Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

steady state Related Abstracts

9 Verification and Validation of Simulated Process Models of KALBR-SIM Training Simulator

Authors: T. Jayanthi, K. Velusamy, H. Seetha, S. A. V. Satya Murty


Verification and Validation of Simulated Process Model is the most important phase of the simulator life cycle. Evaluation of simulated process models based on Verification and Validation techniques checks the closeness of each component model (in a simulated network) with the real system/process with respect to dynamic behaviour under steady state and transient conditions. The process of Verification and validation helps in qualifying the process simulator for the intended purpose whether it is for providing comprehensive training or design verification. In general, model verification is carried out by comparison of simulated component characteristics with the original requirement to ensure that each step in the model development process completely incorporates all the design requirements. Validation testing is performed by comparing the simulated process parameters to the actual plant process parameters either in standalone mode or integrated mode. A Full Scope Replica Operator Training Simulator for PFBR - Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor has been developed at IGCAR, Kalpakkam, INDIA named KALBR-SIM (Kalpakkam Breeder Reactor Simulator) wherein the main participants are engineers/experts belonging to Modeling Team, Process Design and Instrumentation and Control design team. This paper discusses the Verification and Validation process in general, the evaluation procedure adopted for PFBR operator training Simulator, the methodology followed for verifying the models, the reference documents and standards used etc. It details out the importance of internal validation by design experts, subsequent validation by external agency consisting of experts from various fields, model improvement by tuning based on expert’s comments, final qualification of the simulator for the intended purpose and the difficulties faced while co-coordinating various activities.

Keywords: Verification and Validation (V&V), Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), Kalpakkam Breeder Reactor Simulator (KALBR-SIM), steady state, transient state

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8 Investigating Undrained Behavior of Noor Sand Using Triaxial Compression Test

Authors: Hossein Motaghedi, Siavash Salamatpoor, Abbas Mokhtari


Noor costal city which is located in Mazandaran province, Iran, regularly visited by many tourists. Accordingly, many tall building and heavy structures are going to be constructed over this coastal area. This region is overlaid by poorly graded clean sand and because of high water level, is susceptible to liquefaction. In this study, undrained triaxial tests under isotropic consolidation were conducted on the reconstituted samples of Noor sand, which underlies a densely populated, seismic region of southern bank of Caspian Sea. When the strain level is large enough, soil samples under shearing tend to be in a state of continuous deformation under constant shear and normal stresses. There exists a correlation between the void ratio and mean effective principal stress, which is referred to as the ultimate steady state line (USSL). Soil behavior can be achieved by expressing the state of effective confining stress and defining the location of this point relative to the steady state line. Therefore, one can say that sand behavior not only is dependent to relative density but also a description of stress state has to be defined. The current study tries to investigate behavior of this sand under different conditions such as confining effective stress and relative density using undrained monotonic triaxial compression tests. As expected, the analyzed results show that the sand behavior varies from dilative to contractive state while initial isotropic effective stress increases. Therefore, confining effective stress level will directly affect the overall behavior of sand. The observed behavior obtained from the conducted tests is then compared with some previously tested sands including Yamuna, Ganga, and Toyoura.

Keywords: Liquefaction, steady state, noor sand, undrained test

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7 On a Single Server Queue with Arrivals in Batches of Variable Size, Generalized Coxian-2 Service and Compulsory Server Vacations

Authors: Kailash C. Madan


We study the steady state behaviour of a batch arrival single server queue in which the first service with general service times is compulsory and the second service with general service times is optional. We term such a two phase service as generalized Coxian-2 service. Just after completion of a service the server must take a vacation of random length of time with general vacation times. We obtain steady state probability generating functions for the queue size as well as the steady state mean queue size at a random epoch of time in explicit and closed forms. Some particular cases of interest including some known results have been derived.

Keywords: steady state, batch arrivals, compound Poisson process, generalized Coxian-2 service

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6 Modeling and Analysis the Effects of Temperature and Pressure on the Gas-Crossover in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzer

Authors: Abdul Hadi Bin Abdol Rahim, Alhassan Salami Tijani


Hydrogen produced by means of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer (PEME) is one of the most promising methods due to clean and renewable energy source. In the process, some energy loss due to mass transfer through a PEM is caused by diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and the pressure difference between the cathode channel and anode channel. In PEME water molecules and ionic particles transferred between the electrodes from anode to cathode, Extensive mixing of the hydrogen and oxygen at anode channel due to gases cross-over must be avoided. In recent times the consciousness of safety issue in high pressure PEME where the oxygen mix with hydrogen at anode channel could create, explosive conditions have generated a lot of concern. In this paper, the steady state and simulation analysis of gases crossover in PEME on the temperature and pressure effect are presented. The simulations have been analysis in MATLAB based on the well-known Fick’s Law of molecular diffusion. The simulation results indicated that as temperature increases, there is a significant decrease in operating voltage.

Keywords: diffusion, Fick’s law, steady state, gases crosover

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5 A Qualitative Description of the Dynamics in the Interactions between Three Populations: Pollinators, Plants, and Herbivores

Authors: Miriam Sosa-Díaz, Faustino Sánchez-Garduño


In population dynamics the study of both, the abundance and the spatial distribution of the populations in a given habitat, is a fundamental issue a From ecological point of view, the determination of the factors influencing such changes involves important problems. In this paper a mathematical model to describe the temporal dynamic and the spatiotemporal dynamic of the interaction of three populations (pollinators, plants and herbivores) is presented. The study we present is carried out by stages: 1. The temporal dynamics and 2. The spatio-temporal dynamics. In turn, each of these stages is developed by considering three cases which correspond to the dynamics of each type of interaction. For instance, for stage 1, we consider three ODE nonlinear systems describing the pollinator-plant, plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator-herbivore, interactions, respectively. In each of these systems different types of dynamical behaviors are reported. Namely, transcritical and pitchfork bifurcations, existence of a limit cycle, existence of a heteroclinic orbit, etc. For the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two mathematical models a novel factor are introduced. This consists in considering that both, the pollinators and the herbivores, move towards those places of the habitat where the plant population density is high. In mathematical terms, this means that the diffusive part of the pollinators and herbivores equations depend on the plant population density. The analysis of this part is presented by considering pairs of populations, i. e., the pollinator-plant and plant-herbivore interactions and at the end the two mathematical model is presented, these models consist of two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of reaction-diffusion type. These are defined on a rectangular domain with the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. We focused in the role played by the density dependent diffusion term into the coexistence of the populations. For both, the temporal and spatio-temporal dynamics, a several of numerical simulations are included.

Keywords: bifurcation, steady state, heteroclinic orbits, traveling wave

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4 On Four Models of a Three Server Queue with Optional Server Vacations

Authors: Kailash C. Madan


We study four models of a three server queueing system with Bernoulli schedule optional server vacations. Customers arriving at the system one by one in a Poisson process are provided identical exponential service by three parallel servers according to a first-come, first served queue discipline. In model A, all three servers may be allowed a vacation at one time, in Model B at the most two of the three servers may be allowed a vacation at one time, in model C at the most one server is allowed a vacation, and in model D no server is allowed a vacation. We study steady the state behavior of the four models and obtain steady state probability generating functions for the queue size at a random point of time for all states of the system. In model D, a known result for a three server queueing system without server vacations is derived.

Keywords: steady state, a three server queue, Bernoulli schedule server vacations, queue size distribution at a random epoch

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3 Speciation Analysis by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Application to Atrazine

Authors: K. Benhabib, X. Pierens, V-D Nguyen, G. Mimanne


The main hypothesis of the dynamics of solid phase microextraction (SPME) is that steady-state mass transfer is respected throughout the SPME extraction process. It considers steady-state diffusion is established in the two phases and fast exchange of the analyte at the solid phase film/water interface. An improved model is proposed in this paper to handle with the situation when the analyte (atrazine) is in contact with colloid suspensions (carboxylate latex in aqueous solution). A mathematical solution is obtained by substituting the diffusion coefficient by the mean of diffusion coefficient between analyte and carboxylate latex, and also thickness layer by the mean thickness in aqueous solution. This solution provides an equation relating the extracted amount of the analyte to the extraction a little more complicated than previous models. It also gives a better description of experimental observations. Moreover, the rate constant of analyte obtained is in satisfactory agreement with that obtained from the initial curve fitting.

Keywords: Pesticide, steady state, analytical model, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) methods

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2 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi


Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: transient, Rayleigh number, steady state, nusselt number, Fourier number

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1 Power System Modeling for Calculations in Frequency and Steady State Domain

Authors: G. Levacic, A. Zupan


Application of new technological solutions and installation of new elements into the network requires special attention when investigating its interaction with the existing power system. Special attention needs to be devoted to the occurrence of harmonic resonance. Sources of increasing harmonic penetration could be wind power plants, Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices, underground and submarine cable installations etc. Calculation in frequency domain with various software, for example, the software for power systems transients EMTP-RV presents one of the most common ways to obtain the harmonic impedance of the system. Along calculations in frequency domain, such software allows performing of different type of calculations as well as steady-state domain. This paper describes a power system modeling with software EMTP-RV based on data from SCADA/EMS system. The power flow results on 220 kV and 400 kV voltage levels retrieved from EMTP-RV are verified by comparing with power flow results from power transmissions system planning software PSS/E. The determination of the harmonic impedance for the case of remote power plant connection with cable up to 2500 Hz is presented as an example of calculations in frequency domain.

Keywords: Power System Modeling, steady state, PSS/E, frequency domain, EMTP-RV

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