Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

SSI Related Abstracts

3 Evaluation of Response Modification Factors in Moment Resisting Frame Buildings Considering Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: K. Farheen, A. Munir

Abstract:

Seismic response of the multi-storey buildings is created by the interaction of both the structure and underlying soil medium. The seismic design philosophy is incorporated using response modification factor 'R'. Current code based values of 'R' factor does not reflect the SSI problem as it is based on fixed base condition. In this study, the modified values of 'R' factor for moment resisting frame (MRF) considering SSI are evaluated. The response of structure with and without SSI has been compared using equivalent linear static and nonlinear static pushover analyses for 10-storied moment resisting frame building. The building is located in seismic zone 2B situated on different soils with shear wave velocity (Vₛ) of 300m/sec (SD) and 1200m/s (SB). Code based 'R' factor value for building frame system has been taken as 5.5. Soil medium is modelled using identical but mutually independent horizontal and vertical springs. It was found that the modified 'R' factor values have been decreased by 47% and 43% for soil SD and SB respectively as compared to that of code based 'R' factor.

Keywords: Buildings, shear wave velocity, SSI, R factor

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2 Role of Vigilante in Crime Control in Bodija Market

Authors: Obadiah Nwabueze

Abstract:

Bodija market is classified as Central Business District (CBD) of Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State (Nigeria) because of socio economic activities, so Crime is a peculiar social issue that causes insecurity. The law enforcement agencies tasked with crime prevention and control such as the Nigerian Police have insufficient manpower, and a resultant effect is the emergence of Vigilante groups as citizen’s response to crime control and prevention (self-help). The research design adopted for this study is a case study design exploring Vigilante activities in Bodija Market. The study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative approach, sources of data includes primary and secondary sources. A sample of 127 respondents randomly picked from the 4 sections of Bodija Market through questionnaire, comprising of 50 male and 77 females which alienates issues of gender bias in addition to the 4 in-depth interview, making a total of 131 respondents. Statistical package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used. The descriptive statistics of simple frequency, percentage, charts and graphs were computed for the analysis. Finding in the study shows that the market vigilante is able to deter and disrupt criminal activities through strategic spiritual intelligence (SSI), use of charm and juju, physical presence in strategic locations vulnerable to crime occurrence. Findings in the study also show that vigilantes collaborate with the police by assisting them in surveillance, tracking down criminals, identifying black spots, acting as informants to the police, arrest and handover criminal to police. Their challenges include poor equipment, motivation, unhealthy rivalry between the vigilante and the police. The study recommends that the government should support vigilantes with logistics and training, including patrol vehicle and radio communication. The study also recommends the integration of the informal mechanism (juju and charm) of crime detection and prevention into the formal policing strategy, an office should be created in the force commands for use of SSI.

Keywords: central business district, CBD, juju, SSI, charm, strategic spiritual intelligence

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1 Influence оf Viscous Dampers on Seismic Response оf Isolated Bridges Including Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Kemal Edip, Aleksandra Bogdanovic, Marija Vitanova, Viktor Hristovski, Vlado Micov

Abstract:

Bridges represent critical structures in lifeline systems. They provide reliable modes of transportation, so their failure can seriously obstruct relief and rehabilitation work. Earthquake ground motions can cause significant damages in bridges, so during the strong earthquakes, they can easily collapse. The base isolation technique has been quite effective in seismic response mitigation of the bridges in reducing the piers base shear. The effect of soil structure interaction on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three span girder bridge with viscous dampers is investigated. Viscous dampers are installed in the mid span of the bridge to control bearing displacement. The soil surrounding the foundation of piers has been analyzed by applying different soil densities in order to consider the soil stiffness. The soil medium has been assumed as a four layered infill as dense and loose medium. The boundaries in the soil medium are considered as infinite elements in order to absorb the radiating waves. The formulation of infinite elements is the same as for the finite elements in addition to the mapping of the domain. Based on the iso-parametric concept, the infinite element in global coordinate is mapped onto an element in local coordinate system. In the formulation of the infinite element, only the positive direction extends to infinity thus allowing the waves to propagate outside of the soil medium. Dynamic analyses for two levels of earthquake intensity are performed in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the isolated and controlled isolated bridges are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the piers has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with the installation of the viscous dampers.

Keywords: Seismic Response, Viscous Dampers, SSI, reinforced concrete girder bridges

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