Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Stabilization Related Abstracts

32 The Effects of Inulin on the Stabilization and Stevioside as Sugar-Replacer of Sourcherry Juice-Milk Mixture

Authors: S. Abbasi, S. Teimouri

Abstract:

Milk-fruit juice mixture is a type of soft drinks, which can be produced by mixing milk with pieces of fruits, fruit juices, or fruit juices concentrates. The major problem of these products, mainly the acidic ones, is phase separation which occurs during formulation and storage due to the aggregation of caseins at low pH Short-chain inulin (CLR), long-chain inulin (TEX), native inulin (IQ) and Long-chain inulin (TEX) and short-chain inulin (CLR) combined in different proportions (2o:80, 50:50, and 80:20) were added (2-10 %) to sourcherry juice-milk mixture and their stabilization mechanisms were studied with using rheological and microstructural observations. Stevioside as a bio-sweetener and sugar-replacer was added at last step. Finally, sensory analyses were taken place on stabilized samples. According to the findings, TEX stabilized the mixture at concentration of 8%. MIX and IQ reduced phase separation at high concentration but had not complete effect on stabilization. CLR did not effect on stabilization. Rheological changes and inulin aggregates formation were not observed in CLR samples during the one month storage period. However TEX, MIX and IQ samples formed inulin aggregates and became more thixotropic, elastic and increased the viscosity of mixture. The rate of the inulin aggregates formation and viscosity increasing was in the following order TEX > MIX > IQ. Consequently the mixture which stabilized with inulin and sweetened with stevioside had the prebiotic properties which may suggest to diabetic patients and children.

Keywords: Stabilization, prebiotic, inulin, casein, stevioside

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
31 New Evaluation Methodology for Solidification Product Durability Assessment

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova, Jana Kosikova, Jakub Hodul, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

This paper deals with a proposal of a new methodology for durability assessment of solidification product for its safe further use. The new methodology is based on a review of the current state of assessment of treated waste in Czech Republic and abroad. The aim of the paper is to propose an optimal evaluation methodology for verifying properties of solidification product to ensure its safe further use in building industry.

Keywords: Durability, Waste, Stabilization, Solidification

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
30 Broadcasting Stabilization for Dynamical Multi-Agent Systems

Authors: Tae Kwon Ha, Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon

Abstract:

This paper deals with a stabilization problem for multi-agent systems, when all agents in a multi-agent system receive the same broadcasting control signal and the controller can measure not each agent output but the sum of all agent outputs. It is analytically shown that when the sum of all agent outputs is bounded with a certain broadcasting controller for a given reference, each agent output is separately bounded:stabilization of the sum of agent outputs always results in the stability of every agent output. A numerical example is presented to illustrate our theoretic findings in this paper.

Keywords: Stabilization, multi-agent system, transfer function, broadcasting control

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
29 Observation and Study of Landslides Affecting the Tangier: Oued Rmel Motorway Segment

Authors: S. Houssaini, L. Bahi

Abstract:

The motorway segment between Tangier and Oued R’mel has experienced, since the beginning of building works, significant instability and landslides linked to a number of geological, hydrogeological and geothermic factors affecting the different formations. The landslides observed are not fully understood, despite many studies conducted on this segment. This study aims at producing new methods to better explain the phenomena behind the landslides, taking into account the geotechnical and geothermic contexts. This analysis builds up on previous studies and geotechnical data collected in the field. The final body of data collected shall be processed through the Plaxis software for a better and customizable view of the landslide problems in the area, which will help to find solutions and stabilize land in the area.

Keywords: Modeling, Landslides, Risk, Stabilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
28 FACTS Based Stabilization for Smart Grid Applications

Authors: Foad H. Gandoman, Adel. M. Sharaf

Abstract:

Nowadays, Photovoltaic-PV Farms/ Parks and large PV-Smart Grid Interface Schemes are emerging and commonly utilized in Renewable Energy distributed generation. However, PV-hybrid-Dc-Ac Schemes using interface power electronic converters usually has negative impact on power quality and stabilization of modern electrical network under load excursions and network fault conditions in smart grid. Consequently, robust FACTS based interface schemes are required to ensure efficient energy utilization and stabilization of bus voltages as well as limiting switching/fault onrush current condition. FACTS devices are also used in smart grid-Battery Interface and Storage Schemes with PV-Battery Storage hybrid systems as an elegant alternative to renewable energy utilization with backup battery storage for electric utility energy and demand side management to provide needed energy and power capacity under heavy load conditions. The paper presents a robust interface PV-Li-Ion Battery Storage Interface Scheme for Distribution/Utilization Low Voltage Interface using FACTS stabilization enhancement and dynamic maximum PV power tracking controllers. Digital simulation and validation of the proposed scheme is done using MATLAB/Simulink software environment for Low Voltage- Distribution/Utilization system feeding a hybrid Linear-Motorized inrush and nonlinear type loads from a DC-AC Interface VSC-6-pulse Inverter Fed from the PV Park/Farm with a back-up Li-Ion Storage Battery.

Keywords: Smart Grid, Stabilization, AC FACTS, PV-battery storage, Switched Filter-Compensation (SFC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
27 Pro-Ecological Antioxidants for Polymeric Composites

Authors: Masek A., Zaborski M.

Abstract:

In our studies, we propose the use of natural, pro-ecological substances such as polyphenols to protect polymers against ageing. In our studies, we plan to focus on the following compounds: polyphenols, gallic acid esters, flavonoides, carotenoids, curcumin and its derivatives, vitamin A, tocochromanoles, betalain. Phyto-compounds will be selected on the basis of available literature and our preliminary studies. So, we will select compounds with various contents of hydroxyl groups and colored substances capable of participating in color oxidation processes. The natural antioxidants which were added to ethylene-octene elastomer (polyolefin elastomer-Engage) and ethylene-nonbornene (TOPAS). Composites were then subjected to numerous ageing: weathering (climat of Floryda), UV (0,7 W/m2), thermo-oxidation ageing (1000C/10days) and thermal-shock (-600C/+1000C) as a function of the aging time. The efficiency of used anti-ageing agents was checked on the base of the changes after the degradation in deformation energy (tensile strength and elongation at the break), cross-link density, color (parameters L,a,b) and values of carbonyl index (based on the spectrum of infra red spectroscopy), OIT (induction oxygen time as performed in using differential scanning calorimeter -DSC) of the vulcanizates. Therefore polyphenols are considered to be the best stabilisers for polymeric composites against to oxidation processes.

Keywords: Polymers, Ageing, Oxidation, Stabilization, Flavonoids

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26 Proecological Antioxidants for Stabilisation of Polymeric Composites

Authors: M. Zaborski, A. Masek

Abstract:

Electrochemical oxidation of dodecyl gallate (lauryl gallate), the main monomer flavanol found in green tea, was investigated on platinum electrodes using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse (DPV) methods. The rate constant, electron transfer coefficient and diffusion coefficients were determined for dodecyl gallate electrochemical oxidation. The oxidation mechanism proceeds in sequential steps related to the hydroxyl groups in the aromatic ring of dodecyl gallate. Confirmed antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate verified its use in polymers as an environment-friendly stabiliser to improve the resistance to aging of the elastomeric materials. Based on the energy change of the deformation, cross-linking density and time of the oxygen induction with the TG method, we confirmed the high antioxidant activity of lauryl gallate in polymers. Moreover, the research on biodegradation confirmed the environment-friendly influence of the antioxidant by increasing the susceptibility of the elastomeric materials to disintegration by mildew mushrooms.

Keywords: Polymers, Ageing, Stabilization, Flavonoids

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
25 Stabilization of Expansive Soils with Polypropylene Fiber

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: Stabilization, polypropylene fiber, expansive soils, swelling percent

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
24 Influence of Synergistic/Antagonistic Mixtures of Oligomeric Stabilizers on the Biodegradation of γ-Sterilized Polyolefins

Authors: Sameh A. S. Thabit Alariqi

Abstract:

Our previous studies aimed to investigate the biodegradation of γ-sterilized polyolefins in composting and microbial culture environments at different doses and γ-dose rates. It was concluded from the previous studies that the pretreatment of γ-irradiation can accelerate the biodegradation of neat polymer matrix in biotic conditions significantly. A similar work was carried out to study the stabilization of γ-sterilized polyolefins using different mixtures of stabilizers which are approved for food-contact applications. Ethylene-propylene (EP) copolymer has been melt-mixed with hindered amine stabilizers (HAS), phenolic antioxidants and hydroperoxide decomposers. Results were discussed by comparing the stabilizing efficiency, combination and consumption of stabilizers and the synergistic and antagonistic effects was explained through the interaction between the stabilizers. In this attempt, we have aimed to study the influence of the synergistic and antagonistic mixtures of oligomeric stabilizers on the biodegradation of the γ-irradiated polyolefins in composting and microbial culture. Neat and stabilized films of EP copolymer irradiated under γ-radiation and incubated in compost and fungal culture environments. The changes in functional groups, surface morphology, mechanical properties and intrinsic viscosity in polymer chains were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM, instron, and viscometric measurements respectively. Results were discussed by comparing the effect of different stabilizers, stabilizers mixtures on the biodegradation of the γ-irradiated polyolefins. It was found that the biodegradation significantly depends on the components of stabilization system, mobility, interaction, and consumption of stabilizers.

Keywords: biodegradation, polyolefins, Stabilization, γ-irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
23 A Highly Efficient Broadcast Algorithm for Computer Networks

Authors: Ganesh Nandakumaran, Mehmet Karaata

Abstract:

A wave is a distributed execution, often made up of a broadcast phase followed by a feedback phase, requiring the participation of all the system processes before a particular event called decision is taken. Wave algorithms with one initiator such as the 1-wave algorithm have been shown to be very efficient for broadcasting messages in tree networks. Extensions of this algorithm broadcasting a sequence of waves using a single initiator have been implemented in algorithms such as the m-wave algorithm. However as the network size increases, having a single initiator adversely affects the message delivery times to nodes further away from the initiator. As a remedy, broadcast waves can be allowed to be initiated by multiple initiator nodes distributed across the network to reduce the completion time of broadcasts. These waves initiated by one or more initiator processes form a collection of waves covering the entire network. Solutions to global-snapshots, distributed broadcast and various synchronization problems can be solved efficiently using waves with multiple concurrent initiators. In this paper, we propose the first stabilizing multi-wave sequence algorithm implementing waves started by multiple initiator processes such that every process in the network receives at least one sequence of broadcasts. Due to being stabilizing, the proposed algorithm can withstand transient faults and do not require initialization. We view a fault as a transient fault if it perturbs the configuration of the system but not its program.

Keywords: Distributed Computing, Stabilization, multi-node broadcast, propagation of information with feedback and cleaning (PFC), wave algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
22 Modeling of Compaction Curves for CCA-Cement Stabilized Lateritic Soils

Authors: A. Jimoh, O. Ahmed Apampa, Yinusa

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop an appropriate model for predicting the compaction behavior of lateritic soils and corn cob ash (CCA) stabilized lateritic soils. This was done by first adopting an equation earlier developed for fine-grained soils and subsequent adaptation by others and extending it to modified lateritic soil through the introduction of alpha and beta parameters which are polynomial functions of the CCA binder input. The polynomial equations were determined with MATLAB R2011 curve fitting tool, while the alpha and beta parameters were determined by standard linear programming techniques using the Solver function of Microsoft Excel 2010. The model so developed was a good fit with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.86. The paper concludes that it is possible to determine the optimum moisture content and the maximum dry density of CCA stabilized soils from the compaction test of the unmodified soil, and recommends that this procedure is extended to other binder stabilized lateritic soils to facilitate quick decision making in roadworks.

Keywords: Stabilization, corn cob ash, lateritic soil, compaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
21 The Effect of Polypropylene Fiber in the Stabilization of Expansive Soils

Authors: Ali Sinan Soğancı

Abstract:

Expansive soils are often encountered in many parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid fields. Such kind of soils, generally including active clay minerals in low water content, enlarge in volume by absorbing the water through the surface and cause a great harm to the light structures such as channel coating, roads and airports. The expansive soils were encountered on the path of Apa-Hotamış conveyance channel belonging to the State Hydraulic Works in the region of Konya. In the research done in this area, it is predicted that the soil has a swollen nature and the soil should be filled with proper granular equipment by digging the ground to 50-60 cm. In this study, for purpose of helping the other research to be done in the same area, it is thought that instead of replacing swollen soil with the granular soil, by stabilizing it with polypropylene fiber and using it its original place decreases effect of swelling percent, in this way the cost will be decreased. Therefore, a laboratory tests were conducted to study the effects of polypropylene fiber on swelling characteristics of expansive soil. Test results indicated that inclusion of fiber reduced swell percent of expansive soil. As the fiber content increased, the unconfined compressive strength was increased. Finally, it can be say that stabilization of expansive soils with polypropylene fiber is an effective method.

Keywords: Stabilization, polypropylene fiber, expansive soils, swelling percent

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
20 Stabilization of Expansive Soils by Additions Binders Hydraulic Lime and Cement

Authors: Kherafa Abdennasser

Abstract:

A literature review was conducted to gather as much information. Concerns the phenomenon of swelling clays, as well as a presentation of some bibliographic findings on factors affecting the swelling potential. Citing the various techniques of stabilization of clays as well as a presentation of some literature results on the stabilization of swelling. Then a characterization of the materials was carried out at basic bibliographic study. These are standard mechanical geotechnical testing. Simple practical, economical and efficient to minimize the phenomenon swelling.

Keywords: cement, lime, Stabilization, expansive soils, oedometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
19 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdelazim Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla

Abstract:

Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: Protection, rock, Stabilization, slope, Makkah

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
18 Review in Role of Geotextile on Soil Improvement

Authors: Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi, Mohammadreza Golhashem, Sandra Ghavam Shirazi

Abstract:

Nowadays by development of construction in modern world new techniques are introduced to civil engineering. As for geotechnical problems and demands of soil improvement, engineers are searching for decisive methods to ensure the safety of projects. As a popular material Geotextiles are used in almost every aspect of civil engineering. There is a vast variety of geotextiles and each kind has their own unique characteristics therefor to select the proper geotextile for a specific project their properties must be carefully examined. This review gathers and evaluates different parameters of geotextiles that are used in geotechnical field.

Keywords: Fiber, Stabilization, Fabric, geotextile, soft soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
17 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu

Abstract:

A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: Stabilization, Clay Minerals, A-3 soil, pozzolanic action

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
16 A Review of Soil Stabilization Techniques

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Mahdi Keramatikerman

Abstract:

Soil stabilization is a crucial issue that helps to remove of risks associated with the soil failure. As soil has applications in different industries such as construction, pavement and railways, the means of stabilizing soil are varied. This paper will focus on the techniques of stabilizing soils. It will do so by gathering useful information on the state of the art in the field of soil stabilization, investigating both traditional and advanced methods. To inquire into the current knowledge, the existing literature will be divided into categories addressing the different techniques.

Keywords: Soil, Techniques, Stabilization, review

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
15 Peat Soil Stabilization Methods: A Review

Authors: Mohammad Saberian, Reza Porhoseini, Mohammad Ali Rahgozar

Abstract:

Peat soil is formed naturally through the accumulation of organic matter under water and it consists of more than 75% organic substances. Peat is considered to be in the category of problematic soil, which is not suitable for construction, due to its high compressibility, high moisture content, low shear strength, and low bearing capacity. Since this kind of soil is generally found in many countries and different regions, finding desirable techniques for stabilization of peat is absolutely essential. The purpose of this paper is to review the various techniques applied for stabilizing peat soil and discuss outcomes of its improved mechanical parameters and strength properties. Recognizing characterization of stabilized peat is one of the most significant factors for architectural structures; as a consequence, various strategies for stabilization of this susceptible soil have been examined based on the depth of peat deposit.

Keywords: Stabilization, Strength, peat soil, depth, unconfined compressive strength (USC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
14 Laboratory Evaluation of Geogrids Used for Stabilizing Soft Subgrades

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Nehla Mansour

Abstract:

This paper aims to assess the efficiency of using geogrid reinforcement for subgrade stabilization. The literature of applying geogrid reinforcement technique for pavements built on soft subgrades and the previous experiences were reviewed. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil reinforced with geogrids in one or several layers. The soil specimens were compacted in four layers with or without geogrid sheets. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, in soaking condition, was performed on natural soil and soil-geogrid specimens. The test results revealed that the CBR value is much affected by the geogrid sheet location and the number of sheets used in the soil specimen. When a geogrid sheet was placed at the 1st layer of the soil, there was an increment of 26% in the CBR value. Moreover, the CBR value was significantly increased by 62% when geogrid sheets were placed at all four layers. The high CBR value is attributed to interface friction and interlock involved in the geogrid/ soil interactions. It could be concluded that geogrid reinforcement is successful and more economical technique.

Keywords: reinforcement, Stabilization, geogrid, subgrade

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
13 Simulation: A Tool for Stabilization of Welding Processes in Lean Production Concepts

Authors: Ola Jon Mork, Lars Andre Giske, Emil Bjørlykhaug

Abstract:

Stabilization of critical processes in order to have the right quality of the products, more efficient production and smoother flow is a key issue in lean production. This paper presents how simulation of key welding processes can stabilize complicated welding processes in small scale production, and how simulation can impact the entire production concept seen from the perspective of lean production. First, a field study was made to learn the production processes in the factory, and subsequently the field study was transformed into a value stream map to get insight into each operation, the quality issues, operation times, lead times and flow of materials. Valuable practical knowledge of how the welding operations were done by operators, appropriate tools and jigs, and type of robots that could be used, was collected. All available information was then implemented into a simulation environment for further elaboration and development. Three researchers, the management of the company and skilled operators at the work floor where working on the project over a period of eight months, and a detailed description of the process was made by the researchers. The simulation showed that simulation could solve a number of technical challenges, the robot program can be tuned in off line mode, and the design and testing of the robot cell could be made in the simulator. Further on the design of the product could be optimized for robot welding and the jigs could be designed and tested in simulation environment. This means that a key issue of lean production can be solved; the welding operation will work with almost 100% performance when it is put into real production. Stabilizing of one key process is critical to gain control of the entire value chain, then a Takt Time can be established and the focus can be directed towards the next process in the production which should be stabilized. Results show that industrial parameters like welding time, welding cost and welding quality can be defined on the simulation stage. Further on, this gives valuable information for calculation of the factories business performance, like manufacturing volume and manufacturing efficiency. Industrial impact from simulation is more efficient implementation of lean manufacturing, since the welding process can be stabilized. More research should be done to gain more knowledge about simulation as a tool for implementation of lean, especially where there complex processes.

Keywords: Simulation, Stabilization, Lean, Welding Process

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
12 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: Stabilization, Young's modulus, kaolinite, unconfined compression test, Nano-SiO2

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11 Characterization of Stabilized Earth in the Construction Field

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fatoum Kharchi

Abstract:

This study deals with the characterization of stabilized earth in the field of construction from the behavior under changes in conservation conditions that may occur during the lifetime of the material, namely, the exposure to high humidity and temperature variations. These two parameters are involved increasingly, because of climate changes that are confronting earth-based constructions to conditions for which they were not originally designed. These exposure conditions may affect the long-term behavior of the material and the entire structure. A cement treatment was adopted for stabilizing the earth with dosages ranging from 4, 6, 8 to 10%. The influence of addition percentage was analyzed in this context based on laboratory tests measuring the evolution of compressive strength, rate of absorption and shrinkage, and finally thermal conductivity. It was shown that the behaviour was dependent on the ambient conditions which influence the action of the binder. Temperate cure has proved beneficial for the material as the cement content increased. Moisture has less affected the compressive strength with increasing the cement content. The absorption was reduced with the increase of cement dosage. Regarding the variation of shrinkage, cement assays have presented an optimum value beyond which the addition of further quantities was less advantageous. The thermal conductivity on the other hand, increased with increasing cement content, which decreased the insulating properties of the material.

Keywords: Characterization, Earth, Construction, Behavior, Stabilization

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10 A New Binder Mineral for Cement Stabilized Road Pavements Soils

Authors: Aydın Kavak, Özkan Coruk, Adnan Aydıner

Abstract:

Long-term performance of pavement structures is significantly impacted by the stability of the underlying soils. In situ subgrades often do not provide enough support required to achieve acceptable performance under traffic loading and environmental demands. NovoCrete® is a powder binder-mineral for cement stabilized road pavements soils. NovoCrete® combined with Portland cement at optimum water content increases the crystallize formations during the hydration process, resulting in higher strengths, neutralizes pH levels, and provides water impermeability. These changes in soil properties may lead to transforming existing unsuitable in-situ materials into suitable fill materials. The main features of NovoCrete® are: They are applicable to all types of soil, reduce premature cracking and improve soil properties, creating base and subbase course layers with high bearing capacity by reducing hazardous materials. It can be used also for stabilization of recyclable aggregates and old asphalt pavement aggregate, etc. There are many applications in Germany, Turkey, India etc. In this paper, a few field application in Turkey will be discussed. In the road construction works, this binder material is used for cement stabilization works. In the applications 120-180 kg cement is used for 1 m3 of soil with a 2 % of binder NovoCrete® material for the stabilization. The results of a plate loading test in a road construction site show 1 mm deformation which is very small under 7 kg/cm2 loading. The modulus of subgrade reaction increase from 611 MN/m3 to 3673 MN/m3.The soaked CBR values for stabilized soils increase from 10-20 % to 150-200 %. According to these data weak subgrade soil can be used as a base or sub base after the modification. The potential reduction in the need for quarried materials will help conserve natural resources. The use of on-site or nearby materials in fills, will significantly reduce transportation costs and provide both economic and environmental benefits.

Keywords: Soil, cement, Stabilization, additive, binder, Novocrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
9 Stability of Stochastic Model Predictive Control for Schrödinger Equation with Finite Approximation

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recent technological advance has prompted significant interest in developing the control theory of quantum systems. Following the increasing interest in the control of quantum dynamics, this paper examines the control problem of Schrödinger equation because quantum dynamics is basically governed by Schrödinger equation. From the practical point of view, stochastic disturbances cannot be avoided in the implementation of control method for quantum systems. Thus, we consider here the robust stabilization problem of Schrödinger equation against stochastic disturbances. In this paper, we adopt model predictive control method in which control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial and terminal time. The objective of this study is to derive the stability criterion for model predictive control of Schrödinger equation under stochastic disturbances.

Keywords: Optimal Control, Quantum Systems, Stochastic systems, Stabilization

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8 Stabilization of Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soil Admixed with Cement Kiln Dust for Use as Road Construction Materials

Authors: Johnson Rotimi Oluremi, A. Adedayo Adegbola, A. Samson Adediran, O. Solomon Oladapo

Abstract:

Spent engine oil contains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which contribute to chronic health hazards, poor soil aeration, immobilisation of nutrients and lowering of pH in soil. It affects geotechnical properties of lateritic soil thereby constituting geotechnical and foundation problems. This study is therefore based on the stabilization of spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated lateritic soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a mean of restoring it to its pristine state. Geotechnical tests which include sieve analysis, atterberg limit, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out on the natural, SEO contaminated and CKD stabilized SEO contaminated lateritic soil samples. The natural soil classified as A-2-7 (2) by AASHTO classification and GC according to the Unified Soil Classification System changed to A-4 non-plastic soil due to SEO contaminated even under the influence of CKD it remained unchanged. However, the maximum dry density (MDD) of the SEO contaminated soil increased while the optimum moisture content (OMC) behaved vice versa with the increase in the percentages of CKD. Similarly, the bearing strength of the stabilized SEO contaminated soil measured by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) increased with percentage increment in CKD. In conclusion, spent engine oil has a detrimental effect on the geotechnical properties of the lateritic soil sample but which can be remediated using 10% CKD as a stand alone admixture in stabilizing spent engine oil contaminated soil.

Keywords: Stabilization, lateritic soil, compaction, unconfined compressive strength, spent engine oil, cement kiln dust

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7 Effects of Rockdust as a Soil Stabilizing Agent on Poor Subgrade Soil

Authors: Muhammad Munawar

Abstract:

Pavement destruction is normally associated with the horizontal relocation of subgrade because of pavement engrossing water and inordinate avoidance and differential settlement of material underneath the pavement. The aim of the research is to study the effect of the additives (rockdust) on the stability and the increase of bearing capacity of selected soils in Mardan City. The physical, chemical and designing properties of soil were contemplated, and the soil was treated with added admixture rockdust with the goal of stabilizing the local soil. The stabilization or modification of soil is done by blending of rock dust to soils in the scope of 0 to 85% by the rate increment of 5%, 10%, and 15% individually. The following test was done for treated sample: Atterberg limits (liquid limit, plasticity index, plastic limit), standard compaction test, the California bearing test and the direct shear test. The results demonstrated that the gradation of soil is narrow from the particle size analysis. Plasticity index (P.I), Liquid limit (L.L) and plastic limit (P.L) were shown reduction with the addition of Rock dust. It was concluded that the maximum dry density is increasing with the addition of rockdust up to 10%, beyond 10%, it shows reduction in their content. It was discovered that the Cohesion C diminished, the angle of internal friction and the California bearing ratio (C.B.R) was improved with the addition of Rock dust. The investigation demonstrated that the best stabilizer for the contextual investigation (Toru road Mardan) is the rock dust and the ideal dosage is 10 %.

Keywords: Modification, Stabilization, CBR, rockdust

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6 Creating Legitimate Expectations in International Energy Investments: Role of the Stability Provisions

Authors: Rahmi Kopar

Abstract:

Legitimate expectations principle is considered one of the most dominant elements of the Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard which is today’s most relied upon treaty standard. Since its utilization by arbitral tribunals is relatively new, the contours of the legitimate expectations concept under investment treaty law have not been precisely defined yet. There are various fragmented views arising both from arbitral tribunals and scholarly writings with respect to its limits and use even though the principle is ‘firmly rooted in arbitral practice.’ International energy investments, due to their characteristics, are more prone to certain types of risks, especially the political risks. Thus, there are several mechanisms to protect an energy investment against those risks. Stabilisation is one of these investment protection methods. Stability provisions can be found under domestic legislations, as a contractual clause, or as a separate legal stability agreement. This paper will start by examining the roots of the contentious concept of legitimate expectations with reference to its application in domestic legal systems from where the doctrine under investment treaty law context was transplanted. Then the paper will turn to the investment treaty law and analyse the main contours of the doctrine as understood and applied by arbitral tribunals. 'What gives rise to the investor’s legitimate expectations?' question is answered mainly by three categories of sources: the general legal framework prevalent in a host state, the representations made by the officials or organs of a host state, and the contractual commitments. However, there is no unanimity among the arbitral tribunals and the scholars with respect to the form these sources should take. At this point, the study will discuss the sources of a stability provision and the effect of these stability provisions found in various legal sources in creating a legitimate expectation for the investor. The main questions to be discussed in this paper are as follows: a) Do the stability provisions found under different legal sources create a legitimate expectation on the investor side? b) If yes, what levels of legitimate expectations do they create? These questions will be answered mainly by reference to investment treaty jurisprudence.

Keywords: Stabilization, fair and equitable treatment standard, international energy investments, investment protection, legitimate expectations

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5 Effect of Lime and Leaf Ash on Engineering Properties of Red Mud

Authors: Pawandeep Kaur, Prashant Garg

Abstract:

Red mud is a byproduct of aluminum extraction from Bauxite industry. It is dumped in a pond which not only uses thousands of acres of land but having very high pH, it pollutes the ground water and the soil also. Leaves are yet another big waste especially during autumn when they contribute immensely to the blockage of drains and can easily catch fire, among other risks hence also needs to be utilized effectively. The use of leaf ash and red mud in highway construction as a filling material may be an efficient way to dispose of leaf ash and red mud. In this study, leaf ash and lime were used as admixtures to improve the geotechnical engineering properties of red mud. The red mud was taken from National Aluminum Company Limited, Odisha, and leaf ash was locally collected. The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of lime and leaf ash on compaction characteristics and strength characteristics of red mud. California Bearing Ratio and Unconfined Compression Strength tests were performed on red mud by varying different percentages of lime and leaf ash. Leaf ash was added in proportion 2%,4%,6%,8% and 10% whereas lime was added in proportions of 5% to 15%. Optimized value of lime was decided with respect to maximum CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of red mud mixed with different proportions of lime. An increase of 300% in California Bearing ratio of red mud and an increase of 125% in Unconfined Compression Strength values were observed. It may, therefore, be concluded that red mud may be effectively utilized in the highway industry as a filler material.

Keywords: lime, Stabilization, red mud, leaf ash

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4 Compression Strength of Treated Fine-Grained Soils with Epoxy or Cement

Authors: M. Mlhem

Abstract:

Geotechnical engineers face many problematic soils upon construction and they have the choice for replacing these soils with more appropriate soils or attempting to improve the engineering properties of the soil through a suitable soil stabilization technique. Mostly, improving soils is environmental, easier and more economical than other solutions. Stabilization soils technique is applied by introducing a cementing agent or by injecting a substance to fill the pore volume. Chemical stabilizers are divided into two groups: traditional agents such as cement or lime and non-traditional agents such as polymers. This paper studies the effect of epoxy additives on the compression strength of four types of soil and then compares with the effect of cement on the compression strength for the same soils. Overall, the epoxy additives are more effective in increasing the strength for different types of soils regardless its classification. On the other hand, there was no clear relation between studied parameters liquid limit, passing No.200, unit weight and between the strength of samples for different types of soils.

Keywords: Additives, Stabilization, Clay, epoxy, compression strength

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3 Stabilization of Soil Organic Carbon within Silt+Clay Fraction in Shrub-Encroached Rangeland Shallow Soil at the University of Limpopo Syferkuil Experimental Farm

Authors: Phesheya E. Dlamini, Millicent N. Khumalo

Abstract:

Shrub-encroachment leads to a gain or loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in previously open rangelands. The stabilization mechanisms controlling the storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) within aggregates of shrub-encroached grassland soils are poorly understood, especially in shallow plinthic soils. In this study, physical fractionation of surface soils (0- 10 cm) collected from open and shrub-encroached grasslands was conducted to determine the distribution of SOC within macro-and- microaggregates. Soil aggregates were classified into four fractions by a wet-sieving procedure, namely >2000 (large macro-aggregates), 212-2000 (small macro-aggregates), 50-212 (microaggregates) and < 50µm (silt+clay). In both shrub-encroached and open grassland soils, SOC was greater in the silt+clay fraction. In this fraction, SOC was on average 133% greater in shrub-encroached compared to open grassland. The greater SOC within the silt+clay fraction is due to the greater surface area and thus more exchange sites for carbon absorption. This implies that the SOC physically protected within the silt+clay is stored long-term.

Keywords: Stabilization, soil organic carbon, aggregate fractions, shrub-encroachment

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