Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Starch Related Abstracts

21 Crystalline Structure of Starch Based Nano Composites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli, Afshin Babazadeh, Farnaz Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

In contrast with literal meaning of nano, researchers have been achieving mega adventures in this area and every day more nanomaterials are being introduced to the market. After long time application of fossil-based plastics, nowadays accumulation of their waste seems to be a big problem to the environment. On the other hand, mankind has more attention to safety and living environment. Replacing common plastic packaging materials with degradable ones that degrade faster and convert to non-dangerous components like water and carbon dioxide have more attractions; these new materials are based on renewable and inexpensive sources of starch and cellulose. However, the functional properties of them do not suitable for packaging. At this point, nanotechnology has an important role. Utilizing of nanomaterials in polymer structure will improve mechanical and physical properties of them; nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has this ability. This work has employed a chemical method to produce NCC and starch bio nanocomposite containing NCC. X-Ray Diffraction technique has characterized the obtained materials. Results showed that applied method is a suitable one as well as applicable one to NCC production.

Keywords: Biofilm, nanocomposite, Starch, Cellulose

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20 Biodegradability and Thermal Properties of Polycaprolactone/Starch Nanocomposite as a Biopolymer

Authors: Emad A. Jaffar Al-Mulla

Abstract:

In this study, a biopolymer-based nanocomposite was successfully prepared through melt blending technique. Two biodegradable polymers, polycaprolactone and starch, environmental friendly and obtained from renewable, easily available raw materials, have been chosen. Fatty hydrazide, synthesized from palm oil, has been used as a surfactant to modify montmorillonite (natural clay) for preparation of polycaprolactone/starch nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize nanocomposite formation. Compatibility of the blend was improved by adding 3% weight modified clay. Higher biodegradability and thermal stability of nanocomopeite were also observed compared to those of the polycaprolactone/starch blend. This product will solve the problem of plastic waste, especially disposable packaging, and reduce the dependence on petroleum-based polymers and surfactants.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Starch, biodegradable, polycaprolactone

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19 Barrier Properties of Starch-Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

Replacement of plastics used in the food industry seems to be a serious issue to overcome mainly the environmental problems in recent years. This study investigates the hydrophilicity and permeability properties of starch biopolymer which ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (0-10%) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) (1 -15%) were used to enhance its properties. Starch -EVOH nanocomposites were prepared by casting method in different formulations. NCC production by acid hydrolysis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Solubility, water vapor permeability, water vapor transmission rate and moisture absorbance were measured on each of the nanocomposites. The results were analyzed by SAS software. The lowest moisture absorbance was measured in pure starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC. The lowest permeability to water vapor belongs to starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC and the sample containing 7.8% EVOH and 13% NCC. Also, the lowest solubility was observed in the composite contains the highest amount of EVOH. Applied Process resulted in production of bio films which have good resistance to water vapor permeability and solubility in water. The use of NCC and EVOH leads to reduced moisture absorbance property of the biofilms.

Keywords: Starch, hydrophilicity, Nanocrystalline cellulose, EVOH

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18 Characterization and Quantification of Relatives Amounts of Phosphorylated Glucosyl Residues in C6 and C3 Position in Banana Starch Granules by 31P-NMR

Authors: Renata Shitakubo, Hanyu Yangcheng, Jay-lin Jane, Fernanda Peroni Okita, Beatriz Cordenunsi

Abstract:

In the degradation transitory starch model, the enzymatic activity of glucan/water dikinase (GWD) and phosphoglucan/water dikinase (PWD) are essential for the granule degradation. GWD and PWD phosphorylate glucose molecules in the positions C6 and C3, respectively, in the amylopectin chains. This action is essential to allow that β-amylase degrade starch granules without previous action of α-amylase. During banana starch degradation, as part of banana ripening, both α- and β-amylases activities and proteins were already detected and, it is also known that there is a GWD and PWD protein bounded to the starch granule. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify both Gluc-6P and Gluc-3P in order to estimate the importance of the GWD-PWD-β-amylase pathway in banana starch degradation. Starch granules were isolated as described by Peroni-Okita et al (Carbohydrate Polymers, 81:291-299, 2010), from banana fruit at different stages of ripening, green (20.7%), intermediate (18.2%) and ripe (6.2%). Total phosphorus content was determinate following the Smith and Caruso method (1964). Gluc-6P and Gluc-3P quantifications were performed as described by Lim et al (Cereal Chemistry, 71(5):488-493, 1994). Total phosphorous content in green banana starch is found as 0.009%, intermediary banana starch 0.006% and ripe banana starch 0.004%, both by the colorimetric method and 31P-NMR. The NMR analysis showed the phosphorus content in C6 and C3. The results by NMR indicate that the amylopectin is phosphorylate by GWD and PWD before the bananas become ripen. Since both the total content of phosphorus and phosphorylated glucose molecules at positions C3 and C6 decrease with the starch degradation, it can be concluded that this phosphorylation occurs only in the surface of the starch granule and before the fruit be harvested.

Keywords: Starch, PWD, GWD

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17 NMR-Based Metabolomics Reveals Dietary Effects in Liver Extracts of Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Fed Different Levels of Starch

Authors: Rani Abro, Ali Ata Moazzami, Jan Erik Lindberg, Torbjörn Lundh

Abstract:

The effect of dietary starch level on liver metabolism in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was studied using 1H-NMR based metabolomics. Fingerlings were fed iso-nitrogenous diets containing 0, 10 and 20 % starch for two months before liver samples were collected for metabolite analysis. Metabolite profiling was performed using 600 MHz NMR Chenomx software. In total, 48 metabolites were profiled in liver extracts from both fish species. Following the profiling, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLC-DA) were performed. These revealed that differences in the concentration of significant metabolites were correlated to the dietary starch level in both species. The most prominent difference in metabolic response to starch feeding between the omnivorous tilapia and the carnivorous Arctic charr was an indication of higher anaerobic metabolism in Arctic charr. The data also indicated that amino acid and pyrimidine metabolism was higher in Artic charr than in tilapia.

Keywords: Metabolomics, Starch, arctic charr, tilapia

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16 Extremophilic Amylases of Mycelial Fungi Strains Isolated in South Caucasus for Starch Processing

Authors: T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, L. Kutateladze, M. Jobava, T. Burduli, T. Alexidze

Abstract:

There is an increasing interest in reliable, wasteless, ecologically friendly technologies. About 40% of enzymes produced all over the world are used for production of syrups with high concentration of glucose-fructose. One of such technologies complies obtaining fermentable sugar glucose from raw materials containing starch by means of amylases. In modern alcohol-producing factories this process is running in two steps, involving two enzymes of different origin: bacterial α-amylase and fungal glucoamylase, as generally fungal amylases are less thermostable as compared to bacterial amylases. Selection of stable and operable at 700С and higher temperatures enzyme preparation with both α- and glucoamylase activities will allow conducting this process in one step. S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology owns unique collection of mycelial fungi, isolated from different ecological niches of Caucasus. As a result of screening our collection 39 strains poducing amylases were revealed. Most of them belong to the genus Aspergillus. Optimum temperatures of action of selected amylases from three producers were estableshed to be within the range 67-80°C. A. niger B-6 showed higher α-amylase activity at 67°C, and glucoamylase activity at 62°C, A. niger 6-12 showed higher α-amylase activity at 72°C, and glucoamylase activity at 65°C, Aspergillus niger p8-3 showed higher activities at 82°C and 70°C, for α-amylase and glucoamylase activities, respectively. Exhaustive hydrolysis process of starch solutions of different concentrations (3, 5, 15, and 30 %) with cultural liquid and technical preparation of Aspergillus niger p8-3 enzyme was studied. In case of low concentrations exhaustive hydrolysis of starch lasts 40–60 minutes, in case of high concentrations hydrolysis takes longer time. 98, 6% yield of glucose can be reached at incubation during 12 hours with enzyme cultural liquid and 8 hours incubation with technical preparation of the enzyme at gradual increase of temperature from 50°C to 82°C during the first 20 minutes and further decrease of temperature to 70°C. Temperature setting for high yield of glucose and high hydrolysis (pasteurizing), optimal for activity of these strains is the prerequisite to be able to carry out hydrolysis of starch to glucose in one step, and consequently, using one strain, what will be economically justified.

Keywords: Stability, Starch, amylase, glucose hydrolisis

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15 Antigastritic Effect of Starch from Manihot utilissima on Male Wistar Rats Induced Aspirin

Authors: Suparmi, Naela Nabiela, Ahmad Hilmi Fahmi, M. Sukron, Ayu Elita Sari, Yusran

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Aspirin is one of NSAIDs (non-steroid inflammatory drugs), can cause gastric ulcer as an side effect of prolonged consumption. The effort to prevent the increase of gastric HCl level can by treating with amylopectin was reported that can cover the gastric mucose. However, the effect of amylopectin in starch from Manihot utilissima which is believed as traditional treatment gastric ulcer have not been clear yet. This study was conducted to determine the effect of starch formed as syrup to HCl level and gastric histopatology. This experiment post test only control group design used 42 male wistar rats divided into 7 groups. All groups, except first group, were induced by 60 mg/100gBW/day aspirin for 3 days. The following day for 2 days each group was treated by starch syrup at dosed 0.45% w/v, 0.9% w/v, 1.8% w/v, 0% w/v, and sucralfate. Respectively, HCl level were measured by acidi-alkalimetri titration method, while the gastric histopathology were prepared by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The result shows that aspirin induction can increase the HCl level as 0,00767 N. Starch syrup at dose 1.8% w/v was effective to reduce HCl level and the grade of second gastric necrosis. It can be conclude that starch syrup is potention as a treatment to cure gastric ulcer caused by NSAIDs side effect.

Keywords: Starch, gastritis, concentration of HCl stomach, gastric histopathology

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14 Melaleuca alternifolia Fibre Composites: Effect of Different Type of Fibre on Mechanical and Physical Properties

Authors: Sahari Japar, M. A. Maleque, Rodney Jammy

Abstract:

The fabrication of melaleuca alternifolia fibre reinforced thermoplastic starch composites was successfully done. This paper aims to show the effect of melaleuca alternifolia fibres on mechanical and physical properties of composites by using starch as a matrix. The fibres were extracted from three different part i.e. tea tree trunk (TTT), tea tree bunch (TTB) and tea tree leaf (TTL) and combined with tapioca starch by casting method. All composites showed superior mechanical properties in comparison to TS. The addition of 5% (v/v) fibres as a filler to TS led to the improvement in young’s modulus by 350% for TTB/TS, 282% for TTT/TS and 220% for TTL/TS. The tensile strength also increased to 34.39% for TTL/TS, 82.80% for TTB/TS and 203.18% for TTT/TS respectively. The trend can be correlated to the amount of cellulose in the fibres. For physical properties, it can be seen that, with the addition of fibres, the water absorption and swelling of composites decreased. The addition of melaleuca alternifolia fibre improved mechanical and physical properties of thermoplastic starch composites.

Keywords: Mechanical, Physical, Starch, fibre, melaleuca alternifolia

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13 Comparative Analysis between Corn and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) Starches to Be Used as Sustainable Bio-Based Plastics

Authors: C. R. Ríos-Soberanis, V. M. Moo-Huchin, R. J. Estrada-Leon, E. Perez-Pacheco

Abstract:

Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons: firstly environmental concerns, and secondly the realization that our petroleum resources are finite. Finding new uses for agricultural commodities is also an important area of research. Therefore, it is crucial to get new sources of natural materials that can be used in different applications. Ramon tree (Brosimum alicastrum) is a tropical plant that grows freely in Yucatan countryside. This paper focuses on the seeds recollection, processing and starch extraction and characterization in order to find out about its suitability as biomaterial. Results demonstrated that it has a high content of qualities to be used not only as comestible but also as an important component in polymeric blends.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Natural Resource, Characterization Techniques, Starch

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12 Some Quality Parameters of Selected Maize Hybrids from Serbia for the Production of Starch, Bioethanol and Animal Feed

Authors: Ljubica Dokić, Marija Milašinović-Šeremešić, Valentina Semenčenko, Milica Radosavljević, Dušanka Terzić, Ljiljana Mojović

Abstract:

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. The main goal of the present study was to investigate a suitability of selected maize hybrids of different genetic background produced in Maize Research Institute ‘Zemun Polje’, Belgrade, Serbia, for starch, bioethanol and animal feed production. All the hybrids are commercial and their detailed characterization is important for the expansion of their different uses. The starches were isolated by using a 100-g laboratory maize wet-milling procedure. Hydrolysis experiments were done in two steps (liquefaction with Termamyl SC, and saccharification with SAN Extra L). Starch hydrolysates obtained by the two-step hydrolysis of the corn flour starch were subjected to fermentation by S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus under semi-anaerobic conditions. The digestibility based on enzymatic solubility was performed by the Aufréré method. All investigated ZP maize hybrids had very different physical characteristics and chemical composition which could allow various possibilities of their use. The amount of hard (vitreous) and soft (floury) endosperm in kernel is considered one of the most important parameters that can influence the starch and bioethanol yields. Hybrids with a lower test weight and density and a greater proportion of soft endosperm fraction had a higher yield, recovery and purity of starch. Among the chemical composition parameters only starch content significantly affected the starch yield. Starch yields of studied maize hybrids ranged from 58.8% in ZP 633 to 69.0% in ZP 808. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w was obtained for hybrid ZP 611k and the highest by hybrid ZP 434 (8.96% w/w). A very significant correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield, as well as volumetric productivity (48h) (r=0.66). Obtained results showed that the NDF, ADF and ADL contents in the whole maize plant of the observed ZP maize hybrids varied from 40.0% to 60.1%, 18.6% to 32.1%, and 1.4% to 3.1%, respectively. The difference in the digestibility of the dry matter of the whole plant among hybrids (ZP 735 and ZP 560) amounted to 18.1%. Moreover, the differences in the contents of the lignocelluloses fraction affected the differences in dry matter digestibility. From the results it can be concluded that genetic background of the selected maize hybrids plays an important part in estimation of the technological value of maize hybrids for various purposes. Obtained results are of an exceptional importance for the breeding programs and selection of potentially most suitable maize hybrids for starch, bioethanol and animal feed production.

Keywords: Starch, Bioethanol, maize, biomass quality

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11 Synthesis of Biopolymeric Nanoparticles of Starch for Packaging Reinforcement Applications

Authors: Yousof Farrag, Sara Malmir, Rebeca Bouza, Maite Rico, Belén Montero, Luís Barral

Abstract:

Biopolymers are being extensively studied in the last years as a replacement of the conventional petroleum derived polymers, especially in packaging industry. They are natural, biodegradable materials. However, the lack of good mechanical and barrier properties is a problem in the way of this replacement. One of the most abundant biopolymers in the nature is the starch, its renewable, biocompatible low cost polysaccharide, it can be obtained from wide variety of plants, it has been used in food, packaging and other industries. This work is focusing on the production a high yield of starch nanoparticles via nanoprecipitation, to be used as reinforcement filling of biopolymer packaging matrices made of different types of starch improving their mechanical and barrier properties. Wheat and corn starch solutions were prepared in different concentrations. Absolute ethanol, acetone and different concentrations of hydrochloric acid were added as antisolvents dropwise under different amplitudes of sonication and different speeds of stirring, the produced particles were analyzed with dynamic light scattering DLS and scanning electron microscope SEM getting the morphology and the size distribution to study the effect of those factors on the produced particles. DLS results show that we have nanoparticles using low concentration of corn starch (0.5%) using 0.1M HCl as antisolvent, [Z average: 209 nm, PDI: 0,49], in case of wheat starch, we could obtain nanoparticles [Z average: 159 nm, PDI: 0,45] using the same starch solution concentration together with absolute ethanol as antisolvent.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Biopolymers, Starch, DLS

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10 Valorisation of Mango Seed: Response Surface Methodology Based Optimization of Starch Extraction from Mango Seeds

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole

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Box-Behnken Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield and whiteness index from mango seed. The steeping time ranges from 2 to 12 hours and slurring of the steeped seed in sodium metabisulphite solution (0.1 to 0.5 w/v) was carried out. Experiments were designed according to Box-Behnken Design with these three factors and a total of 15 runs experimental variables of were analyzed. At linear level, the concentration of sodium metabisulphite had significant positive influence on percentage yield and whiteness index at p<0.05. At quadratic level, sodium metabisulphite concentration and sodium metabisulphite concentration2 had a significant negative influence on starch yield; sodium metabisulphite concentration and steeping time*temperature had significant (p<0.05) positive influence on whiteness index. The adjusted R2 above 0.8 for starch yield (0.906465) and whiteness index (0.909268) showed a good fit of the model with the experimental data. The optimum sodium metabisulphite concentration, steeping hours, and temperature for starch isolation with maximum starch yield (66.428%) and whiteness index (85%) as set goals for optimization with the desirability of 0.91939 was 0.255w/v concentration, 2hrs and 50 °C respectively. The determined experimental value of each response based on optimal condition was statistically in accordance with predicted levels at p<0.05. The Mango seeds are the by-products obtained during mango processing and possess disposal problem if not handled properly. The substitution of food based sizing agents with mango seed starch can contribute as pertinent resource deployment for value-added product manufacturing and waste utilization which might play significance role of food security in Ethiopia.

Keywords: Textile, sizing, Extraction, Starch, mango, synthetic sizing agent

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9 Influence of [Emim][OAc] and Water on Gelatinization Process and Interactions with Starch

Authors: Nurlidia Mansor, Zakaria Man, Shajaratuldur Ismail

Abstract:

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Emim][OAc] were obtained through gelatinization process. The gelatinization process occurred in the presence of water and [Emim][OAc] as plasticizer at high temperature (90˚C). The influence of [Emim][OAc] and water on the gelatinization and interactions with starch have been studied over a range of compositions. The homogenous mass was obtained for the samples containing 35, 40 and 43.5 % of water contents which showed that water plays important role in gelatinization process. Detailed IR spectroscopy analysis showed decrease in hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups in the presence of [Emim][OAc]. Starch-[Emim][OAc]-water mixture at 10-3-8.7 presented homogenous mass, less hydrogen bonding intensity and strong interaction between acetate anion in [Emim][OAc] and starch hydroxyl groups.

Keywords: Starch, IR spectroscopy, ionic liquid, plasticizer, gelatinization

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8 Extraction, Synthesis, Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Oxidized Starch from an Abundant Source in Nigeria

Authors: Isimi C. Yetunde, Okoh E. Judith, Okafor E. Ijeoma, Emeje O. Martins, Kunle O. Olobayo

Abstract:

Starch has gained interest as a renewable and environmentally compatible polymer due to the increase in its use. However, starch by itself could not be satisfactorily applied in industrial processes due to some inherent disadvantages such as its hydrophilic character, poor mechanical properties, its inability to withstand processing conditions such as extreme temperatures, diverse pH, high shear rate, freeze-thaw variation and dimensional stability. The range of physical properties of parent starch can be enlarged by chemical modification which invariably enhances their use in a number of applications found in industrial processes and food manufacture. In this study, Manihot esculentus starch was subjected to modification by oxidation. Fourier Transmittance Infra- Red (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies were used to confirm the synthesis while Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X- Ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the new polymer. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) free radical assay was used to determine the antioxidant property of the oxidized starch. Our results show that the modification had no significant effect on the foaming capacity as well as on the emulsion capacity. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxidation did not alter the predominantly circular-shaped starch granules, while the X-ray pattern of both starch, native and modified were similar. FTIR results revealed a new band at 3007 and 3283cm-1. Differential scanning calorimetry returned two new endothermic peaks in the oxidized starch with an improved gelation capacity and increased enthalpy of gelatinization. The IC50 of oxidized starch was notably higher than that of the reference standard, ascorbic acid.

Keywords: Oxidation, Starch, antioxidant activity, DPPH, M. esculentus

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7 Influence of La³⁺ on Structural, Magnetic, Optical and Dielectric Properties in CoFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Combustion Method

Authors: Ivo Kuritka, Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

Herein, we reported the influence of La³⁺ substitution on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ ions doped CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that La³⁺ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 10-40 nm. The magnetic properties of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with La³⁺ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied with change of concentration of La³⁺ ions in CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The variation in optical properties was studied via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Magnetic Properties, Starch, dielectric properties, sol-gel combustion method

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6 Secondary Compression Behavior of Organic Soils in One-Dimensional Consolidation Tests

Authors: S. Chandrakaran, Rinku Varghese, K. Rangaswamy

Abstract:

The standard one-dimensional consolidation test is used to find the consolidation behaviour of artificially consolidated organic soils. Incremental loading tests were conducted on the clay without and with organic matter. The study was conducted with soil having different organic content keeping all other parameters constant. The tests were conducted on clay and artificially prepared organic soil sample at different vertical pressure. The load increment ratio considered for the test is equal to one. Artificial organic soils are used for the test by adding starch to the clay. The percentage of organic content in starch is determined by adding 5% by weight starch into the clay (inorganic soil) sample and corresponding change in organic content of soil was determined. This was expressed as percentage by weight of starch, and it was found that about 95% organic content in the soil sample. Accordingly percentage of organic content fixed and added to the sample for testing to understand the consolidation behaviour clayey soils with organic content. A detailed study of the results obtained from IL test was investigated. The main items investigated were (i) coefficient of consolidation (cv), (ii) coefficient of volume compression (mv), (iii) coefficient of permeability (k). The consolidation parameter obtained from IL test was used for determining the creep strain and creep parameter and also predicting their variation with vertical stress and organic content.

Keywords: Starch, Creep, consolidation, secondary compression

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5 Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method and Annealing Effect

Authors: Ivo Kuritka, Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Jaromir Havlica, Zuzana Kozakova, Jiri Masilko, Lukas Kalina, Miroslava Hajdúchová, Vojtěch Enev, Jaromir Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) doped CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed the effect of annealing temperature on size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and particles were in the range of 10-100 nm. The magnetic properties of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with annealing temperature/ particle size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Starch, sol-gel combustion method, rare-earth ions, spinel ferrite nanoparticles

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4 Nanocellulose Reinforced Biocomposites Based on Wheat Plasticized Starch for Food Packaging

Authors: Rebeca Bouza, Maite Rico, Belén Montero, Carmen Ramirez, Irene Derungs

Abstract:

Starch is a promising polymer for producing biocomposite materials because it is renewable, completely biodegradable and easily available at a low cost. Thermoplastic starches (TPS) can be obtained after the disruption and plasticization of native starch with a plasticizer. In this work, the solvent casting method was used to obtain TPS films from wheat starch plasticized with glycerol and reinforced with nanocellulose (CNC). X-ray diffraction analysis was used to follow the evolution of the crystallinity. The native wheat starch granules have shown a profile corresponding to A-type crystal structures typical for cereal starches. When TPS films are analyzed a high amorphous halo centered on 19º is obtained, indicating the plasticization process is completed. SEM imaging was made in order to analyse the morphology. The image from the raw wheat starch granules shows a bimodal granule size distribution with some granules in large round disk-shape forms (A-type) and the others as smaller spherical particles (B-type). The image from the neat TPS surface shows a continuous surface. No starch aggregates or swollen granules can be seen so, the plasticization process is complete. In the surfaces of reinforced TPS films aggregates are seen as the CNC concentration in the matrix increases. The CNC influence on the mechanical properties of TPS films has been studied by dynamic mechanical analysis. A direct relation exists between the storage modulus values, E’, and the CNC content in reinforced TPS films: higher is the content of nanocellulose in the composite, higher is the value of E’. This reinforcement effect can be explained by the appearance of a strong and crystalline nanoparticle-TPS interphase. Thermal stability of films was analysed by TGA. It has not observed any influence on the behaviour related to the thermal degradation of films with the incorporation of the CNC. Finally, the resistance to the water absorption films was analysed following the standard UNE-EN ISO 1998:483. The percentage of water absorbed by the samples at each time was calculated. The addition of 5 wt % of CNC to the TPS matrix leads to a significant improvement in the moisture resistance of the starch based material decreasing their diffusivity. It has been associated to the formation of a nanocrystal network that prevents swelling of the starch and therefore water absorption and to the high crystallinity of cellulose compared to starch. As a conclusion, the wheat film reinforced with 5 wt % of cellulose nanocrystals seems to be a good alternative for short-life applications into the packaging industry, because of its greatest rigidity, thermal stability and moisture sorption resistance.

Keywords: Biocomposites, Wheat, Starch, Nanocellulose

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3 Effect of Modification on the Properties of Blighia sapida (Ackee) Seed Starch

Authors: Samson A. Oyeyinka, Olufunmilola A. Abiodun, Adegbola O. Dauda, Ayobami Ojo

Abstract:

Blighia sapida (Ackee) seed is a neglected and under-utilised crop. The fruit is cultivated for the aril which is used as meat substitute in soup while the seed is discarded. The seed is toxic due to the presence of hypoglycin which causes vomiting and death. The seed is shining black and bigger than the legume seeds. The seed contains high starch content which could serve as a cheap source of starch hereby reducing wastage of the crop during its season. Native starch had limitation in their use; therefore, modification of starch had been reported to improve the functional properties of starches. Therefore, this work determined the effect of modification on the properties of Blighia sapida seed starch. Blighia sapida seed was dehulled manually, milled and the starch extracted using standard method. The starch was subjected to modification using four methods (acid, alkaline, oxidized and acetylated methods). The morphological structure, form factor, granule size, amylose, swelling power, hypoglycin and pasting properties of the starches were determined. The structure of Blighia sapida using light microscope showed that the seed starch demonstrated an oval, round, elliptical, dome-shaped and also irregular shape. The form factors of the starch ranged from 0.32-0.64. Blighia sapida seed starches were smaller in granule sizes ranging from 2-6 µm. Acid modified starch had the highest amylose content (24.83%) and was significantly different ( < 0.05) from other starches. Blighia sapida seed starches showed a progressive increase in swelling power as temperature increased in native, acidified, alkalized, oxidized and acetylated starches but reduced with increasing temperature in pregelatinized starch. Hypoglycin A ranged from 3.89 to 5.74 mg/100 g with pregelatinized starch having the lowest value and alkalized starch having the highest value. Hypoglycin B ranged from 7.17 to 8.47 mg/100 g. Alkali-treated starch had higher peak viscosity (3973 cP) which was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from the native starch. Alkali-treated starch also was significantly different (p > 0.05) from other starches in holding strength value while acetylated starch had higher breakdown viscosity (1161.50 cP). Native starch was significantly different (p > 0.05) from other starches in final and setback viscosities. Properties of Blighia sapida modified starches showed that it could be used as a source of starch in food and other non-food industries and the toxic compound found in the starch was very low when compared to lethal dosage.

Keywords: Modification, Starch, Blighia sapida seed, hypoglycin

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2 X-Ray Diffraction and Crosslink Density Analysis of Starch/Natural Rubber Polymer Composites Prepared by Latex Compounding Method

Authors: Raymond Dominic Uzoh

Abstract:

Starch fillers were extracted from three plant sources namely amora tuber (a wild variety of Irish potato), sweet potato and yam starch and their particle size, pH, amylose, and amylopectin percentage decomposition determined accordingly by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The starch was introduced into natural rubber in liquid phase (through gelatinization) by the latex compounding method and compounded according to standard method. The prepared starch/natural rubber composites was characterized by Instron Universal testing machine (UTM) for tensile mechanical properties. The composites was further characterized by x-ray diffraction and crosslink density analysis. The particle size determination showed that amora starch granules have the highest particle size (156 × 47 μm) followed by yam starch (155× 40 μm) and then the sweet potato starch (153 × 46 μm). The pH test also revealed that amora starch has a near neutral pH of 6.9, yam 6.8, and sweet potato 5.2 respectively. Amylose and amylopectin determination showed that yam starch has a higher percentage of amylose (29.68), followed by potato (22.34) and then amora starch with the lowest value (14.86) respectively. The tensile mechanical properties testing revealed that yam starch produced the best tensile mechanical properties followed by amora starch and then sweet potato starch. The structure, crystallinity/amorphous nature of the product composite was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, while the nature of crosslinking was confirmed by swelling test in toluene solvent using the Flory-Rehner approach. This research study has rendered a workable strategy for enhancing interfacial interaction between a hydrophilic filler (starch) and hydrophobic polymeric matrix (natural rubber) yielding moderately good tensile mechanical properties for further exploitation development and application in the rubber processing industry.

Keywords: Starch, fillers, natural rubber, crosslink density, amylose, amylopectin

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1 Adhesive Based upon Polyvinyl Alcohol And Chemical Modified Oca (Oxalis tuberosa) Starch

Authors: Samantha Borja, Vladimir Valle, Pamela Molina

Abstract:

The development of adhesives from renewable raw materials attracts the attention of the scientific community, due to it promises the reduction of the dependence with materials derived from oil. This work proposes the use of modified 'oca (Oxalis tuberosa)' starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the elaboration of adhesives for lignocellulosic substrates. The investigation focused on the formulation of adhesives with 3 different PVA:starch (modified and native) ratios (of 1,0:0,33; 1,0:1,0; 1,0:1,67). The first step to perform it was the chemical modification of starch through acid hydrolysis and a subsequent urea treatment to get carbamate starch. Then, the adhesive obtained was characterized in terms of instantaneous viscosity, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and shear strength. The results showed that viscosity and mechanical tests exhibit data with the same tendency in relation to the native and modified starch concentration. It was observed that the data started to reduce its values to a certain concentration, where the values began to grow. On the other hand, two relevant bands were found in the FTIR spectrogram. The first in 3300 cm⁻¹ of OH group with the same intensity for all the essays and the other one in 2900 cm⁻¹, belonging to the group of alkanes with a different intensity for each adhesive. On the whole, the ratio PVA:starch (1:1) will not favor crosslinking in the adhesive structure and causes the viscosity reduction, whereas, in the others ones, the viscosity is higher. It was also observed that adhesives made with modified starch had better characteristics, but the adhesives with high concentrations of native starch could equal the properties of the adhesives made with low concentrations of modified starch.

Keywords: viscosity, Starch, Chemical Modification, Shear Strength, FTIR, polyvinyl alcohol, PVA

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