Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Statins Related Abstracts

3 Improval of Fracture Healing of Osteoporotic Bone by Lovastatin-Incorporated Poly-(DL-Lactide)

Authors: Norazlina Mohamed, Nurul Izzah Ibrahim, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

Abstract:

Osteoporosis disease delays fracture healing. Statins have shown potential for osteoporosis and to promote fracture healing. The effects of statin can be further potentiated by combining it with a carrier known as poly-(DL-lactide), which would provide persistent release of statin to the fracture site. This study was designed to investigate the effects of direct injection of poly-(DL-lactide)-incorporated lovastatin on fracture healing of postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated (SO), ovariectomized-control rats (OVxC) and poly-(DL-lactide)-incorporated lovastatin (OVx+Lov) groups. The OVx+Lov group was given a single injection of 750 µg/kg lovastatin particles incorporated with poly-(DL-lactide). After 4 weeks, the fractured tibiae were dissected out for biomechanical assessments of the callus. The OVx+Lov group showed significantly better callus strength than the OVxC group (p<0.05). In conclusion, a single injection of lovastatin-incorporated poly-(DL-lactide) was able to promote better fracture healing of osteoporotic bone.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Statins, fracture healing, poly-(DL-lactide)

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2 Oxidosqualene Cyclase: A Novel Inhibitor

Authors: Devadrita Dey Sarkar

Abstract:

Oxidosqualene cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme in which helps in the formation of steroid scaffold in higher organisms. In a highly selective cyclization reaction oxidosqualene cyclase forms LANOSTEROL with seven chiral centres starting from the linear substrate 2,3-oxidosqualene. In humans OSC in cholesterol biosynthesis it represents a target for the discovery of novel anticholesteraemic drugs that could complement the widely used statins. The enzyme oxidosqualene: lanosterol cyclase (OSC) represents a novel target for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. OSC catalyzes the cyclization of the linear 2,3-monoepoxysqualene to lanosterol, the initial four-ringed sterol intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. OSC also catalyzes the formation of 24(S), 25-epoxycholesterol, a ligand activator of the liver X receptor. Inhibition of OSC reduces cholesterol biosynthesis and selectively enhances 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol synthesis. Through this dual mechanism, OSC inhibition decreases plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and prevents cholesterol deposition within macrophages. The recent crystallization of OSC identifies the mechanism of action for this complex enzyme, setting the stage for the design of OSC inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties for cholesterol lowering and treatment of atherosclerosis. While studying and designing the inhibitor of oxidosqulene cyclase, I worked on the pdb id of 1w6k which was the most worked on pdb id and I used several methods, techniques and softwares to identify and validate the top most molecules which could be acting as an inhibitor for oxidosqualene cyclase. Thus, by partial blockage of this enzyme, both an inhibition of lanosterol and subsequently cholesterol formation as well as a concomitant effect on HMG-CoA reductase can be achieved. Both effects complement each other and lead to an effective control of cholesterol biosynthesis. It is therefore concluded that 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase plays a crucial role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. 2,3-Oxidosqualene cyclase inhibitors offer an attractive approach for novel lipid-lowering agents.

Keywords: Crystallization, Statins, Homeostasis, anticholesteraemic

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1 Demographic Assessment and Evaluation of Degree of Lipid Control in High Risk Indian Dyslipidemia Patients

Authors: Abhijit Trailokya

Abstract:

Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD’s) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Many clinical trials have demonstrated that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, reduces the incidence of coronary and cerebrovascular events across a broad spectrum of patients at risk. Guidelines for the management of patients at risk have been established in Europe and North America. The guidelines have advocated progressively lower LDL-C targets and more aggressive use of statin therapy. In Indian patients, comprehensive data on dyslipidemia management and its treatment outcomes are inadequate. There is lack of information on existing treatment patterns, the patient’s profile being treated, and factors that determine treatment success or failure in achieving desired goals. Purpose: The present study was planned to determine the lipid control status in high-risk dyslipidemic patients treated with lipid-lowering therapy in India. Methods: This cross-sectional, non-interventional, single visit program was conducted across 483 sites in India where male and female patients with high-risk dyslipidemia aged 18 to 65 years who had visited for a routine health check-up to their respective physician at hospital or a healthcare center. Percentage of high-risk dyslipidemic patients achieving adequate LDL-C level (< 70 mg/dL) on lipid-lowering therapy and the association of lipid parameters with patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, and lipid lowering drugs were analysed. Results: 3089 patients were enrolled in the study; of which 64% were males. LDL-C data was available for 95.2% of the patients; only 7.7% of these patients achieved LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL on lipid-lowering therapy, which may be due to inability to follow therapeutic plans, poor compliance, or inadequate counselling by physician. The physician’s lack of awareness about recent treatment guidelines also might contribute to patients’ poor adherence, not explaining adequately the benefit and risks of a medication, not giving consideration to the patient’s life style and the cost of medication. Statin was the most commonly used anti-dyslipidemic drug across population. The higher proportion of patients had the comorbid condition of CVD and diabetes mellitus across all dyslipidemic patients. Conclusion: As per the European Society of Cardiology guidelines the ideal LDL-C levels in high risk dyslipidemic patients should be less than 70%. In the present study, 7.7% of the patients achieved LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL on lipid lowering therapy which is very less. Most of high risk dyslipidemic patients in India are on suboptimal dosage of statin. So more aggressive and high dosage statin therapy may be required to achieve target LDLC levels in high risk Indian dyslipidemic patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, Dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, Statins, LDL-C, lipid lowering drug

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