Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Stakeholders Related Abstracts

37 Published Financial Statement as a Correlate of Investment Decision among Commercial Bank Stakeholders in Nigeria

Authors: D. A. Farinde, C. F. Popoola, K. Akinsanya, S. B. Babarinde

Abstract:

This study investigated published financial statement as correlate of investment decision among commercial bank stakeholders in Nigeria. A correlation research design was used in the study. 180 users of published financial statement were purposively sampled from Lagos and Ibadan. Data generated were analyzed using Pearson correlation and regression. The findings of the study revealed that, balance sheet is negatively related with investment decision (r=-.483; p < .01) while income statement (r= .249; p < .001), notes on the account (r= .230; p < .001), cash flow statement (r= .202; p < .001), value added statement (r= .328; p < .001) and five-year financial summary (r= .191 ;p < .01) are positively related with investment decision. Findings also revealed that components of published financial statement significantly predicted good investment decision (R2= .983; F(5,175)=284.5; p < .05) for commercial bank stakeholders. Therefore, it was suggested that Nigeria banks and professional bodies should instigate programs that will increase the knowledge of stakeholders on published financial statement.

Keywords: Stakeholders, Financial Statement, commercial banks, income statement, investment decision

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36 Heritage Management Planning, Stakeholders and Legal Problematic: The Case of the Archeological Site of Jarash in Jordan

Authors: Abdelkader Ababneh

Abstract:

Heritage management planning is increasingly important throughout the international context, particularly in the developing countries. Jordan has important and unique heritage resources due to its natural topography and climate, but also to its history and old sites. A high number of these archaeological sites are in very good state of preservation. Most natural sites and resources are privately managed while archaeological heritage sites are publicly managed within national legal texts and with some referencing to international legal documents. This study examines the development of cultural heritage management in Jarash, and questions if this heritage has been managed in an appropriate manner. The purpose of this paper is to define and review the stakeholders in charge of the management of the archaeological site of Jarash, the legal texts, laws and documents adopted to apply the site management. Relations and coordination between stakeholders and the challenge of the planning process is also the focus of this paper. A review of pertinent academic, technical studies, reports and projects literature pertaining to the heritage management planning in general and related to the site of Jarash in particular coupled with field study of the site served as the background of the information base for the study. Current context of actors, legislative framework, planning policies and initiatives for the site of Jarash reveal important and continuous challenge for managing the site. Recommendations suggest reviewing and restructuring the entity responsible of the sites management. It is also recommended to review their applied policies and a redevelopment of the legislative frame work.

Keywords: Heritage management, Stakeholders, Legal Protection, Jarash

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35 Status of Participative Governance Practices in Higher Education: Implications for Stakeholders' Transformative Role-Assumption

Authors: Endalew Fufa Kufi

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The research investigated the role of stakeholders such as students, teachers and administrators in the practices of good governance in higher education by looking into the special contributions of top-officials, teachers and students in ensuring workable ties and productive interchanges in Adama Science and Technology University. Attention was given to participation, fairness and exemplariness as key indicators of good governance. The target university was chosen for its familiarity for the researcher to get dependable data, access to respondent and management of the processing of data. Descriptive survey design was used for the purpose of describing concerned roles the stakeholders in the university governance in order to reflect on the nature of participation of the practices. Centres of the research were administration where supportive groups such as central administrators and underlying service-givers had parts and academia where teachers and students were target. Generally, 60 teachers, 40 students and 15 administrative officers were referents. Data were collected in the form of self-report through open-ended questionnaires. The findings indicated that, while vertical interchanges in terms of academic and administrative routines were had normal flow on top-down basis, planned practices of stakeholders in decision-making and reasonably communicating roles and changes in decisions with top-officials were not efficiently practiced. Moreover, the practices of good modelling were not witnessed to have existed to the fullest extent. Rather, existence of a very wide gap between the academic and administrative staffs was witnessed as was reflected the case between teachers and students. The implication was such that for shortage in participative atmosphere and weaning of fairness in governance, routine practices have been there as the vicious circles of governance.

Keywords: Governance, Stakeholders, participative, transformative, role-assumption

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34 Requirement Analysis for Emergency Management Software

Authors: Tomáš Ludík, Jiří Barta, Josef Navrátil, Sabina Chytilová

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Emergency management is a discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks. Appropriate emergency management software allows better management of these risks and has a direct influence on reducing potential negative impacts. Although there are several emergency management software products in the Czech Republic, they cover user requirements from the emergency management field only partially. Therefore, the paper focuses on the issues of requirement analysis within development of emergency management software. Analysis of the current state describes the basic features and properties of user requirements for software development as well as basic methods and approaches for gathering these requirements. Then, the paper presents more specific mechanisms for requirement analysis based on chosen software development approach: structured, object-oriented or agile. Based on these experiences it is designed new methodology for requirement analysis. Methodology describes how to map user requirements comprehensively in the field of emergency management and thus reduce misunderstanding between software analyst and emergency manager. Proposed methodology was consulted with department of fire brigade and also has been applied in the requirements analysis for their current emergency management software. The proposed methodology has general character and can be used also in other specific areas during requirement analysis.

Keywords: Methodology, Requirement Analysis, Stakeholders, emergency software, use case diagram, user stories

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33 Carbon Capture and Storage: Prospects in India

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

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The demand of energy is increasing at every part of the world. Thus, use of fossil fuel is efficient which results in large liberation of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Tons of this CO2 raises the risk of dangerous climate changes. To minimize the risk carbon capture and storage (CCS) has to be used so that the emitted carbon dioxide do not reach the atmosphere. CCS is being considered as one of the options that could have a major role to play in India.With the growing awareness towards the global warming, carbon capture and sequestration has a great importance. New technologies and theories are in use to capture CO2. This paper contains the methodology and technologies that is in use to capture carbon dioxide in India. The present scenario of CCS is also being discussed. CCS is playing a major role in enhancing recovery of oil (ERO). Both the purpose 1) minimizing percentage of carbon dioxide in atmosphere and 2) enhancing recovery of oil are fulfilled from the CCS. The CO2 is usually captured from coal based power plant and from some industrial sources and then stored in the geological formations like oil and gas reservoir and deep aquifers or in oceans. India has large reservoirs of coal which are being used for storing CO2, as coal is a good absorbent of CO2. New technologies and studies are going on for injection purposes. Government has initiated new plans for CCS as CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive. A discussion is done on new schemes that should bring up CCS plans and approaches. Stakeholders are welcomed for suitability of CCS. There is still a need to potentially capture the CO2 and avail its storage in developing country like India.

Keywords: Stakeholders, Geological Formations, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2), enhance oil recovery

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32 Attitudes towards Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Sultanate Oman Schools

Authors: Ibrahim Azem

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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitudes of regular classroom teachers, special education teachers, principals, social workers, parents of students without disabilities and parents of students with disabilities, in Sultanate Oman towards inclusion of students with disabilities in the general school setting. Participants’ Four hundred fifty schools were selected randomly from all public schools in Sultanate Oman. From these schools 2,025 individuals volunteered to participate in this study. The Attitude Scale toward inclusion was used to measure adults’ attitudes toward teaching students with disabilities with their peers in an inclusive classroom. The scale was developed based on the conceptualization of attitude as a tri component evaluation consisting of cognitive, affective, and behavioral intention. To investigate the validity and the reliability of the scale, it shows that it has valid appropriate connotations and reliability. The results of the study showed that the adult’s role had significant effect (p < .05) on the participants’ attitudes toward inclusion. Moreover, the results indicated significant (p < .05) gender differences in the attitudes toward inclusion, males scored significantly (p < .05) higher than females. The result of the study also showed that the special education teachers had positives attitudes more than the other type of stakeholders.

Keywords: Inclusion, Stakeholders, oman, students with disabilities

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31 Cyber Security in Nigeria: A Collaboration between Communities and Professionals

Authors: Alese Boniface K., Adu Michael K., Owa Victor K.

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Security can be defined as the degree of resistance to, or protection from harm. It applies to any vulnerable and valuable assets, such as persons, dwellings, communities, nations or organizations. Cybercrime is any crime committed or facilitated via the Internet. It is any criminal activity involving computers and networks. It can range from fraud to unsolicited emails (spam). It includes the distant theft of government or corporate secrets through criminal trespass into remote systems around the globe. Nigeria like any other nations of the world is currently having their own share of the menace that has been used even as tools by terrorists. This paper is an attempt at presenting cyber security as an issue that requires a coordinated national response. It also acknowledges and advocates the key roles to be played by stakeholders and the importance of forging strong partnerships to prevent and tackle cybercrime in Nigeria.

Keywords: Security, Government, Internet, Cybercrime, Partnerships, Stakeholders

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30 Knowledge and Organisational Success: Developing a Scale of Knowledge Framework

Authors: Mohammed Almohammedali, David Edgar, Duncan Peter

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The aim of this exploratory research is to further understand how organisations can evaluate their activities, which generate knowledge creation, to meet changing stakeholder expectations. A Scale of Knowledge (SoK) Framework is proposed which links knowledge management and organisational activities to changing stakeholder expectations. The framework was informed by the knowledge management literature, as well as empirical work conducted via a single case study of a multi-site hospital organisation in Saudi Arabia. Eight in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers from across the organisation regarding current and future stakeholder expectations, organisational strategy/activities and knowledge management. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a hierarchical value map technique to identify activities that can produce further knowledge and consequently impact on how stakeholder expectations are met. The SoK Framework developed may be useful to practitioners as an analytical aid to determine if current organisational activities produce organisational knowledge which helps them meet (increasingly higher levels of) stakeholder expectations. The limitations of the research and avenues for future development of the proposed framework are discussed.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Stakeholders, knowledge creation, organisational knowledge, analytical aid

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29 Project Stakeholders' Perceptions of Sustainability: A Case Example From the Turkish Construction Industry

Authors: F. Heyecan Giritli, Gizem Akgül

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Because of the raising population of world; the need for houses, buildings and infrastructures are increasing rapidly. Energy and water consumption, waste production continues to increase. If this situation of resources continues, there will be a significant loss for next generations. Therefore, there are a lot of researches and solutions developed in the world. Also sustainability criteria are collected together by some countries to serve construction industry with certification systems. Sustainable building production process’s scope requires different path from traditional building production process. Moreover, the key objective of sustainable buildings is that the process includes whole life cycle duration. The process approaches from the decision of the project to the end of it; so the project team is needed from the beginning of the integrated project delivery model. Further more, by defining project team at the beginning of the project provides communication among the team members and defined problem solving and decision making methods. In this research includes the certification systems among the world to comprehend the head lines and assessment criteria. Therefore, it is understand that usually all green building criteria have the same contents. The aim of this research is to assess the sustainable project stakeholder’ perceptions in Turkish construction industry from the point of occupation, job title and years of experience. Therefore, a survey is made to assess the perceptions of each attendant. In Turkey, sustainability criteria are not clearly defined; on the other hand some regulations like waste management, energy efficiency are made by legal agencies. LEED certification system is the most popular system in Turkey that has attended and certificated. From the LEED official data, it’s understood that 308 project registered in Turkey. Therefore, LEED sustainability criteria are used in the survey. Head lines of LEED certification criteria; sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, material and resources, indoor environmental quality, innovation and regional priority are indicated to assess the perceptions of survey participants. Moreover, only surveying of criteria are not enough; so the equipment, methods, risks and benefits also considered.

Keywords: Turkey, Construction, Sustainability, Risk, Stakeholders, perceptions, benefit, LEED

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28 Stakeholders Views on Why Childhood Obesity is Rising in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adedini, B. A. Aina, P. U. Ogbo

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Child obesity is on the rise globally. According to the World Health Organization, the number of obese children would increase to 70 million by 2025 if no intervention is made. An increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst school children in Lagos State, Nigeria has been established but specific factors promoting its prevalence are unknown. This aim of this study is to identify the commonly expressed factor(s) responsible for the rise in prevalence of child overweight and obesity in Lagos, Nigeria. Five focus group discussions were conducted with different groups of stake-holders involved in child care, namely: parents, teachers and health workers. Participants were recruited using a purposive sampling method; a validated question guide was employed for the discussion sessions. The discussions were recorded, collated, analysed using Grounded theory to extract themes. Six themes emerged from the discussions as follows: Civilization and lifestyle imbalance resulting from busy work schedules of young mothers leading to adoption of westernized culture promoting preference for processed and fast food meals; insecurity and congestion of the state which discourages out-door activities; ignorance of the populace on the prevalence of child obesity in the state; inadequate educative and enlightenment programmes in schools and by the Nigerian government; myths on child care and body physique and societal perceptions of the children born into affluent homes. Some of the factors responsible for the rise in the prevalence of child obesity in Lagos, Nigeria have been identified. Preventive strategies to control the prevalence of obesity in children residing in Lagos state is considered for further studies.

Keywords: Childhood Obesity, Stakeholders, factors, Lagos state

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27 Law, Regulatory Transformations and Evolving Paradigm: The Case of Corporate Social Responsibility in India

Authors: Shuchi Bharti

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This article intends to analyse the transforming nature of state and corporate sector relationship in the light of evolving regulatory and institutional aspects pertaining to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in India. The focus is on evaluating the accounts of law and decentred discourses, relevant within the changing regulatory and institutional paradigm that substantially goes ahead of formal legal control of state towards corporate actors. At this vantage point, it is important to understand the state’s posture towards a changing scenario particularly as the tone is set by regulatory parameters pertaining to CSR to drive process of engagement with the stakeholders. The tripartite framework of the article intends to focus on finding on the vital interconnected aspects of the CSR provisions (Section 135) of The Companies Act 2013 (The Act), rise of new institutions and the emergence of the decentred regulatory space. Thus is earmarked in a neo-liberal paradigm; state is witnessed to perform a responsive function in engendering enhanced public role for the corporate sector. In this overarching framework the aim is to undertake a causal, exploratory and relational analysis of aspects pertaining law, regulation and institutional transformations. Firstly, focus is drawn on to investigate the relational facets of the advent of law and regulatory framework of CSR. Secondly, in the light of the historical evolution, a causal connection is attempted between globalization, emergence of international soft law framework and the Indian case of CSR. Finally, I look into how the new Companies Act mandates CSR expenditure vis- a -vis multiple parameters and guidelines.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholders, soft law, decentred regulation

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26 Intellectual Capital and Transparency in Universities: An Empirical Study

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Ángel Tejada, Agustín Baidez

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This paper shows the general perceptions of Spanish university stakeholders in relation to the university’s annual reports and the adequacy and potential of intellectual capital reporting. To this end, a questionnaire was designed and sent to every member of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities. It was thought that these participants would provide a good example of the attitude of university stakeholders since they represent the different social groups connected with universities. From the results of this study we are in the position of confirming the need for universities to offer information on intellectual capital in their accounting information model.

Keywords: Universities, Intellectual Capital, disclosure, Stakeholders, annual report

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25 An Appraisal of Mining Sector Corporate Social Responsibility Processes in Mhondoro-Ngezi, Zimbabwe

Authors: A. T. Muruviwa

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To-date, the discourse on corporate social responsibility (CSR) has primarily centred on the actions and inactions of corporations; hence, the dominant focus on CSR has been on impacts and outcomes. The obscuring effect of this approach has, arguably, resulted in the emergence of what may be termed a ‘Northern’ agenda on CSR theory and practice, in contrast to an emergency ‘Southern’ discourse, which appears to highlight the crucial issues of poverty reduction, infrastructure development and the broader questions of social provisioning and community empowerment. Some scholars have explicitly called for a CSR research agenda that focuses on the 'reciprocal duties' of the stakeholders in the CSR process rather than fixate on the actions and inactions of business. It is against the backdrop of these contestations that this study assesses the reciprocal relationships amongst CSR stakeholders in a Zimbabwean platinum mining town, with a view to demonstrating how such relationships – and the expectations and obligations embedded in them – impact on the success or failure of CSR initiatives. The existence of mutual relations between the corporation and its stakeholders signifies the successes of CSR processes and hence the outcomes. The company is Zimplats Mining Company; the community is Mhondoro-Ngezi, and the stakeholders are clearly identified in the study. The study utilised a triangulated design, with data collected using a mini survey, focus groups, in-depth interview and observation. The key findings are that the CSR process in the study community is dominated by the mining company. Despite the existence of a CSR framework that recognises government, local leaders and community members as legitimate stakeholders, there is little evidence of concrete contributions made by these stakeholders towards the realisation of CSR objectives. As a result, the community development process – in so far as CSR is concerned – fails to address the developmental concerns of the various stakeholders. On the basis of these findings, the study concludes that there is a crisis of reciprocity in the CSR process in Mhondoro-Ngezi, and that a situation where the conceptualisation of local development needs and the deployment of specific development tools seems to be driven by one stakeholder almost to the exclusion of all others, can only present contradictory development outcomes. The significance of this study is that it allows for the development of a more nuanced and robust CSR discourse. Rather than focusing on the corporate and stakeholder perspectives and outcomes of CSR initiatives, this study examines the CSR- development nexus by interrogating the idea of reciprocal responsibility as a sin qua non to CSR success. This analytical strategy and focus allow the researcher to gain a clear understanding of how stakeholder relationships and duties influence CSR processes and also the overall outcome. At a more practical level, the findings of the study should help to shape the policy on corporate community relationships with a view to enhancing the role of mining in development.

Keywords: Processes, Community Development, Stakeholders, reciprocity

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24 Relevant Stakeholders in Environmental Management Organization: The Case of Industries Três Rios/RJ

Authors: Beatriz dos Anjos Furtado, Marina Barreiros Lamim, Camila Avozani Zago, Julianne Alvim Milward-de-Azevedo, Luís Cláudio Meirelles de Medeiros

Abstract:

The intense process of economic acceleration, expansion of industrial activities and capitalism, combined with population growth, while promoting the development, bring environmental consequences and dynamics of locations. It can be seen that society is seeking to break with old paradigms of capitalist society, seeking to reconcile growth with sustainable development, with a change of mentality of the stakeholders of the production process (shareholders, employees, suppliers, customers, governments, and neighbors, groups citizens and the public in general). In this context, this research aims to map the stakeholders interested in environmental management in industries located in the city of Três Rios/RJ. The city of Três Rios is located in South-Central region of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil. Methodological resources used refer to descriptive and field research, whose nature is qualitative and quantitative. It is also of multicases studies in the study area, and the data collection occurred by means of semi-structured questionnaires and interviews with employees related to the environmental area of the industries located in Três Rios and registered at the Federation of Industries the State of Rio de Janeiro - FIRJAN in the version of 2013 and active in federal revenue. Through this research it observed, among other things, the stakeholders involved in the environmental management process of “Três Rios” industry respondents, and those responding to the demands of environmental management.

Keywords: Environmental Management, Industry, State, Stakeholders, customer

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23 Value Analysis Dashboard in Supply Chain Management, Real Case Study from Iran

Authors: Seyedehfatemeh Golrizgashti, Seyedali Dalil

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The goal of this paper is proposing a supply chain value dashboard in home appliance manufacturing firms to create more value for all stakeholders via balanced scorecard approach. Balanced scorecard is an effective approach that managers have used to evaluate supply chain performance in many fields but there is a lack of enough attention to all supply chain stakeholders, improving value creation and, defining correlation between value indicators and performance measuring quantitatively. In this research the key stakeholders in home appliance supply chain, value indicators with respect to create more value for stakeholders and the most important metrics to evaluate supply chain value performance based on balanced scorecard approach have been selected via literature review. The most important indicators based on expert’s judgment acquired by in survey focused on creating more value for. Structural equation modelling has been used to disclose relations between value indicators and balanced scorecard metrics. The important result of this research is identifying effective value dashboard to create more value for all stakeholders in the supply chain via balanced scorecard approach and based on an empirical study covering ten home appliance manufacturing firms in Iran. Home appliance manufacturing firms can increase their stakeholder's satisfaction by using this value dashboard.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Value, Stakeholders, Balanced Scorecard, Structural modeling

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22 The Relational Approach under the Angle of the CSR

Authors: Fatima El Kandoussi, Hind Benouakrim, Afafe El Amrani El Hassani

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CSR in the relational approach is imposed today as a matter of concerns lighthouses in the academic environment and managerial. This study presents the issues of the CSR dimension in the field of relationship marketing. This exploratory research was conducted with two groups of Moroccan enterprises having the label of the CSR /CGEM. It presents a better understanding of the approaches taken by the companies interviewed in a CSR and contributed to understand the reasons that lead them to adopt the process of CSR and also allows explaining how these enterprises maintain their relationship with the most important customers in a context of CSR.

Keywords: Business, Relationship Marketing, CSR, Stakeholders

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21 The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity: Valuing Ecotourism-Local Perspectives to Global Discourses-Stakeholders’ Analysis

Authors: Diptimayee Nayak

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Ecotourism has been recognised as a popular component of alternative tourism, which claims to guard host local environment and economy. This concept of ecological tourism (eco-tourism) has become more meaningful in evaluating the recreational function and services of any pristine ecosystem in context of ‘The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity (TEEB)’. This ecotourism is said to be a local solution to the global problem of conserving ecosystems and optimising the utilisations of their services. This paper takes a case of recreational services of an Indian protected area ecosystems ‘Bhitarakanika mangrove protected area’ discussing how ecotourism is functioning taking the perspectives of different stakeholders. Specific stakeholders are taken for analysis, viz., tourists and local people, as they are believed to be the major beneficiaries of ecotourism. The stakeholders’ analysis is evaluated on the basis of travel cost techniques (by using truncated Poisson distribution model) for tourists and descriptive and analytical tools for local people. The evaluation of stakeholders’ analysis of ecotourism has gained its impetus after the formulation of Ecotourism guidelines by the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF), Government of India. The paper concludes that ecotourism issues and challenges are site-specific and region-specific; without critically focussing challenges of ecotourism faced at local level the discourses of ecotourism at global level cannot be tackled. Mere integration and replication of policies at global level to be followed at local level will not be successful (top down policies). Rather mainstreaming the decision making process at local level with the global policy stature helps to solve global issues to a bigger extent (bottom up).

Keywords: Ecotourism, ecosystem services, Economic valuation, Stakeholders, TEEB, travel cost techniques

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20 Ata-Manobo Tribe as Stakeholders in the Making of School Improvement Plan: Basis for Policy Recommendation

Authors: Diobein C. Flores

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The populace in Municipality of Talaingod is composed of Ata-Manobo. The said lumads enrich their culture, orientation and self because the place is a hive of their tribe. In lieu, the study would analyze the participation of the Ata-Manobo in the making of school improvement plan (SIP). Thus, it recommends alternative policy options that would help strengthen their involvement. The school stakeholders-Ata Manobo representatives from students, parent-teacher association, alumni, basic sector, municipal/barangay government unit, civic/social organizations and other government various agencies are the key participants in this study. The research used descriptive design. The responses of the representatives were analyzed through the criteria involved in employing Rational Model. The technical dimension, administrative, political acceptability and economic are the criteria in revealing decision. The policy alternative option 3- recommends to formulate policy for the purpose of capacitating stakeholders or governing council members in the making of SIP was pointed out as the most preferred option. This could strengthen the participation among Ata-Manobo as stakeholders in planning. Hence, the formulation alternative policy- capacitating stakeholders in the crafting of school improvement plan is recommended. The suggested initiative would assist the Department of Education in forging consensus across neighborhoods during the making of SIP. The appropriation of the definite budget to be used during the conduct of capability building activities is also suggested. Training-workshops are identified as possible intervention to ensure that the stakeholders are equipped with necessary knowledge and skills needed in the making of SIP. Indeed, the equal opportunities for all stakeholders regardless of their life circumstances must be noted. With the belief, people must be empowered to take advantage and spearhead progress in the making of SIP.

Keywords: Stakeholders, Philippines, Ata-Manobo Tribe, school improvement plan, Municipality of Talaingod

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19 Power Asymmetry and Major Corporate Social Responsibility Projects in Mhondoro-Ngezi District, Zimbabwe

Authors: A. T. Muruviwa

Abstract:

Empirical studies of the current CSR agenda have been dominated by literature from the North at the expense of the nations from the South where most TNCs are located. Therefore, owing to the limitations of the current discourse that is dominated by Western ideas such as voluntarism, philanthropy, business case and economic gains, scholars have been calling for a new CSR agenda that is South-centred and addresses the needs of developing nations. The development theme has dominated in the recent literature as scholars concerned with the relationship between business and society have tried to understand its relationship with CSR. Despite a plethora of literature on the roles of corporations in local communities and the impact of CSR initiatives, there is lack of adequate empirical evidence to help us understand the nexus between CSR and development. For all the claims made about the positive and negative consequences of CSR, there is surprisingly little information about the outcomes it delivers. This study is a response to these claims made about the developmental aspect of CSR in developing countries. It offers some empirical bases for assessing the major CSR projects that have been fulfilled by a major mining company, Zimplats in Mhondoro-Ngezi Zimbabwe. The neo-liberal idea of capitalism and market dominations has empowered TNCs to stamp their authority in the developing countries. TNCs have made their mark in developing nations as they stamp their global private authority, rivalling or implicitly challenging the state in many functions. This dominance of corporate power raises great concerns over their tendencies of abuses in terms of environmental, social and human rights concerns as well as how to make them increasingly accountable. The hegemonic power of TNCs in the developing countries has had a tremendous impact on the overall CSR practices. While TNCs are key drivers of globalization they may be acting responsibly in their Global Northern home countries where there is a combination of legal mechanisms and the fear of civil society activism associated with corporate scandals. Using a triangulated approach in which both qualitative and quantitative methods were used the study found out that most CSR projects in Zimbabwe are dominated and directed by Zimplats because of the power it possesses. Most of the major CSR projects are beneficial to the mining company as they serve the business plans of the mining company. What was deduced from the study is that the infrastructural development initiatives by Zimplats confirm that CSR is a tool to advance business obligations. This shows that although proponents of CSR might claim that business has a mandate for social obligations to society, we need not to forget the dominant idea that the primary function of CSR is to enhance the firm’s profitability.

Keywords: Stakeholders, reciprocity, projects, hegemonic power

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18 Engineering Graduates' Employability in the Eyes of Stakeholders: Based on the Survey to 6 Universities and 20 Enterprises in China

Authors: Cui Jun

Abstract:

By surveying 536 engineering graduates and 232 employers of 6 research-based universities and 20 enterprises in China, this research aims to reveal the perceptions and expectations of engineering curriculum and graduates’ employability by stakeholders. Variation was seen by university and sometimes by engineering major. Overall, however, the satisfaction with courses that promote employability is not high by graduates, and there is a gap between employers’ satisfaction and their expectation. Importantly, students’ satisfaction degree of the curricula enhancing employability and employers’ satisfaction degree of graduates’ employability are significantly lower than employers’ expectation value. Therefore, engineering curriculum reform must take the stakeholders’ demand into account and integrate employability into curricula. These findings provide the empirical basis for the curriculum reform of the National Excellent Engineers Education Program (NE3P) in China.

Keywords: Engineering Education, Survey, Stakeholders, employability of graduates

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17 Mother Tounge Based Multilingual Education Policy: Voices of Two Cities, 'The Voice of Laguna'

Authors: Cecilia Velasco

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This study was undertaken to find out the perceived efficiency, appropriateness effectiveness, acceptability and relevance, if at all such exist, of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Policy under the K-12 Curriculum, as seen by the stakeholders who are directly affected by this policy. The researcher believed that it is right and fitting to get the views and opinions of the people directly involved and/or concerned about this education policy. The results of the study will hopefully guide lawmakers and/or policymakers to fine-tune educational policy or policies. The locale of the study was the DepEd schools in Laguna, (San Pablo City and other nearby cities). The subjects of the study were the teachers (first phase) from the public schools of Department of Education (San Pablo City), in particular and parents (second phase) from nearby cities who are the direct stakeholders of this Policy. To determine the perception of the teachers toward Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Policy; its acceptability, efficiency, appropriateness, effectiveness and relevance, factor analysis was used to refine the instrument (questionnaire). To find out the significant difference between the perceptions of the primary and intermediate group of teachers, including those who teach mother tongue and non-mother tongue subjects, t-test of difference between means was employed.

Keywords: Stakeholders, DepEd, K12 curriculum, MTBMLE

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16 The Role of General Councils in the Supervision of the Organizational Performance of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Rodrigo T. Lourenço, Margarida Mano

Abstract:

Higher Education Institutions (HEI), and other levels of Education, face important challenges. One of the most relevant one is the ability to adapt to a society that is changing over time, whilst guarantying levels of training that do not merely react to such changes. Thus, interacting with society, particularly with surrounding communities and key stakeholders, has become an essential requirement for the sustainability of these institutions. One of the formal mechanisms implemented in European educational institutions has been the design of organizational structures that include a top governance body sharing its constitution with both internal members, students and external members. Such frame holds the core mission of involving communities in the governance of educational institutions, assuming, both strategic decision-making functions, with the approval of the institutions’ strategic plans, and a supervision function, approved by activity reports. It also plays an essential role in the life of institutions by holding the responsibility of electing its top executives. In Portugal, it has been almost a decade since the publication of RJIES, the legal framework of Higher Education, such bodies being designated by General Councils. Thus, one may highlight that there has been a better understanding of the operative process of these bodies, as well as their added value to the education system. It has also been possible to analyse the extent to which their core mission has been fulfilled and to understand its growing relevance, particularly regarding the autonomy of institutions. This article aims to contribute to this theme by presenting the results of a study on the role of these bodies in the governance of Public Portuguese HEI, with a special focus on the supervisory competence of organizational performance. Through questionnaires made to board members and interviews with chairpersons of the bodies and top managers of the institutions, it was possible to conclude that there is a high concern with the connections to the external environment. However, regarding organizational performance and the role of the Council as a supervisor of that performance, the activity of the bodies has fallen short of what would be expected. Several reasons may be identified. It is important to emphasize the importance of the profile of the external members and the relationship between the organ’s standard functioning and the election of the head of the institution.

Keywords: Governance, supervision, Performance, Stakeholders

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15 Monitoring and Evaluation in Community-Based Tourism: An Analysis and Model

Authors: Ivan Gunass Govender, Andrea Giampiccoli

Abstract:

A developmental state should use community engagement to facilitate socio-economic development for disadvantaged groups and individual members of society through empowerment, social justice, sustainability, and self-reliance. In this regard, community-based tourism (CBT) as a growing market should be an indigenous effort aided by external facilitation. Since this form of tourism presents its own preconditions, characteristics, and challenges, it could be guided by higher education institutions engagement. In particular, the facilitation should not only serve to assist the community members to reach their own goals; but rather also focus on learning through knowledge creation and sharing with the engagement of higher education institutions. While the increased relevance of CBT has produced various CBT manuals (or handbooks/guidelines) documents aimed to ‘teach’ and assist various entities in CBT development, this research aims to analyse the current monitoring & evaluation (M&E) manuals and thereafter, propose an M&E model for CBT. It is important to mention that all too often effective monitoring is seldom carried out thus risking the long-term sustainability and improvement of the CBT ventures. Therefore, the proposed model will also consider some inputs external to the tourism field, but in relation to local economic development (LED) matters from the previously proposed development monitoring and evaluation system framework. M&E should be seen as fundamental components of any CBT initiative, and the whole CBT intervention should be evaluated. In this context, M&E in CBT should go beyond strict ‘numerical’ economic matters and should be understood in a holistic development. In addition, M&E in CBT should not consider issues in various ‘compartments’ such as tourists, tourism attractions, CBT owners/participants, and stakeholder engagement but as interdependent components of a macro-ecosystem. Finally, the external facilitation process should be structured in a way to promote community self-reliance in both the intervention and the M&E process. The research will attempt to propose an M&E model for CBT so as to enhance the CBT possibilities of long-term growth and success through effective collaborations with key stakeholders.

Keywords: monitoring and evaluation, Stakeholders, community-based tourism, community-engagement

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14 An Analysis on Community Based Heritage Tourism: A Resource for a Small Community in Rural County Clare, Ireland

Authors: Marie Taylor, Catriona Murphy

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The aim of this paper is to identify the factors of success in community based heritage tourism initiatives. Heritage and community are central to many tourism initiatives with heritage tourism having the potential to act as a catalyst for community development. This paper presents the findings of research that examined the relationship between heritage tourism and community development. The findings recognised that heritage tourism had economic, social and cultural benefits for a community as well as a role in strengthening concepts such as sense of identity, place, and authenticity. In addition, this paper proposes an assessment framework for sustainable community based heritage tourism to identify factors and contextual influences involved in their success or failure. In evaluating the sustainability of such initiatives, a number of issues are investigated including the continued role of stakeholders, the role of funding, the influence of collaboration and the changing role of rural development and its impact on community engagement. The research is descriptive, evaluative and explanatory research, exploring and analysing issues such as the development of community structures in community based heritage tourism. Thus, it will contribute to the development of potential tourism and community development policies and strategies at a local, national and international level. An interpretative and inductive approach is utilised, and a mixed method approach followed as it encapsulates the best of quantitative and qualitative research methods. The case studies focus on social enterprises in relation to tourism and community based tourism cooperatives as there are limited study and knowledge of these. Consequently, this research will contribute to the discourse on community based heritage tourism as an aspect of community development.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, Collaboration, Stakeholders, community-based heritage tourism

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13 Identification and Classification of Stakeholders in the Transition to 3D Cadastre

Authors: Qiaowen Lin

Abstract:

The 3D cadastre is an inevitable choice to meet the needs of real cadastral management. Nowadays, more attention is given to the technical aspects of 3D cadastre, resulting in the imbalance within this field. To fulfill this research gap, the stakeholder, which has been regarded as the determining factor in cadastral change has been studied. Delphi method, Michael rating, and stakeholder mapping are used to identify and classify the stakeholders in 3D cadastre. It is concluded that the project managers should pay more attention to the interesting appeal of the key stakeholders and different coping strategies should be adopted to facilitate the transition to 3D cadastre.

Keywords: Cadastre, Stakeholders, three dimension, transtion

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12 Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Tourism Development in Papua New Guinea

Authors: Zainab Olabisi Tairu

Abstract:

Strategic partnerships are a core requirement in delivering sustainable tourism for development in developing nations like Papua New Guinea. This paper unveils the strategic partnerships for sustainable tourism development in Papua New Guinea. Much emphasis is made among tourism stakeholders, on the importance of strategic partnership and positioning in developing sustainable tourism development. This paper engages stakeholders’ ecotourism differentiation and power relations in the discussion of the paper through interviews and observations with tourism stakeholders in Papua New Guinea. Collaborative approaches in terms of sustaining the tourism industry, having a milestone of achieved plans, are needed for tourism growth and development. This paper adds a new insight to the body of knowledge on stakeholders’ identification, formation, power relations and an integrated approach to successful tourism development. In order to achieve responsible tourism planning and management outcomes, partnerships must be holistic in perspective and based on sustainable development principles.

Keywords: Sustainable Tourism, Partnerships, Stakeholders, Papua New Guinea

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11 Obstacles and Ways-Forward to Upgrading Nigeria Basic Nursing Schools: A Survey of Perception of Teaching Hospitals’ Nurse Trainers and Stakeholders

Authors: Chijioke Oliver Nwodoh, Jonah Ikechukwu Eze, Loretta Chika Ukwuaba, Ifeoma Ndubuisi, Ada Carol Nwaneri, Ijeoma Lewechi Okoronkwo

Abstract:

Presence of nursing workforce with unequal qualification and status in Nigeria has undermined the growth of nursing profession in the country. Upgrading of the existing basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria is a way-forward to solving this inequality problem and Nigeria teaching hospitals are in vantage position for this project due to the already existing supportive structure and manpower in those hospitals. What the nurse trainers and the stakeholders of the teaching hospitals may hold for or against the upgrading is a determining factor for the upgrading project, but that is not clear and has not been investigated in Nigeria. The study investigated the perception of nurse trainers and stakeholders of teaching hospitals in Enugu State of Nigeria on the obstacles and ways-forward to upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria. The study specifically elicited what the subjects may view as obstacles to upgrading basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria and ascertained their suggestions on the possible ways of overcoming the obstacles. By utilizing cross-sectional descriptive design and a purposive sampling procedure, 78 accessible subjects out of a total population of 87 were used for the study. The generated data from the subjects were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and mean for the research questions and Pearson’s chi-square for the hypotheses, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20.0. The result showed that lack of extant policy, fund, and disunity among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the main obstacles to the upgrading. However, the respondents did not see items like: stakeholders and nurse trainers of basic and post-basic schools of nursing; fear of admitting and producing poor quality nurses; and so forth, as obstacles to the upgrading project. Institution of the upgrading policy by Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria, funding, awareness creation for the upgrading and unison among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the major possible ways to overcome the obstacles. The difference in the subjects’ perceptions between the two hospitals was found to be statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). It is recommended that the policy makers and stakeholders of nursing in Nigeria should unite and liaise with Federal Ministries of Health and Education for modalities and actualization of upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Perception, Stakeholders, teaching hospital, obstacles, nurse trainers, upgrading basic nursing schools, ways-forward

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10 Analysis of User Complaints and Preferences by Conducting User Surveys to Ascertain the Need for Change in Current Design of Helmets

Authors: Pratham Baheti, Rohan Sanghi, Aditya Gupta

Abstract:

In the largely populated city of New Delhi, India, there are a lot of people that travel by two-wheelers. Majority of the people wear helmets while traveling and know how important it is to wear helmets for their safety. Still, the number of deaths because of road accidents involving two-wheelers is significant. We had conducted a survey by traveling within and in the outskirts of Delhi so as to see the variation in data and in the opinion of people towards helmet being a safety device rather than to escape the traffic police. We conducted a survey at traffic junctions and crossings of all the stakeholders and collected feedback on the Helmet scenario in India. According to the survey, the possible reason for these deaths is that the people, being unaware of helmet safety standards (ISI standards for helmets), buy helmets with fake ISI mark from unauthorized helmet sellers for a cheap price. Also, for the people who do not wear a helmet at all or wear a helmet just because it is a law, the reasons that they do not want to wear a helmet is heavyweight, lack of ventilation, inconvenience due to a strap, and hair problems. To address all these problems, we are designing a helmet with reduced weight and also working on the Helmet’s retention system and ventilation. We plan to provide this product at a cheap cost whilst maintaining the ISI standards so that a larger section of the population would be able to afford the helmet.

Keywords: Safety, Survey, Stakeholders, helmet, ISI marks

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9 Corporate Social Responsibility in the Libyan Commercial Banks: Reality and Issues

Authors: Khalid Alshaikh

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Libya has recently gained momentum, especially with the rise of the social issues ensued by the recent war. CSR is a new organisational culture designing its features and route within the Libyan financial institutions. Now, both the public and private banks invest in this construct trusting that its powers are capable of improving the economic, social and environmental problems the conflict has created. On the other hand, the Libyan commercial banks recognise the benefits of utilising CSR to entice investors and ensure their continuations in the national and international markets. Nevertheless, as a new concept, CSR necessitates an in-depth exploration and analysis to help its transition from the margins of religion to the mainstream of society and businesses. This can assist in constructing its activities to bring about change nation-wide. Therefore, this paper intends to explore the current definitions attached to this term through tracing back its historical beginnings. Then, it investigates its trends both in the public and private banks to identify where its sustainable development materialises. Lastly, it seeks to understand the key challenges that obscure its success in the Libyan environment. The research methodology used both public and private banks as case study and qualitative research to interview ten Board of Directors (BoDs) and eleven Chief Executive Managers (CEOs) to discover how CSR is defined and the core CSR activities practiced by the Libyan Commercial Banks (LCBs) and the key constraints that CSR faces and make it unsuccessful. The findings suggest that CSR is still influenced by the power of religion. Nevertheless, the Islamic perspective is more consistent with the social contract concept of CSR. The LCBs do not solely focus on the economic side of maximizing profits, but also concentrate on its morality. The issue is that CSR activities are not enough to achieve good charity publicly and needs strategies to address major social issues. Moreover, shareholders do not support CSR activities. Their argument is that the only social responsibility of businesses is to maximize profits, while the government should deal with the existing social issues. Finally, although the LCBs endeavour to embed CSR in their organisational culture, it is still important that different stakeholders need to do much more to entrench this construct through their core functions. The Central bank of Libya needs also to boost its standing to be more influential and ensure that the right discussions about CSR happen with the right stakeholders involved.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholders, private banks, public banks

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8 Parents and Stakeholders’ Perspectives on Early Reading Intervention Implemented as a Curriculum for Children with Learning Disabilities

Authors: Bander Mohayya Alotaibi

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The valuable partnerships between parents and teachers may develop positive and effective interactions between home and school. This will help these stakeholders share information and resources regarding student academics during ongoing interactions. Thus, partnerships will build a solid foundation for both families and schools to help children succeed in school. Parental involvement can be seen as an effective tool that can change homes and communities and not just schools’ systems. Seeking parents and stakeholders’ attitudes toward learning and learners can help schools design a curriculum. Subsequently, this information can be used to find ways to help improve the academic performance of students, especially in low performing schools. There may be some conflicts when designing curriculum. In addition, designing curriculum might bring more educational expectations to all the sides. There is a lack of research that targets the specific attitude of parents toward specific concepts on curriculum contents. More research is needed to study the perspective that parents of children with learning disabilities (LD) have regarding early reading curriculum. Parents and stakeholders’ perspectives on early reading intervention implemented as a curriculum for children with LD was studied through an advanced quantitative research. The purpose of this study seeks to understand stakeholders and parents’ perspectives of key concepts and essential early reading skills that impact the design of curriculum that will serve as an intervention for early struggler readers who have LD. Those concepts or stages include phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency as well as strategies used in house by parents. A survey instrument was used to gather the data. Participants were recruited through 29 schools and districts of the metropolitan area of the northern part of Saudi Arabia. Participants were stakeholders including parents of children with learning disability. Data were collected using distribution of paper and pen survey to schools. Psychometric properties of the instrument were evaluated for the validity and reliability of the survey; face validity, content validity, and construct validity including an Exploratory Factor Analysis were used to shape and reevaluate the structure of the instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) used to find differences between the variables. The study reported the results of the perspectives of stakeholders toward reading strategies, phonics, phonological awareness, and reading fluency. Also, suggestions and limitations are discussed.

Keywords: Curriculum, Intervention, Perspectives, Learning disability, Stakeholders, Parents, early reading

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