keywords: Steel Structure, inelastic behavior, non-linear dynamic analysis, vertical component

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7 Analysis of Steel Beam-Column Joints Under Seismic Loads

Authors: Mizam Doğan


Adapazarı railway car factory, the only railway car factory of Turkey, was constructed in 1950. It was a steel design and it had filled beam sections and truss beam systems. Columns were steel profiles and box sections. The factory was damaged heavily on Izmit Earthquake and closed. In this earthquake 90% of damaged structures are reinforced concrete, the others are %7 prefabricated and 3% steel construction. As can be seen in statistical data, damaged industrial buildings in this earthquake were generally reinforced concrete and prefabricated structures. Adapazari railway car factory is the greatest steel structure damaged in the earthquake. This factory has 95% of the total damaged steel structure area. In this paper; earthquake damages on beams and columns of the factory are studied by considering TS648 'Turkish Standard Building Code for Steel Structures' and also damaged connection elements as welds, rivets and bolts are examined. A model similar to the damaged system is made and high-stress zones are searched. These examinations, conclusions, suggestions are explained by damage photos and details.

Keywords: Steel Structure, Seismic Analysis, seismic load, column-beam connection

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6 Dissipation Capacity of Steel Building with Fiction Pendulum Base-Isolation System

Authors: A. Ras, I. Nait Zerrad, N. Benmouna, N. Boumechra


Use of base isolators in the seismic design of structures has attracted considerable attention in recent years. The major concern in the design of these structures is to have enough lateral stability to resist wind and seismic forces. There are different systems providing such isolation, among them there are friction- pendulum base isolation systems (FPS) which are rather widely applied nowadays involving to both affordable cost and high fundamental periods. These devices are characterised by a stiff resistance against wind loads and to be flexible to the seismic tremors, which make them suitable for different situations. In this paper, a 3D numerical investigation is done considering the seismic response of a twelve-storey steel building retrofitted with a FPS. Fast nonlinear time history analysis (FNA) of Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 2003) is considered for analysis and carried out using SAP2000 software. Comparisons between fixed base, bearing base isolated and braced structures are shown in a tabulated and graphical format. The results of the various alternatives studies to compare the structural response without and with this device of dissipation energy thus obtained were discussed and the conclusions showed the interesting potential of the FPS isolator. This system may to improve the dissipative capacities of the structure without increasing its rigidity in a significant way which contributes to optimize the quantity of steel necessary for its general stability.

Keywords: Nonlinear Analysis, Steel Structure, energy dissipation, friction-pendulum system

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5 Numerical Study of Steel Structures Responses to External Explosions

Authors: Mohammad Abdallah


Due to the constant increase in terrorist attacks, the research and engineering communities have given significant attention to building performance under explosions. This paper presents a methodology for studying and simulating the dynamic responses of steel structures during external detonations, particularly for accurately investigating the impact of incrementing charge weight on the members total behavior, resistance and failure. Prediction damage method was introduced to evaluate the damage level of the steel members based on five scenarios of explosions. Johnson–Cook strength and failure model have been used as well as ABAQUS finite element code to simulate the explicit dynamic analysis, and antecedent field tests were used to verify the acceptance and accuracy of the proposed material strength and failure model. Based on the structural response, evaluation criteria such as deflection, vertical displacement, drift index, and damage level; the obtained results show the vulnerability of steel columns and un-braced steel frames which are designed and optimized to carry dead and live load to resist and endure blast loading.

Keywords: Terrorist Attacks, Steel Structure, blast load, charge weight, damage level

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4 Effect of Correlation of Random Variables on Structural Reliability Index

Authors: Agnieszka Dudzik


The problem of correlation between random variables in the structural reliability analysis has been extensively discussed in literature on the subject. The cases taken under consideration were usually related to correlation between random variables from one side of ultimate limit state: correlation between particular loads applied on structure or correlation between resistance of particular members of a structure as a system. It has been proved that positive correlation between these random variables reduces the reliability of structure and increases the probability of failure. In the paper, the problem of correlation between random variables from both side of the limit state equation will be taken under consideration. The simplest case where these random variables are of the normal distributions will be concerned. The case when a degree of that correlation is described by the covariance or the coefficient of correlation will be used. Special attention will be paid on questions: how much that correlation changes the reliability level and can it be ignored. In reliability analysis will be used well-known methods for assessment of the failure probability: based on the Hasofer-Lind reliability index and Monte Carlo method adapted to the problem of correlation. The main purpose of this work will be a presentation how correlation of random variables influence on reliability index of steel bar structures. Structural design parameters will be defined as deterministic values and random variables. The latter will be correlated. The criterion of structural failure will be expressed by limit functions related to the ultimate and serviceability limit state. In the description of random variables will be used only for the normal distribution. Sensitivity of reliability index to the random variables will be defined. If the reliability index sensitivity due to the random variable X will be low when compared with other variables, it can be stated that the impact of this variable on failure probability is small. Therefore, in successive computations, it can be treated as a deterministic parameter. Sensitivity analysis leads to simplify the description of the mathematical model, determine the new limit functions and values of the Hasofer-Lind reliability index. In the examples, the NUMPRESS software will be used in the reliability analysis.

Keywords: Steel Structure, reliability index, correlation of random variables, sensitivity of reliability index

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3 Modified Side Plate Design to Suppress Lateral Torsional Buckling of H-Beam for Seismic Application

Authors: Erwin, Cheng-Cheng Chen, Charles J. Salim


One of the method to solve the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) problem is by using side plates to increased the buckling resistance of the beam. Some modifications in designing the side plates are made in this study to simplify the construction in the field and reduce the cost. At certain region, side plates are not added: (1) At the beam end to preserve some spaces for bolt installation, but the beam is strengthened by adding cover plate at both flanges and (2) at the middle span of the beam where the moment is smaller. Three small scale full span beam specimens are tested under cyclic loading to investigate the LTB resistant and the ductility of the proposed design method. Test results show that the LTB deformation can be effectively suppressed and very high ductility level can be achieved. Following the test, a finite element analysis (FEA) model is established and is verified using the test results. An intensive parametric study is conducted using the established FEA model. The analysis reveals that the length of side plates is the most important parameter determining the performance of the beam and the required side plates length is determined by some parameters which are (1) beam depth to flange width ratio, (2) beam slenderness ratio (3) strength and thickness of the side plates, (4) compactness of beam web and flange, and (5) beam yield strength. At the end of the paper, a design formula to calculate the required side plate length is suggested.

Keywords: Steel Structure, Earthquake Resistant Design, lateral torsional buckling, cover plate, side plate

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2 Research on Architectural Steel Structure Design Based on BIM

Authors: Tianyu Gao


Digital architectures use computer-aided design, programming, simulation, and imaging to create virtual forms and physical structures. Today's customers want to know more about their buildings. They want an automatic thermostat to learn their behavior and contact them, such as the doors and windows they want to open with a mobile app. Therefore, the architectural display form is more closely related to the customer's experience. Based on the purpose of building informationization, this paper studies the steel structure design based on BIM. Taking the Zigan office building in Hangzhou as an example, it is divided into four parts, namely, the digital design modulus of the steel structure, the node analysis of the steel structure, the digital production and construction of the steel structure. Through the application of BIM software, the architectural design can be synergized, and the building components can be informationized. Not only can the architectural design be feedback in the early stage, but also the stability of the construction can be guaranteed. In this way, the monitoring of the entire life cycle of the building and the meeting of customer needs can be realized.

Keywords: Architectural Design, bim, Steel Structure, digital architectures

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1 Structural Damage Detection in a Steel Column-Beam Joint Using Piezoelectric Sensors

Authors: Carlos H. Cuadra, Nobuhiro Shimoi


Application of piezoelectric sensors to detect structural damage due to seismic action on building structures is investigated. Plate-type piezoelectric sensor was developed and proposed for this task. A film-type piezoelectric sheet was attached on a steel plate and covered by a layer of glass. A special glue is used to fix the glass. This glue is a silicone that requires the application of ultraviolet rays for its hardening. Then, the steel plate was set up at a steel column-beam joint of a test specimen that was subjected to bending moment when test specimen is subjected to monotonic load and cyclic load. The structural behavior of test specimen during cyclic loading was verified using a finite element model, and it was found good agreement between both results on load-displacement characteristics. The cross section of steel elements (beam and column) is a box section of 100 mm×100 mm with a thin of 6 mm. This steel section is specified by the Japanese Industrial Standards as carbon steel square tube for general structure (STKR400). The column and beam elements are jointed perpendicularly using a fillet welding. The resulting test specimen has a T shape. When large deformation occurs the glass plate of the sensor device cracks and at that instant, the piezoelectric material emits a voltage signal which would be the indicator of a certain level of deformation or damage. Applicability of this piezoelectric sensor to detect structural damages was verified; however, additional analysis and experimental tests are required to establish standard parameters of the sensor system.

Keywords: Steel Structure, piezoelectric sensor, static cyclic test, seismic damages

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