Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Standards Related Abstracts

16 Bring Your Own Devices (BOYD): Risks and Mitigation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Ketel

Abstract:

This paper discusses the security issues related to Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD) programs, an increasingly popular choice for small and big businesses alike, and explores the benefits, risks, the available controls and solutions to mitigate the inherent security concerns with mobile devices, in general, and BYOD programs specifically. The paper also discusses the approaches that organizations can apply to mitigate the risks, which may include policies, diverse technologies, education, and training.

Keywords: Education, Security, Standards, Controls, Policies, BYOD

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15 Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Electric and Magnetic Fields Behavior in the Vicinity of High-Voltage Power Lines

Authors: Tourab Wafa, Nemamcha Mohamed, Babouri Abdessalem

Abstract:

This paper consists on an experimental and analytical characterization of the electromagnetic environment in the in the medium surrounding a circuit of two 220 Kv power lines running in parallel. The analysis presented in this paper is divided into two main parts. The first part concerns the experimental study of the behavior of the electric field and magnetic field generated by the selected double-circuit at ground level (0 m). While the second part simulate and calculate the fields profiles generated by the both lines at different levels above the ground, from (0 m) to the level close to the lines conductors (20 m above the ground) using the electrostatic and magneto-static modules of the COMSOL multi-physics software. The implications of the results are discussed and compared with the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational and non occupational exposures.

Keywords: Standards, Electromagnetic Compatibility, HV power lines, low frequency electromagnetic fields, inductive and capacitive coupling

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14 Properties of Biodiesel Produced by Enzymatic Transesterification of Lipids Extracted from Microalgae in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Medium

Authors: Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Yousef Haik, Hanifa Taher, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi, Mohammed Farid

Abstract:

Biodiesel, as an alternative renewable fuel, has been receiving increasing attention due to the limited supply of fossil fuels and the increasing need for energy. Microalgae is a promising source for lipids, which can be converted to biodiesel. The biodiesel production from microalgae lipids using lipase catalyzed reaction in supercritical CO2 medium has several advantages over conventional production processes. However, identifying the optimum microalgae lipid extraction and transesterification conditions is still a challenge. In this study, the lipids extracted from Scenedesmus sp. and their enzymatic transesterification using supercritical carbon dioxide have been investigated. The effect of extraction variables (temperature, pressure and solvent flow rate) and reaction variables (enzyme loading, incubation time, methanol to lipids molar ratio and temperature) were considered. Process parameters and their effects were studied using a full factorial analysis of both. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and was used to determine the optimum conditions for the extraction and reaction steps. For extraction, the optimum conditions were 53 °C and 500 bar, whereas for the reaction the optimum conditions were 35% enzyme loading, 4 h reaction, 9:1 molar ratio and 50 oC. At these optimum conditions, the highest biodiesel production yield was found to be 82 %. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel, at optimum reaction condition, were determined and compared to ASTM standards. The properties were found to comply with the limits, and showed a low glycerol content, without any separation step.

Keywords: Standards, Biodiesel, supercritical CO2, lipase

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13 Design and Implementation of Campus Wireless Networking for Sharing Resources in Federal Polytechnic Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Hassan Abubakar

Abstract:

This paper will serve as a guide to good design and implementation of wireless networking for campus institutions in Nigeria. It can be implemented throughout the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. This paper describe the some technical functions, standard configurations and layouts of the 802.11 wireless LAN(Local Area Network) that can be implemented across the campus network. The paper also touches upon the wireless infrastructure standards involved with enhanced services, such as voice over wireless and wireless guest hotspot. The paper also touch the benefits derived from implementing campus wireless network and share some lights on how to arrive at the success in increasing the performance of wireless and using the campus wireless to share resources like software applications, printer and documents.

Keywords: Networking, Standards, Campus, wireless local area network (WLAN), radio frequency (RF)

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12 Environmental Problems (with Examples from Georgia)

Authors: Ana Asratashvili

Abstract:

One of the main issues of state’s economic policy is the environmental problems. The development of society is implementing by the connection with nature. A human being needs different material resources which must be got by the influence on the nature. This relationship between nature and society is complicated and controversial and it was changing from time to time according to human’s evolution. The imprudent and unreasonable usage of natural resources, scientific-technological revolution and the hard pollution of nature related to it caused the disruption of environmental balance between nature and society which has been made for ages and destructively acted on society and environment. Environmental protection is one of the major issues of the European Union all over the world. The aim of EU environmental policy is to improve ecological conditions. Besides, it aims encouraging of careful and rational usage of natural resources. At the same time, the union tries to raise problems related to environmental protection at the international level. After that when scientists concluded anthropogenic impact of human on the nature causes climate changes, the special attention was paid to the environmental protection by developed countries. Global warming will cause floods, storms, draughts and desertification and to solve these results presumably will cost 20% of World GDP by 2050 for developed countries, if, of course, it does not make strict environmental policy. EU member countries have pretty strict environmental standards. Their defense is observed by different state institutions. According to impacts on nature throughout the world the most polluted fumes are made by electricity facilities (44%), transport (20%), industry (18%), domestic and service sector (17%). The special concern to the issues related to the importance of environment by environmentalists is caused by low self-esteem of population about the problems of environment. According to their mind, population is engaged with daily difficulties so that they don’t react much on environmental problems. Correspondingly, the main task for environmental organizations is to inform population and raise self-esteem about environmental issues.

Keywords: Standards, Environment, Pollution, Environmental, Economic Policy, self-esteem, technological revolution

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11 Investigation of Information Security Incident Management Based on International Standard ISO/IEC 27002 in Educational Hospitals in 2014

Authors: Nahid Tavakoli, Asghar Ehteshami, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Amini

Abstract:

Introduction: The Information security incident management guidelines was been developed to help hospitals to meet their information security event and incident management requirements. The purpose of this Study was to investigate on Information Security Incident Management in Isfahan’s educational hospitals in accordance to ISO/IEC 27002 standards. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to investigate on Information Security Incident Management of educational hospitals in 2014. Based on ISO/IEC 27002 standards, two checklists were applied to check the compliance with standards on Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements. One inspector was trained to carry out the assessments in the hospitals. The data was analyzed by SPSS. Findings: In general the score of compliance Information Security Incident Management requirements in two steps; Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements was %60. There was the significant difference in various compliance levels among the hospitals (p-valueKeywords: Standards, hospitals, Information Security Management, information security incident management

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10 Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

Authors: R. Pernicová, D. Dobias

Abstract:

The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standards. Regulations are detailed and described especially for European Union and for Czech Republic.

Keywords: Standards, Concrete, Pavements, Czech Republic, recycled concrete aggregate, RCA

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9 Importance of Standards in Engineering and Technology Education

Authors: Ahmed S. Khan, Amin Karim

Abstract:

During the past several decades, the economy of each nation has been significantly affected by globalization and technology. Government regulations and private sector standards affect a majority of world trade. Countries have been working together to establish international standards in almost every field. As a result, workers in all sectors need to have an understanding of standards. Engineering and technology students must not only possess an understanding of engineering standards and applicable government codes, but also learn to apply them in designing, developing, testing and servicing products, processes and systems. Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology (ABET) criteria for engineering and technology education require students to learn and apply standards in their class projects. This paper is a follow-up of a 2006-2009 NSF initiative awarded to IEEE to help develop tutorials and case study modules for students and encourage standards education at college campuses. It presents the findings of a faculty/institution survey conducted through various U.S.-based listservs representing the major engineering and technology disciplines. The intent of the survey was to the gauge the status of use of standards and regulations in engineering and technology coursework and to identify benchmark practices. In light of survey findings, recommendations are made to standards development organizations, industry, and academia to help enhance the use of standards in engineering and technology curricula.

Keywords: Engineering, Standards, Regulations, IEEE, ABET, technology curricula

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8 The Impact of Regulatory Changes on the Development of Mobile Medical Apps

Authors: M. McHugh, D. Lillis

Abstract:

Mobile applications are being used to perform a wide variety of tasks in day-to-day life, ranging from checking email to controlling your home heating. Application developers have recognized the potential to transform a smart device into a medical device, by using a mobile medical application i.e. a mobile phone or a tablet. When initially conceived these mobile medical applications performed basic functions e.g. BMI calculator, accessing reference material etc.; however, increasing complexity offers clinicians and patients a range of functionality. As this complexity and functionality increases, so too does the potential risk associated with using such an application. Examples include any applications that provide the ability to inflate and deflate blood pressure cuffs, as well as applications that use patient-specific parameters and calculate dosage or create a dosage plan for radiation therapy. If an unapproved mobile medical application is marketed by a medical device organization, then they face significant penalties such as receiving an FDA warning letter to cease the prohibited activity, fines and possibility of facing a criminal conviction. Regulatory bodies have finalized guidance intended for mobile application developers to establish if their applications are subject to regulatory scrutiny. However, regulatory controls appear contradictory with the approaches taken by mobile application developers who generally work with short development cycles and very little documentation and as such, there is the potential to stifle further improvements due to these regulations. The research presented as part of this paper details how by adopting development techniques, such as agile software development, mobile medical application developers can meet regulatory requirements whilst still fostering innovation.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Mobile, Medical, Standards, Applications, Agile, Regulations, FDA

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7 Auditing of Building Information Modeling Application in Decoration Engineering Projects in China

Authors: Lan Luo

Abstract:

In China’s construction industry, it is a normal practice to separately subcontract the decoration engineering part from construction engineering, and Building Information Modeling (BIM) is also done separately. Application of BIM in decoration engineering should be integrated with other disciplines, but Chinese current practice makes this very difficult and complicated. Currently, there are three barriers in the auditing of BIM application in decoration engineering in China: heavy workload; scarcity of qualified professionals; and lack of literature concerning audit contents, standards, and methods. Therefore, it is significant to perform research on what (contents) should be evaluated, in which phase, and by whom (professional qualifications) in BIM application in decoration construction so that the application of BIM can be promoted in a better manner. Based on this consideration, four principles of BIM auditing are proposed: Comprehensiveness of information, accuracy of data, aesthetic attractiveness of appearance, and scheme optimization. In the model audit, three methods should be used: Collision, observation, and contrast. In addition, BIM auditing at six stages is discussed and a checklist for work items and results to be submitted is proposed. This checklist can be used for reference by decoration project participants.

Keywords: Standards, Evaluation, Audit, Methods, dimensions, BIM application in decoration engineering projects

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6 Subsidiary Strategy and Importance of Standards: Re-Interpreting the Integration-Responsiveness Framework

Authors: Jo-Ann Müller

Abstract:

The integration-responsiveness (IR) framework presents four distinct internationalization strategies which differ depending on the extent of pressure the company faces for local responsiveness and global integration. This study applies the framework to standards by examining differences in the relative importance of three types of standards depending on the role the subsidiary plays within the corporate group. Hypotheses are tested empirically in a two-stage procedure. First, the subsidiaries are grouped performing cluster analysis. In the second step, the relationship between cluster affiliation and subsidiary strategy is tested using multinomial Probit estimation. While the level of local responsiveness of a firm relates to the relative importance of national and international formal standards, the degree of vertical integration is associated with the application of internal company.

Keywords: Standards, FDI, firm-level data, subsidiary strategy

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5 Labour Productivity Measurement and Control Standards for Hotels

Authors: Kristine Joy Simpao

Abstract:

Improving labour productivity is one of the most enthralling and challenging aspects of managing hotels and restaurant business. The demand to secure countless productivity became an increasingly pivotal role of managers to survive and sustain the business. Besides making business profitable, they are in the doom to make every resource to become productive and effective towards achieving company goal while maximizing the value of organization. This paper examines what productivity means to the services industry, in particular, to the hotel industry. This is underpinned by an investigation of the extent of practice of respondent hotels to the labour productivity aspect in the areas of materials management, human resource management and leadership management and in a way, computing the labour productivity ratios using the hotel simple ratios of productivity in order to find a suitable measurement and control standards for hotels with SBMA, Olongapo City as the locale of the study. The finding shows that hotels labour productivity ratings are not perfect with some practices that are far below particularly on strategic and operational decisions in improving performance and productivity of its human resources. It further proves of the no significant difference ratings among the respondent’s type in all areas which indicated that they are having similar perception of the weak implementation of some of the indicators in the labour productivity practices. Furthermore, the results in the computation of labour productivity efficiency ratios resulted relationship of employees versus labour productivity practices are inversely proportional. This study provides a potential measurement and control standards for the enhancement of hotels labour productivity. These standards should also contain labour productivity customized for standard hotels in Subic Bay Freeport Zone to assist hotel owners in increasing the labour productivity while meeting company goals and objectives effectively.

Keywords: Standards, Hotel, Practices, Measurement and Control, labour productivity, efficiency ratios

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4 Standards of Toxicity and Food Security in Brazil

Authors: Ana Luiza Da Gama E Souza

Abstract:

This article aims to discuss the problem of food insecurity in Brazil in what it refers to contamination of food by chemical substances such as herbicides, pesticides, and other contaminants. The issue will be faced by analyzing, on the one hand, the standards that guide the food system in the world and, on the other hand, human rights indicators whose purpose is to provide an effective monitoring of the State's obligations to guarantee food security, analyzing the implications of the former for the success of the latter. The methodology adopted in this article was bibliographic-documentary and consists of three moments of analysis. The first moment consists in the analysis of the reports of the Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States to identify the set of progress indicators developed by the Commission. This analysis will involve the new methodology used to evaluate the efficiency in monitoring food security in Brazil the case of using pesticides in the production of food at levels of toxicity not admitted by the inspection bodies. The second moment consists in evaluating the mechanism for monitoring food security in Brazil, which was initially established by the National Food Security Plan (PLANSAN) for 2012-2015 and improved by the II National Food Security Plan for 2016-2019. Those mechanisms were prepared by the Chamber (CAISAN), and have the function to compare the monitoring proposals with the results presented by CAISAN on the Indicators and Results Report of the National Plan for Food and Nutrition Security 2012-2015. The third moment was intended to understand, analyze and evaluate the standardization process of the agri-food system, especially regarding the level of toxicity standards, that is related to food safety monitoring as a guarantee of pesticide-free food. The results show the dependence between private standards of toxicity and the indicators of food safety that leads to inefficiency on monitoring that mechanism in Brazil.

Keywords: Food Security, Human Rights, Standards, indicators

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3 Quality Assurance in Higher Education: Doha Institute for Graduate Studies as a Case Study

Authors: Ahmed Makhoukh

Abstract:

Quality assurance (QA) has recently become a common practice, which is endorsed by most Higher Education (HE) institutions worldwide, due to the pressure of internal and external forces. One of the aims of this quality movement is to make the contribution of university education to socio-economic development highly significant. This entails that graduates are currently required have a high-quality profile, i.e., to be competent and master the 21st-century skills needed in the labor market. This wave of change, mostly imposed by globalization, has the effect that university education should be learner-centered in order to satisfy the different needs of students and meet the expectations of other stakeholders. Such a shift of focus on the student learning outcomes has led HE institutions to reconsider their strategic planning, their mission, the curriculum, the pedagogical competence of the academic staff, among other elements. To ensure that the overall institutional performance is on the right way, a QA system should be established to assume this task of checking regularly the extent to which the set of standards of evaluation are strictly respected as expected. This operation of QA has the advantage of proving the accountability of the institution, gaining the trust of the public with transparency and enjoying an international recognition. This is the case of Doha Institute (DI) for Graduate Studies, in Qatar, the object of the present study. The significance of this contribution is to show that the conception of quality has changed in this digital age, and the need to integrate a department responsible for QA in every HE institution to ensure educational quality, enhance learners and achieve academic leadership. Thus, to undertake the issue of QA in DI for Graduate Studies, an elite university (in the academic sense) that focuses on a small and selected number of students, a qualitative method will be adopted in the description and analysis of the data (document analysis). In an attempt to investigate the extent to which QA is achieved in Doha Institute for Graduate Studies, three broad indicators will be evaluated (input, process and learning outcomes). This investigation will be carried out in line with the UK Quality Code for Higher Education represented by Quality Assurance Agency (QAA).

Keywords: Higher Education, Standards, Quality, Quality assurance, Accreditation

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2 The Gap between Curriculum, Pedagogy, and National Standards of Vietnamese English Language Teacher Education

Authors: Thi Phuong Lan Nguyen

Abstract:

Vietnamese English Language Teacher Education (ELTE) has been changing a lot in response to the rapidly evolving socio-economic context requirements. The Vietnamese government assigns the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) primary tasks to have policy changes to prepare for ELTE development in the globalization and socialization process. Many educational policies have been made to develop ELTE, however, they seem not to address the new global or social demands. The issue is that there are still significant disparities between the national policy and the institutional implementation. This study is to investigate the alignment between ELTE institutional curriculum, pedagogies, and MOET standards. This study used a mixed-method with the data sources from policy documents, a survey, and 33 interviews conducted with the lecturers and administrators from eleven Vietnamese ELTE institutions. The data have been analysed to understand the gap between policy and practice. The initial findings are (i) a low alignment of curriculum and language proficiency standards and (ii) a moderate alignment between curriculum and future-career skills standards. Many pedagogical challenges have been found. In order to address these gaps, it is necessary for the curriculum to be standards-based designed. It is also vital for professional development in order to improve the quality teaching. The study offers multiple perspectives on a complex issue. The study is meaningful not only to educational governance, but also to teaching practitioners, English language researchers, and English language learners. The significance lies in its relevance to English teaching careers across all parts of Vietnam, it yet remains relevant to ELTE in other countries teaching English as a foreign language.

Keywords: pedagogy, Standards, Educational Policy, Curriculum, English Language Teaching, alignment

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1 An Overview on Micro Irrigation-Accelerating Growth of Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rohit Lall

Abstract:

The adoption of Micro Irrigation (MI) technologies in India has helped in achieving higher cropping and irrigation intensity with significant savings on resource savings such as labour, fertilizer and improved crop yields. These technologies have received considerable attention from policymakers, growers and researchers over the years for its perceived ability to contribute towards agricultural productivity and economic growth with the well-being of the growers of the country. Keeping the pace with untapped theoretical potential to cover government had launched flagship programs/centre sector schemes with earmarked budget to capture the potential under these waters saving techniques envisaged under these technologies by way of providing financial assistance to the beneficiaries for adopting these technologies. Micro Irrigation technologies have been in the special attention of the policymakers over the years. India being an agrarian economy having engaged 75% of the population directly or indirectly having skilled, semi-skilled and entrepreneurs in the sector with focused attention and financial allocations from the government under these technologies in covering the untapped potential under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) 'Per Drop More Crop component.' During the year 2004, a Taskforce on Micro Irrigation was constituted to estimate the potential of these technologies in India which was estimated 69.5 million hectares by the Task Force Report on MI however only 10.49 million hectares have been achieved so far. Technology collaborations by leading manufacturing companies in overseas have proved to a stepping stone in technology advancement and product up gradation with increased efficiencies. Joint ventures by the leading MI companies have added huge business volumes which have not only accelerated the momentum of achieving the desired goal but in terms of area coverage but had also generated opportunities for the polymer manufacturers in the country. To provide products matching the global standards Bureau of Indian Standards have constituted a sectional technical committee under the Food and Agriculture Department (FAD)-17 to formulated/devise and revise standards pertaining to MI technologies. The research lobby has also contributed at large by developing in-situ analysis proving MI technologies a boon for farming community of the country with resource conservation of which water is of paramount importance. Thus, Micro Irrigation technologies have proved to be the key tool for feeding the grueling demand of food basket of the growing population besides maintaining soil health and have been contributing towards doubling of farmers’ income.

Keywords: Standards, task force on MI, per drop more crop, doubling farmers’ income

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