Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Statistical Analysis Related Abstracts

41 A Proposed Algorithm for Obtaining the Map of Subscribers’ Density Distribution for a Mobile Wireless Communication Network

Authors: F. A. Phiri, C. Temaneh-Nyah, D. Karegeya

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm for obtaining the map of subscriber’s density distribution for a mobile wireless communication network based on the actual subscriber's traffic data obtained from the base station. This is useful in statistical characterization of the mobile wireless network.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Electromagnetic Compatibility, simulation of communication network, subscriber density

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
40 The Development of Statistical Analysis in Agriculture Experimental Design Using R

Authors: Somruay Apichatibutarapong, Chookiat Pudprommart

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to develop of statistical analysis by using R programming via internet applied for agriculture experimental design. Data were collected from 65 items in completely randomized design, randomized block design, Latin square design, split plot design, factorial design and nested design. The quantitative approach was used to investigate the quality of learning media on statistical analysis by using R programming via Internet by six experts and the opinions of 100 students who interested in experimental design and applied statistics. It was revealed that the experts’ opinions were good in all contents except a usage of web board and the students’ opinions were good in overall and all items.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Applied Statistics, Experimental Design, r programming

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
39 A Cross-Gender Statistical Analysis of Tuvinian Intonation Features in Comparison With Uzbek and Azerbaijani

Authors: Daria Beziakina, Elena Bulgakova

Abstract:

The paper deals with cross-gender and cross-linguistic comparison of pitch characteristics for Tuvinian with two other Turkic languages - Uzbek and Azerbaijani, based on the results of statistical analysis of pitch parameter values and intonation patterns used by male and female speakers. The main goal of our work is to obtain the ranges of pitch parameter values typical for Tuvinian speakers for the purpose of automatic language identification. We also propose a cross-gender analysis of declarative intonation in the poorly studied Tuvinian language. The ranges of pitch parameter values were obtained by means of specially developed software that deals with the distribution of pitch values and allows us to obtain statistical language-specific pitch intervals.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Speaker recognition, speech analysis, identification of person

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38 Estimation of Asphalt Pavement Surfaces Using Image Analysis Technique

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements gradually lose their skid resistance causing safety problems especially under wet conditions and high driving speeds. In order to enact the actual field polishing and wearing process of asphalt pavement surfaces in a laboratory setting, several laboratory-scale accelerated polishing devices were developed by different agencies. To mimic the actual process, friction and texture measuring devices are needed to quantify surface deterioration at different polishing intervals that reflect different stages of the pavement life. The test could still be considered lengthy and to some extent labor-intensive. Therefore, there is a need to come up with another method that can assist in investigating the bituminous pavement surface characteristics in a practical and time-efficient test procedure. The purpose of this paper is to utilize a well-developed image analysis technique to characterize asphalt pavement surfaces without the need to use conventional friction and texture measuring devices in an attempt to shorten and simplify the polishing procedure in the lab. Promising findings showed the possibility of using image analysis in lieu of the labor-sensitive-variable-in-nature friction and texture measurements. It was found that the exposed aggregate surface area of asphalt specimens made from limestone and gravel aggregates produced solid evidence of the validity of this method in describing asphalt pavement surfaces. Image analysis results correlated well with the British Pendulum Numbers (BPN), Polish Values (PV) and Mean Texture Depth (MTD) values.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Image Analysis, Texture, friction, polishing

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37 Power Quality Evaluation of Electrical Distribution Networks

Authors: Mohamed Idris S. Abozaed, Suliman Mohamed Elrajoubi

Abstract:

Researches and concerns in power quality gained significant momentum in the field of power electronics systems over the last two decades globally. This sudden increase in the number of concerns over power quality problems is a result of the huge increase in the use of non-linear loads. In this paper, power quality evaluation of some distribution networks at Misurata - Libya has been done using a power quality and energy analyzer (Fluke 437 Series II). The results of this evaluation are used to minimize the problems of power quality. The analysis shows the main power quality problems that exist and the level of awareness of power quality issues with the aim of generating a start point which can be used as guidelines for researchers and end users in the field of power systems.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, power quality disturbances, power quality evaluation, electrical distribution networks

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36 A Cross-Dialect Statistical Analysis of Final Declarative Intonation in Tuvinian

Authors: D. Beziakina, E. Bulgakova

Abstract:

This study continues the research on Tuvinian intonation and presents a general cross-dialect analysis of intonation of Tuvinian declarative utterances, specifically the character of the tone movement in order to test the hypothesis about the prevalence of level tone in some Tuvinian dialects. The results of the analysis of basic pitch characteristics of Tuvinian speech (in general and in comparison with two other Turkic languages - Uzbek and Azerbaijani) are also given in this paper. The goal of our work was to obtain the ranges of pitch parameter values typical for Tuvinian speech. Such language-specific values can be used in speaker identification systems in order to get more accurate results of ethnic speech analysis. We also present the results of a cross-dialect analysis of declarative intonation in the poorly studied Tuvinian language.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Speaker recognition, speech analysis, identification of person

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35 The Statistical Significant of Adsorbents for Effective Zn(II) Ions Removal

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana, Kovačević M. Ilija, Aksentijević M. Snežana

Abstract:

The adsorption efficiency of various adsorbents for the removal of Zn(II) ions from the waste printing developer was studied in laboratory batch mode. The maximum adsorption efficiency of 94.1% was achieved with unfired clay pellets size (d≈15 mm). The obtained values of adsorption efficiency was subjected to the independent samples t-test in order to investigate the statistically significant differences of the investigated adsorbents for the effective removal of Zn(II) ions from the waste printing developer. The most statistically significant differences of adsorption efficiencies for Zn(II) ions removal were obtained between unfired clay pellets size (d≈15 mm) and activated carbon (|t|= 6.909), natural zeolite (|t|= 10.380), mixture of activated carbon and natural zeolite (|t|= 9.865), bentonite (|t|= 6.159), fired clay (|t|= 6.641), fired clay pellets size (d≈5 mm) (|t|= 6.678), fired clay pellets size (d≈8 mm) (|t|= 3.422), respectively.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Adsorption efficiency, adsorbent, zinc ion

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34 Statistical Analysis of Cables in Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges

Authors: Ceshi Sun, Yueyu Zhao, Yaobing Zhao, Zhiqiang Wang, Jian Peng, Pengxin Guo

Abstract:

With the rapid development of transportation, there are more than 100 cable-stayed bridges with main span larger than 300 m in China. In order to ascertain the statistical relationships among the design parameters of stay cables and their distribution characteristics, 1500 cables were selected from 25 practical long-span cable-stayed bridges. A new relationship between the first order frequency and the length of cable was found by conducting the curve fitting. Then, based on this relationship other interesting relationships were deduced. Several probability density functions (PDFs) were used to investigate the distributions of the parameters of first order frequency, stress level and the Irvine parameter. It was found that these parameters obey the Lognormal distribution, the Weibull distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution, respectively. Scatter diagrams of the three parameters were plotted and their 95% confidence intervals were also investigated.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, cable, cable-stayed bridge, long-span

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33 Statistical Assessment of Models for Determination of Soil–Water Characteristic Curves of Sand Soils

Authors: M. R. Taha, S. J. Matlan, M. Mukhlisin

Abstract:

Characterization of the engineering behavior of unsaturated soil is dependent on the soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC), a graphical representation of the relationship between water content or degree of saturation and soil suction. A reasonable description of the SWCC is thus important for the accurate prediction of unsaturated soil parameters. The measurement procedures for determining the SWCC, however, are difficult, expensive, and time-consuming. During the past few decades, researchers have laid a major focus on developing empirical equations for predicting the SWCC, with a large number of empirical models suggested. One of the most crucial questions is how precisely existing equations can represent the SWCC. As different models have different ranges of capability, it is essential to evaluate the precision of the SWCC models used for each particular soil type for better SWCC estimation. It is expected that better estimation of SWCC would be achieved via a thorough statistical analysis of its distribution within a particular soil class. With this in view, a statistical analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the reliability of the SWCC prediction models against laboratory measurement. Optimization techniques were used to obtain the best-fit of the model parameters in four forms of SWCC equation, using laboratory data for relatively coarse-textured (i.e., sandy) soil. The four most prominent SWCCs were evaluated and computed for each sample. The result shows that the Brooks and Corey model is the most consistent in describing the SWCC for sand soil type. The Brooks and Corey model prediction also exhibit compatibility with samples ranging from low to high soil water content in which subjected to the samples that evaluated in this study.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Geotechnical Engineering, unsaturated soil, soil-water characteristic curve (SWCC)

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32 Forecasting the Influences of Information and Communication Technology on the Structural Changes of Japanese Industrial Sectors: A Study Using Statistical Analysis

Authors: Ubaidillah Zuhdi, Shunsuke Mori, Kazuhisa Kamegai

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to forecast the influences of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the structural changes of Japanese economies based on Leontief Input-Output (IO) coefficients. This study establishes a statistical analysis to predict the future interrelationships among industries. We employ the Constrained Multivariate Regression (CMR) model to analyze the historical changes of input-output coefficients. Statistical significance of the model is then tested by Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT). In our model, ICT is represented by two explanatory variables, i.e. computers (including main parts and accessories) and telecommunications equipment. A previous study, which analyzed the influences of these variables on the structural changes of Japanese industrial sectors from 1985-2005, concluded that these variables had significant influences on the changes in the business circumstances of Japanese commerce, business services and office supplies, and personal services sectors. The projected future Japanese economic structure based on the above forecast generates the differentiated direct and indirect outcomes of ICT penetration.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, ICT, forecast, industrial structural changes

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31 Polishing Machine Based on High-Pressure Water Jet

Authors: Mohammad A. Khasawneh

Abstract:

The design of high pressure water jet based polishing equipment and its fabrication conducted in this study is reported herein, together with some preliminary test results for assessing its applicability for HMA surface polishing. This study also provides preliminary findings concerning the test variables, such as the rotational speed, the water jet pressure, the abrasive agent used, and the impact angel that were experimentally investigated in this study. The preliminary findings based on four trial tests (two on large slab specimens and two on small size gyratory compacted specimens), however, indicate that both friction and texture values tend to increase with the polishing durations for two combinations of pressure and rotation speed of the rotary deck. It seems that the more polishing action the specimen is subjected to; the aggregate edges are created such that the surface texture values are increased with the accompanied increase in friction values. It may be of interest (but which is outside the scope of this study) to investigate if the similar trend exist for HMA prepared with aggregate source that is sand and gravel.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Texture, friction, polishing, high-pressure, water jet

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30 A Survey and Analysis on Inflammatory Pain Detection and Standard Protocol Selection Using Medical Infrared Thermography from Image Processing View Point

Authors: Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Shawli Bardhan Jr.

Abstract:

Human skin containing temperature value more than absolute zero, discharges infrared radiation related to the frequency of the body temperature. The difference in infrared radiation from the skin surface reflects the abnormality present in human body. Considering the difference, detection and forecasting the temperature variation of the skin surface is the main objective of using Medical Infrared Thermography(MIT) as a diagnostic tool for pain detection. Medical Infrared Thermography(MIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that records and monitors the temperature flow in the body by receiving the infrared radiated from the skin and represent it through thermogram. The intensity of the thermogram measures the inflammation from the skin surface related to pain in human body. Analysis of thermograms provides automated anomaly detection associated with suspicious pain regions by following several image processing steps. The paper represents a rigorous study based survey related to the processing and analysis of thermograms based on the previous works published in the area of infrared thermal imaging for detecting inflammatory pain diseases like arthritis, spondylosis, shoulder impingement, etc. The study also explores the performance analysis of thermogram processing accompanied by thermogram acquisition protocols, thermography camera specification and the types of pain detected by thermography in summarized tabular format. The tabular format provides a clear structural vision of the past works. The major contribution of the paper introduces a new thermogram acquisition standard associated with inflammatory pain detection in human body to enhance the performance rate. The FLIR T650sc infrared camera with high sensitivity and resolution is adopted to increase the accuracy of thermogram acquisition and analysis. The survey of previous research work highlights that intensity distribution based comparison of comparable and symmetric region of interest and their statistical analysis assigns adequate result in case of identifying and detecting physiological disorder related to inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, acquisition protocol, inflammatory pain detection, medical infrared thermography (MIT)

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29 Thermal Behavior of a Ventilated Façade Using Perforated Ceramic Bricks

Authors: Helena López-Moreno, Antoni Rodríguez-Sánchez, Carmen Viñas-Arrebola, Cesar Porras-Amores

Abstract:

The ventilated façade has great advantages when compared to traditional façades as it reduces the air conditioning thermal loads due to the stack effect induced by solar radiation in the air chamber. Optimizing energy consumption by using a ventilated façade can be used not only in newly built buildings but also it can be implemented in existing buildings, opening the field of implementation to energy building retrofitting works. In this sense, the following three prototypes of façade where designed, built and further analyzed in this research: non-ventilated façade (NVF); slightly ventilated façade (SLVF) and strongly ventilated façade (STVF). The construction characteristics of the three facades are based on the Spanish regulation of building construction “Technical Building Code”. The façades have been monitored by type-k thermocouples in a representative day of the summer season in Madrid (Spain). Moreover, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, studying the thermal lag in the ventilated and no-ventilated façades has been designed. Results show that STVF façade presents higher levels of thermal inertia as the thermal lag reduces up to 100% (daily mean) compared to the non-ventilated façade. In addition, the statistical analysis proves that an increase of the ventilation holes size in STVF façades does not improve the thermal lag significantly (p > 0.05) when compared to the SLVF façade.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Energy Efficiency, Thermal Behavior, ventilated façade

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28 Time-Domain Analysis of Pulse Parameters Effects on Crosstalk in High-Speed Circuits

Authors: Loubna Tani, Nabih Elouzzani

Abstract:

Crosstalk among interconnects and printed-circuit board (PCB) traces is a major limiting factor of signal quality in high-speed digital and communication equipments especially when fast data buses are involved. Such a bus is considered as a planar multiconductor transmission line. This paper will demonstrate how the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method provides an exact solution of the transmission-line equations to analyze the near end and the far end crosstalk. In addition, this study makes it possible to analyze the rise time effect on the near and far end voltages of the victim conductor. The paper also discusses a statistical analysis, based upon a set of several simulations. Such analysis leads to a better understanding of the phenomenon and yields useful information.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, multiconductor transmission line, crosstalk, finite difference time domain (FDTD), printed-circuit board (PCB), rise time

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27 Reconstruction of Signal in Plastic Scintillator of PET Using Tikhonov Regularization

Authors: P. Moskal, T. Bednarski, P. Bialas, E. Czerwinski, A. Gajos, L. Kaplon, G. Korcyl, P. Kowalski, T. Kozik, W. Krzemien, E. Kubicz, Sz. Niedzwiecki, M. Palka, L. Raczynski, Z. Rudy, P. Salabura, M. Silarski, A. Slomski, J. Smyrski, A. Strzelecki, A. Wieczorek, W. Wislicki, M. Zielinski, N. Zon, A. Kochanowski, J. Kowal, O. Rundel, N.G. Sharma

Abstract:

The J-PET scanner, which allows for single bed imaging of the whole human body, is currently under development at the Jagiellonian University. The J-PET detector improves the TOF resolution due to the use of fast plastic scintillators. Since registration of the waveform of signals with duration times of few nanoseconds is not feasible, a novel front-end electronics allowing for sampling in a voltage domain at four thresholds was developed. To take fully advantage of these fast signals a novel scheme of recovery of the waveform of the signal, based on ideas from the Tikhonov regularization (TR) and Compressive Sensing methods, is presented. The prior distribution of sparse representation is evaluated based on the linear transformation of the training set of waveform of the signals by using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) decomposition. Beside the advantage of including the additional information from training signals, a further benefit of the TR approach is that the problem of signal recovery has an optimal solution which can be determined explicitly. Moreover, from the Bayes theory the properties of regularized solution, especially its covariance matrix, may be easily derived. This step is crucial to introduce and prove the formula for calculations of the signal recovery error. It has been proven that an average recovery error is approximately inversely proportional to the number of samples at voltage levels. The method is tested using signals registered by means of the single detection module of the J-PET detector built out from the 30 cm long BC-420 plastic scintillator strip. It is demonstrated that the experimental and theoretical functions describing the recovery errors in the J-PET scenario are largely consistent. The specificity and limitations of the signal recovery method in this application are discussed. It is shown that the PCA basis offers high level of information compression and an accurate recovery with just eight samples, from four voltage levels, for each signal waveform. Moreover, it is demonstrated that using the recovered waveform of the signals, instead of samples at four voltage levels alone, improves the spatial resolution of the hit position reconstruction. The experiment shows that spatial resolution evaluated based on information from four voltage levels, without a recovery of the waveform of the signal, is equal to 1.05 cm. After the application of an information from four voltage levels to the recovery of the signal waveform, the spatial resolution is improved to 0.94 cm. Moreover, the obtained result is only slightly worse than the one evaluated using the original raw-signal. The spatial resolution calculated under these conditions is equal to 0.93 cm. It is very important information since, limiting the number of threshold levels in the electronic devices to four, leads to significant reduction of the overall cost of the scanner. The developed recovery scheme is general and may be incorporated in any other investigation where a prior knowledge about the signals of interest may be utilized.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Positron Emission Tomography, plastic scintillators, tikhonov regularization

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26 Statistical Analysis of the Factors that Influence the Properties of Blueberries from Cultivar Bluecrop

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Fernando J. Gonçalves, Susana R. Matos, Daniela V. T. A. Costa

Abstract:

Because blueberries are worldwide recognized as a good source of beneficial components, their consumption has increased in the past decades, and so have the scientific works about their properties. Hence this work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of some production and conservation factors on the properties of blueberries from cultivar Bluecrop. The physical and chemical analyses were done according to established methodologies and then all data was treated using software SPSS for assessment of the possible differences among the factors investigated and/or the correlations between the variables at study. The results showed that location of production influenced some of the berries properties (caliber, sugars, antioxidant activity, color and texture) and that the age of the bushes was correlated with moisture, sugars and acidity, as well as lightness. On the other hand, altitude of the farm only was correlated to sugar content. With regards to conservation, it influenced only anthocyanins content and DPPH antioxidant activity. Finally, the type of extract and the order of extraction had a pronounced influence on all the phnolic properties evaluated.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Conservation, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant activity, geographical origin, blueberry

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25 Characterization of Leakage Current on the Surface of Porcelain Insulator under Contaminated Conditions

Authors: Abdelhafid Bayadi, Hocine Terrab, Adel Kara, Ayman El-Hag

Abstract:

Insulator flashover under polluted conditions has been a serious threat on the reliability of power systems. It is known that the flashover process is mainly affected by the environmental conditions such as; the pollution level and humidity. Those are the essential parameters influencing the wetting process. This paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of leakage current (LC) developed on the surface of porcelain insulator at contaminated conditions under AC voltage. The study is done in an artificial fog chamber and the LC is characterized for different stages; dry, wetted and presence of discharge activities. Time-frequency and spectral analysis are adopted to calculate the evolution of LC characteristics with various stages prior to flashover occurrence. The preliminary results could be used in analysing the LC to develop more effective diagnosis of early signs of dry band arcing as an indication for insulation washing.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, leakage current, flashover, harmonic components, phase angle

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24 Analysis of Lead Time Delays in Supply Chain: A Case Study

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed, Nermeen Coutry

Abstract:

Lead time is an important measure of supply chain performance. It impacts both customer satisfactions as well as the total cost of inventory. This paper presents the result of a study on the analysis of the customer order lead-time for a multinational company. In the study, the lead time was divided into three stages: order entry, order fulfillment, and order delivery. A sample of size 2,425 order lines from the company records were considered for this study. The sample data includes information regarding customer orders from the time of order entry until order delivery. Data regarding the lead time of each sage for different orders were also provided. Summary statistics on lead time data reveals that about 30% of the orders were delivered after the scheduled due date. The result of the multiple linear regression analysis technique revealed that component type, logistics parameter, order size and the customer type have significant impact on lead time. Data analysis on the stages of lead time indicates that stage 2 consumes over 50% of the lead time. Pareto analysis was made to study the reasons for the customer order delay in each of the 3 stages. Recommendation was given to resolve the problem.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Customer Satisfaction, Service Quality, lead time reduction

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23 Comparing of Compete Motivation between Young and Adult Elite Volleyball Players

Authors: Fereshteh Zarei, Hassan Hamidi

Abstract:

In this study, we compared amount of compete motivation between young and adult volleyball players. Compete motivation has three sections: success achieves score, defeat avoiding score and ability score. For measuring motivation, we used sports attitude inventory of Willis and Layne. The statistical population was elite's men volleyball players in range of young and adult and the study subjects were randomly selected from participant teams in volleyball professional league. In total, 65 adult and 75 young were selected. For collecting the required information, the research inventories were distributed in practice's locations and then were collected after being completed by players. For analyzing the data, we used descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation and frequency tables. We also used conceptual statistics such as independent sample t-student and Pierson correlation. The results showed a significant difference between young and adult volleyball players in success achieve score and ability score. However, there was no significant difference between young and adult volleyball players in defeat avoiding score and compete motivation. In addition, there was not significant relationship between the length of activities and motivations' sections in adult and young volleyball player. The application of this study to other sports will be discussed.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Sport Psychology, compete motivation, volleyball player

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22 Lead-Time Estimation Approach Using the Process Capability Index

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed

Abstract:

This research proposes a methodology to estimate the customer order lead time in the supply chain based on the process capability index. The cases when the process output is normally distributed and when it is not are considered. The relationships between the system capability indices in both service and manufacturing applications, delivery system reliability and the percentages of orders delivered after their promised due dates are presented. The proposed method can be used to examine the current process capability to deliver the orders before the promised lead-time. If the system was found to be incapable, the method can be used to help revise the current lead-time to a proper value according to the service reliability level selected by the management. Numerical examples and a case study describing the lead time estimation methodology and testing the system capability of delivering the orders before their promised due date are illustrated.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Service Quality, lead-time estimation, process capability index, delivery system reliability, service achievement index

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21 Effect of Coupling Media on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity in Concrete: A Preliminary Investigation

Authors: Sura Al-Khafaji, Phil Purnell

Abstract:

Measurement of the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is an important tool in diagnostic examination of concrete. In this method piezoelectric transducers are normally held in direct contact with the concrete surface. The current study aims to test the hypothesis that a preferential coupling effect might exist i.e. that the speed of sound measured depends on the couplant used. In this study, different coupling media of varying acoustic impedance were placed between the transducers and concrete samples made with constant aggregate content but with different compressive strengths. The preliminary results show that using coupling materials (both solid and a range of liquid substances) has an effect on the pulse velocity measured in a given concrete. The effect varies depending on the material used. The UPV measurements with solid coupling were higher than these from the liquid coupling at all strength levels. The tests using couplants generally recorded lower UPV values than the conventional test, except when carbon fiber composite was used, which retuned higher values. Analysis of variances (ANOVA) was performed to confirm that there are statistically significant differences between the measurements recorded using a conventional system and a coupled system.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Ultrasonic, compressive strength, coupling effect

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20 Effects of Process Parameter Variation on the Surface Roughness of Rapid Prototyped Samples Using Design of Experiments

Authors: R. Noorani, K. Peerless, J. Mandrell, A. Lopez, R. Dalberto, M. Alzebaq

Abstract:

Rapid prototyping (RP) is an additive manufacturing technology used in industry that works by systematically depositing layers of working material to construct larger, computer-modeled parts. A key challenge associated with this technology is that RP parts often feature undesirable levels of surface roughness for certain applications. To combat this phenomenon, an experimental technique called Design of Experiments (DOE) can be employed during the growth procedure to statistically analyze which RP growth parameters are most influential to part surface roughness. Utilizing DOE to identify such factors is important because it is a technique that can be used to optimize a manufacturing process, which saves time, money, and increases product quality. In this study, a four-factor/two level DOE experiment was performed to investigate the effect of temperature, layer thickness, infill percentage, and infill speed on the surface roughness of RP prototypes. Samples were grown using the sixteen different possible growth combinations associated with a four-factor/two level study, and then the surface roughness data was gathered for each set of factors. After applying DOE statistical analysis to these data, it was determined that layer thickness played the most significant role in the prototype surface roughness.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, design of experiments, Rapid prototyping, surface roughness, factors and levels

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19 Chemical Variability in the Essential Oils from the Leaves and Buds of Syzygium Species

Authors: Rabia Waseem, Low Kah Hin, Najihah Mohamed Hashim

Abstract:

The variability in the chemical components of the Syzygium species essential oils has been evaluated. The leaves of Syzygium species have been collected from Perak, Malaysia. The essential oils extracted by using the conventional Hydro-distillation extraction procedure and analyzed by using Gas chromatography System attached with Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Twenty-seven constituents were found in Syzygium species in which the major constituents include: α-Pinene (3.94%), α-Thujene (2.16%), α-Terpineol (2.95%), g-Elemene (2.89%) and D-Limonene (14.59%). The aim of this study was the comparison between the evaluated data and existing literature to fortify the major variability through statistical analysis.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Medicinal Plants, Cluster Analysis, Essential Oil, chemotaxonomy

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18 Modelling the Behavior of Commercial and Test Textiles against Laundering Process by Statistical Assessment of Their Performance

Authors: M. H. Arslan, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, I. Gocek, I. Erdem

Abstract:

Various exterior factors have perpetual effects on textile materials during wear, use and laundering in everyday life. In accordance with their frequency of use, textile materials are required to be laundered at certain intervals. The medium in which the laundering process takes place have inevitable detrimental physical and chemical effects on textile materials caused by the unique parameters of the process inherently existing. Connatural structures of various textile materials result in many different physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Because of their specific structures, these materials have different behaviors against several exterior factors. By modeling the behavior of commercial and test textiles as group-wise against laundering process, it is possible to disclose the relation in between these two groups of materials, which will lead to better understanding of their behaviors in terms of similarities and differences against the washing parameters of the laundering. Thus, the goal of the current research is to examine the behavior of two groups of textile materials as commercial textiles and as test textiles towards the main washing machine parameters during laundering process such as temperature, load quantity, mechanical action and level of water amount by concentrating on shrinkage, pilling, sewing defects, collar abrasion, the other defects other than sewing, whitening and overall properties of textiles. In this study, cotton fabrics were preferred as commercial textiles due to the fact that garments made of cotton are the most demanded products in the market by the textile consumers in daily life. Full factorial experimental set-up was used to design the experimental procedure. All profiles always including all of the commercial and the test textiles were laundered for 20 cycles by commercial home laundering machine to investigate the effects of the chosen parameters. For the laundering process, a modified version of ‘‘IEC 60456 Test Method’’ was utilized. The amount of detergent was altered as 0.5% gram per liter depending on varying load quantity levels. Datacolor 650®, EMPA Photographic Standards for Pilling Test and visual examination were utilized to test and characterize the textiles. Furthermore, in the current study the relation in between commercial and test textiles in terms of their performance was deeply investigated by the help of statistical analysis performed by MINITAB® package program modeling their behavior against the parameters of the laundering process. In the experimental work, the behaviors of both groups of textiles towards washing machine parameters were visually and quantitatively assessed in dry state.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, behavior against washing machine parameters, performance evaluation of textiles, commercial and test textiles

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17 Quantitative Assessment of Soft Tissues by Statistical Analysis of Ultrasound Backscattered Signals

Authors: Shyh-Hau Wang, Da-Ming Huang, Ya-Ting Tsai

Abstract:

Ultrasound signals backscattered from the soft tissues are mainly depending on the size, density, distribution, and other elastic properties of scatterers in the interrogated sample volume. The quantitative analysis of ultrasonic backscattering is frequently implemented using the statistical approach due to that of backscattering signals tends to be with the nature of the random variable. Thus, the statistical analysis, such as Nakagami statistics, has been applied to characterize the density and distribution of scatterers of a sample. Yet, the accuracy of statistical analysis could be readily affected by the receiving signals associated with the nature of incident ultrasound wave and acoustical properties of samples. Thus, in the present study, efforts were made to explore such effects as the ultrasound operational modes and attenuation of biological tissue on the estimation of corresponding Nakagami statistical parameter (m parameter). In vitro measurements were performed from healthy and pathological fibrosis porcine livers using different single-element ultrasound transducers and duty cycles of incident tone burst ranging respectively from 3.5 to 7.5 MHz and 10 to 50%. Results demonstrated that the estimated m parameter tends to be sensitively affected by the use of ultrasound operational modes as well as the tissue attenuation. The healthy and pathological tissues may be characterized quantitatively by m parameter under fixed measurement conditions and proper calibration.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Attenuation, ultrasound backscattering, operational mode

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16 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Chang-Sik Son, Dongjoo Kim, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Sleep, Heart Rate, Sleep Quality

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15 Temperature Susceptibility for Optimal Biogas Production

Authors: Ujjal Chattaraj, Pbharat Saikumar, Thinley Dorji

Abstract:

Earth is going to be a planet where no further life can sustain if people continue to pollute the environment. We need energy and fuels everyday for heating and lighting purposes in our life. It’s high time we know this problem and take measures at-least to reduce pollution and take alternative measures for everyday livelihood. Biogas is one of them. It is very essential to define and control the parameters for optimization of biogas production. Biogas plants can be made of different size, but it is very vital to make a biogas which will be cost effective, with greater efficiency (more production) and biogas plants that will sustain for a longer period of time for usage. In this research, experiments were carried out only on cow dung and Chicken manure depending on the substrates people out there (Bhutan) used. The experiment was done within 25 days and was tested for different temperatures and found out which produce more amount. Moreover, it was also statistically tested for their dependency and non-dependency which gave clear idea more on their production.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, t-test, organic manure, mesophilic temperature, digester, thermophilic temperature

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14 Identifying and Quantifying Factors Affecting Traffic Crash Severity under Heterogeneous Traffic Flow

Authors: Praveen Vayalamkuzhi, Veeraragavan Amirthalingam

Abstract:

Studies on safety on highways are becoming the need of the hour as over 400 lives are lost every day in India due to road crashes. In order to evaluate the factors that lead to different levels of crash severity, it is necessary to investigate the level of safety of highways and their relation to crashes. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the factors that contribute to road crashes and to quantify their effect on the severity of road crashes. The study was carried out on a four-lane divided rural highway in India. The variables considered in the analysis includes components of horizontal alignment of highway, viz., straight or curve section; time of day, driveway density, presence of median; median opening; gradient; operating speed; and annual average daily traffic. These variables were considered after a preliminary analysis. The major complexities in the study are the heterogeneous traffic and the speed variation between different classes of vehicles along the highway. To quantify the impact of each of these factors, statistical analyses were carried out using Logit model and also negative binomial regression. The output from the statistical models proved that the variables viz., horizontal components of the highway alignment; driveway density; time of day; operating speed as well as annual average daily traffic show significant relation with the severity of crashes viz., fatal as well as injury crashes. Further, the annual average daily traffic has significant effect on the severity compared to other variables. The contribution of highway horizontal components on crash severity is also significant. Logit models can predict crashes better than the negative binomial regression models. The results of the study will help the transport planners to look into these aspects at the planning stage itself in the case of highways operated under heterogeneous traffic flow condition.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Geometric Design, heterogeneous traffic, road crash, level of safety

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13 Ensemble Methods in Machine Learning: An Algorithmic Approach to Derive Distinctive Behaviors of Criminal Activity Applied to the Poaching Domain

Authors: Zachary Blanks, Solomon Sonya

Abstract:

Poaching presents a serious threat to endangered animal species, environment conservations, and human life. Additionally, some poaching activity has even been linked to supplying funds to support terrorist networks elsewhere around the world. Consequently, agencies dedicated to protecting wildlife habitats have a near intractable task of adequately patrolling an entire area (spanning several thousand kilometers) given limited resources, funds, and personnel at their disposal. Thus, agencies need predictive tools that are both high-performing and easily implementable by the user to help in learning how the significant features (e.g. animal population densities, topography, behavior patterns of the criminals within the area, etc) interact with each other in hopes of abating poaching. This research develops a classification model using machine learning algorithms to aid in forecasting future attacks that is both easy to train and performs well when compared to other models. In this research, we demonstrate how data imputation methods (specifically predictive mean matching, gradient boosting, and random forest multiple imputation) can be applied to analyze data and create significant predictions across a varied data set. Specifically, we apply these methods to improve the accuracy of adopted prediction models (Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine, etc). Finally, we assess the performance of the model and the accuracy of our data imputation methods by learning on a real-world data set constituting four years of imputed data and testing on one year of non-imputed data. This paper provides three main contributions. First, we extend work done by the Teamcore and CREATE (Center for Risk and Economic Analysis of Terrorism Events) research group at the University of Southern California (USC) working in conjunction with the Department of Homeland Security to apply game theory and machine learning algorithms to develop more efficient ways of reducing poaching. This research introduces ensemble methods (Random Forests and Stochastic Gradient Boosting) and applies it to real-world poaching data gathered from the Ugandan rain forest park rangers. Next, we consider the effect of data imputation on both the performance of various algorithms and the general accuracy of the method itself when applied to a dependent variable where a large number of observations are missing. Third, we provide an alternate approach to predict the probability of observing poaching both by season and by month. The results from this research are very promising. We conclude that by using Stochastic Gradient Boosting to predict observations for non-commercial poaching by season, we are able to produce statistically equivalent results while being orders of magnitude faster in computation time and complexity. Additionally, when predicting potential poaching incidents by individual month vice entire seasons, boosting techniques produce a mean area under the curve increase of approximately 3% relative to previous prediction schedules by entire seasons.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Machine Learning, Wildlife Protection, stochastic gradient boosting, imputation, random forests, ensemble methods

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12 Statistical Comparison of Ensemble Based Storm Surge Forecasting Models

Authors: Mingzhe Liu, Amin Salighehdar, Ziwen Ye, Ionut Florescu, Alan F. Blumberg

Abstract:

Storm surge is an abnormal water level caused by a storm. Accurate prediction of a storm surge is a challenging problem. Researchers developed various ensemble modeling techniques to combine several individual forecasts to produce an overall presumably better forecast. There exist some simple ensemble modeling techniques in literature. For instance, Model Output Statistics (MOS), and running mean-bias removal are widely used techniques in storm surge prediction domain. However, these methods have some drawbacks. For instance, MOS is based on multiple linear regression and it needs a long period of training data. To overcome the shortcomings of these simple methods, researchers propose some advanced methods. For instance, ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast. This application creates a better forecast of sea level using a combination of several instances of the Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA). An ensemble dressing method is based on identifying best member forecast and using it for prediction. Our contribution in this paper can be summarized as follows. First, we investigate whether the ensemble models perform better than any single forecast. Therefore, we need to identify the single best forecast. We present a methodology based on a simple Bayesian selection method to select the best single forecast. Second, we present several new and simple ways to construct ensemble models. We use correlation and standard deviation as weights in combining different forecast models. Third, we use these ensembles and compare with several existing models in literature to forecast storm surge level. We then investigate whether developing a complex ensemble model is indeed needed. To achieve this goal, we use a simple average (one of the simplest and widely used ensemble model) as benchmark. Predicting the peak level of Surge during a storm as well as the precise time at which this peak level takes place is crucial, thus we develop a statistical platform to compare the performance of various ensemble methods. This statistical analysis is based on root mean square error of the ensemble forecast during the testing period and on the magnitude and timing of the forecasted peak surge compared to the actual time and peak. In this work, we analyze four hurricanes: hurricanes Irene and Lee in 2011, hurricane Sandy in 2012, and hurricane Joaquin in 2015. Since hurricane Irene developed at the end of August 2011 and hurricane Lee started just after Irene at the beginning of September 2011, in this study we consider them as a single contiguous hurricane event. The data set used for this study is generated by the New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System (NYHOPS). We find that even the simplest possible way of creating an ensemble produces results superior to any single forecast. We also show that the ensemble models we propose generally have better performance compared to the simple average ensemble technique.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Bayesian Learning, ensemble model, storm surge prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 170