Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Sri Lanka Related Abstracts

34 A Preliminary Survey of Mosses, in Galahitiya, Meneripitiya Grama Niladhari Division in Rathnapura District of Sri Lanka

Authors: B. W. U. Deepashika

Abstract:

Rathnapura is located in the south-western part of Sri Lanka, the so-called wet zone. This area receives rainfall mainly from south-west monsoons from May to September. During the remaining months of the year, there is also a considerable precipitation due to convective rains. The average annual precipitation is about 4,000 to 5,000 mm. The average temperature varies from 24 to 35 °C, and there are high humidity levels. Mosses are one of the important groups of the flora of this region and they are very sensitive to climatic changes. Proper exploration and systematic studies on mosses in many parts of the country have not yet been carried out. Therefore, launching a study on the bryophyte flora of the country has become very important. The preliminary survey of bryophytes was carried out in Galahitiya, Meneripitiya Grama Niladari Division, located in Ratnapura district, in Sabaragamuwa province which is situated 20 kilometres away from Rathnapura. Its geographical coordinates are 6° 35' North, 80° 35' East. Samples were collected from different habitats including home gardens, near the wells, small forest patch, tea land, near the stream, from non-cemented wall, from cement wall, and from ditches. Two small quadrates (1ˣ 1m2) were used in each study site. Taxa were identified up to the generic level using taxonomic keys produced for different geographic regions of the world. In the present survey, a total of 09 mosses belonging to seven families were identified to their generic level. They are Family-Bryaceae (3) (Bryum sp, Brachymenium sp, Pohlia sp), Fissidentaceae (1) (Fissidens sp), Leucobryaceae (1) (Octoblepharum sp), Calymperaceae (1) (Calymperes sp), Polytrichaceae (1) (Pogonatum sp), Pterobryaceae (1) (Pterobryopsis sp), Sematophyllaceae (1) (Taxithelium sp).

Keywords: mosses, wet zone, Sabaragamuwa province, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
33 Prospective Visitors' Perception towards Spice Tourism: With Reference to Spice Gardens in Kolonna Divisional Secretariat Division of Ratnapura District in Sri Lanka

Authors: Malkanthi S. H. P., Ishana A. S. F., Sivashankar P.

Abstract:

This research was conducted to study prospective visitors’ expectation and future behavior regarding agro tourism destinations in spice gardens (spice tourism) in Kolonna. A field survey was conducted for the 40 randomly selected local and foreign visitors who have come to visit three famous tourism destinations in Kolonna namely “Maduwanwela Walawwa”, “Wawulpane Limestone cave” and “Panamure Eth gala” during three month of time period from February to April 2014. Descriptive and Chi square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that 98% of visitors were willing to visit the spice tourism destinations. Furthermore, visitors with urban residency, higher education level and employment opportunities revealed an association with having awareness on agro tourism. Moreover, visitors having higher age, higher level of education and higher amount of monthly income revealed an association with the willingness to visit spice tourism destinations. Nevertheless, out of eight demographic factors, three factors; gender, occupation and income had significant effect on willingness to purchase spice products from Kolonna. According to research findings it can be concluded that there are large number of perspective visitors for spice tourism and they are middle aged, educated and having significant monthly income and they are also very much interest to visit spice tourism destinations and buy spice products (high demand). Therefore, it is significantly beneficial to establish spice tourism destinations in spice gardens by successful spice cultivating farmers or owners as an extra income earning activity in Kolonna area.

Keywords: Perception, Sri Lanka, agro tourism, spice gardens, prospective visitors

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
32 Spatial-Temporal Clustering Characteristics of Dengue in the Northern Region of Sri Lanka, 2010-2013

Authors: Sumiko Anno, Keiji Imaoka, Takeo Tadono, Tamotsu Igarashi, Subramaniam Sivaganesh, Selvam Kannathasan, Vaithehi Kumaran, Sinnathamby Noble Surendran

Abstract:

Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately and still require systematic clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial-temporal clustering relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites were used to develop an index comprising rainfall, humidity and temperature data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling temporal analysis, spatial statistical analysis and space-time clustering analysis. Our present results showed that increases in the number of the combination of ecological factor and socio-economic and demographic factors with above the average or the presence contribute to significantly high rates of space-time dengue clusters.

Keywords: Dengue, Sri Lanka, ALOS/AVNIR-2, space-time clustering analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
31 Sri Lanka-Middle East Labour Migration Corridor: Trends, Patterns and Structural Changes

Authors: Dinesha Siriwardhane, Indralal De Silva, Sampath Amaratunge

Abstract:

Objective of this study is to explore the recent trends, patterns and the structural changes in the labour migration from Sri Lanka to Middle East countries and to discuss the possible impacts of those changes on the remittance flow. Study uses secondary data published by Sri Lanka Bureau of Foreign Employment and Central Bank. Thematic analysis of the secondary data revealed that the migration for labour has increased rapidly during past decades. Parallel with that the gender and the skill composition of the migration flow has been changing. Similarly, the destinations for male migration have changed over the period. These show positive implications on the international remittance receipts to the country.

Keywords: Migration, Social Sciences, Middle East, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
30 The Role of Family Support and Work Life Balance of Women Entrepreneurs in Jaffna District

Authors: Thevaranchany Sivaskaran

Abstract:

Women entrepreneurs are the key players in the society and their contributions is highly highlighted to enhance economic stability in the country. In Sri Lanka, especially in North and East provinces people badly affected by war. Most of them are widows and women headed families. Due to this changing environment, Educational opportunities, and the support of NGO’s Most of the women have started their business and become entrepreneurs. Even though existing family setup and social setup entrepreneurial women are overburdened and difficult to balance their business and family roles. The research has been conducted on the experiences of women entrepreneurs with the family role support and work-life balance within the small and micro- enterprise sector in Jaffna, Srilanka. This study aims to identify that what extent the role of family support will be the tool to balancing work and life effectively and, secondly, the main challenges they face in achieving work-life balance. This is done by drawing on literatures including those on work-life balance, small-and micro enterprises, and entrepreneurship theories. To find out this objective, the data were collected from 50 entrepreneurs among the members of Jaffna women chamber in each GS division basis (cluster random sampling). A qualitative methodological technique and semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data for the case study on these entrepreneurs. The results indicate that the majority of entrepreneurs do not enjoy a sense of work-life balance because most of them are women headed family and they need to work hard to generate financial profit for the benefit of family. The motivation for them to work in this way is to provide basic needs. Results confirmed for others that support of husbands is very important. Mostly, emotional support (belief and empowerment) is exposed; however, getting financial contribution seems to be highly appreciated. More responsibilities which spouses were ready to take over regarding the home responsibilities (that is, childcare) should also not be neglected in the system of support to their entrepreneurial wives. Although, more important for all, women with children appreciated other members and spouses help and assistance to a higher extent. Results showed that majority of women who started their own business feel that in the first year of ope-ration the emotional support of family members was more important.

Keywords: Women Entrepreneurs, Family Support, Sri Lanka, work life balance, Jaffna District

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
29 Is Obesity Associated with CKD-(unknown) in Sri Lanka? A Protocol for a Cross Sectional Survey

Authors: Thaminda Liyanage, Anuga Liyanage, Chamila Kurukulasuriya and Sidath Bandara

Abstract:

Background: The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world, particularly in Asia. Over the last two decades Sri Lanka has experienced an epidemic of CKD with ever growing number of patients pursuing medical care due to CKD and its complications, specially in the “Mahaweli” river basin in north central region of the island nation. This was apparently a new form of CKD which was not attributable to conventional risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension or infection and widely termed as “CKD-unknown” or “CKDu”. In the past decade a number of small scale studies were conducted to determine the aetiology, prevalence and complications of CKDu in North Central region. These hospital-based studies did not provide an accurate estimate of the problem as merely 10% or less of the people with CKD are aware of their diagnosis even in developed countries with better access to medical care. Interestingly, similar observations were made on the changing epidemiology of obesity in the region but no formal study was conducted to date to determine the magnitude of obesity burden. Moreover, if increasing obesity in the region is associated with CKD epidemic is yet to be explored. Methods: We will conduct an area wide cross sectional survey among all adult residents of the “Mahaweli” development project area 5, in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. We will collect relevant medical history, anthropometric measurements, blood and urine for hematological and biochemical analysis. We expect a participation rate of 75%-85% of all eligible participants. Participation in the study is voluntary, there will be no incentives provided for participation. Every analysis will be conducted in a central laboratory and data will be stored securely. We will calculate the prevalence of obesity and chronic kidney disease, overall and by stage using total number of participants as the denominator and report per 1000 population. The association of obesity and CKD will be assessed with regression models and will be adjusted for potential confounding factors and stratified by potential effect modifiers where appropriate. Results: This study will provide accurate information on the prevalence of obesity and CKD in the region. Furthermore, this will explore the association between obesity and CKD, although causation may not be confirmed. Conclusion: Obesity and CKD are increasingly recognized as major public health problems in Sri Lanka. Clearly, documenting the magnitude of the problem is the essential first step. Our study will provide this vital information enabling the government to plan a coordinated response to tackle both obesity and CKD in the region.

Keywords: Obesity, Chronic kidney disease, BMI, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
28 Talent Sourcing Practices in Sri Lankan Software Industry

Authors: Malmi Amadoru, Chandana Gamage

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is emerging as a global IT-BPO hub topping up among the 20 global outsourcing destinations. When setting up a new venture in Sri Lanka, talent sourcing plays one of the key functions due to the rapid growth of workforce. Getting competent people with right skills for right positions leads organizations achieving its vision, mission and objectives. It also drives in earning competitive advantage over industry competitors. Thus it is crucial to scan and recruit the best employees to an organization. However there is no published information available on recruitment methods utilized in Sri Lankan software industry, as a study of this nature had not being conducted previously in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this study was to explore various talent sourcing practices exploited in Sri Lankan software industry. Also this study analyses the extent which Sri Lanka has adopted different recruitment strategies utilized in worldwide and its deviations. The research outcome is beneficial for HR professionals to identify the current trends in recruitment practices. Moreover investors who are interested in IT-BPO engagements can gain a thorough knowledge about talent sourcing techniques in Sri Lankan software industry. Finally, this research clues trending areas which can be further investigated in future.

Keywords: software industry, recruitment, Sri Lanka, talent, IT-BPO

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
27 Efficient GIS Based Public Health System for Disease Prevention

Authors: K. M. G. T. R. Waidyarathna, S. M. Vidanagamachchi

Abstract:

Public Health System exists in Sri Lanka has a satisfactory complete information flow when compared to other systems in developing countries. The availability of a good health information system contributed immensely to achieve health indices that are in line with the developed countries like US and UK. The health information flow at the moment is completely paper based. In Sri Lanka, the fields like banking, accounting and engineering have incorporated information and communication technology to the same extent that can be observed in any other country. The field of medicine has behind those fields throughout the world mainly due to its complexity, issues like privacy, confidentially and lack of people with knowledge in both fields of Information Technology (IT) and Medicine. Sri Lanka’s situation is much worse and the gap is rapidly increasing with huge IT initiatives by private-public partnerships in all other countries. The major goal of the framework is to support minimizing the spreading diseases. To achieve that a web based framework should be implemented for this application domain with web mapping. The aim of this GIS based public health system is a secure, flexible, easy to maintain environment for creating and maintaining public health records and easy to interact with relevant parties.

Keywords: Public Health, GIS, Sri Lanka, DHIS2

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
26 Hacking the Spatial Limitations in Bridging Virtual and Traditional Teaching Methodologies in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Having moved into the 21st century, it is way past being arguable that innovative technology needs to be incorporated into conventional classroom teaching. Though the Western world has found presumable success in achieving this, it is still a concept under battle in developing countries such as Sri Lanka. Reaching the acme of implementing interactive virtual learning within classrooms is a struggling idealistic fascination within the island. In order to overcome this problem, this study is set to reveal facts that limit the implementation of virtual, interactive learning within the school classrooms and provide hacks that could prove the augmented use of the Virtual World to enhance teaching and learning experiences. As each classroom moves along with the usage of technology to fulfill its functionalities, a few intense hacks provided will build the administrative onuses on a virtual system. These hacks may divulge barriers based on social conventions, financial boundaries, digital literacy, intellectual capacity of the staff, and highlight the impediments in introducing students to an interactive virtual learning environment and thereby provide the necessary actions or changes to be made to succeed and march along in creating an intellectual society built on virtual learning and lifestyle. This digital learning environment will be composed of multimedia presentations, trivia and pop quizzes conducted on a GUI, assessments conducted via a virtual system, records maintained on a database, etc. The ultimate objective of this study could enhance every child's basic learning environment; hence, diminishing the digital divide that exists in certain communities.

Keywords: Digital Divide, Digitization, Digital Learning, Sri Lanka, teaching methodologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
25 School Counseling in Sri Lanka: Analysis of the past Recommending a Way Forward

Authors: Buddhiprabha D. D. Pathirana

Abstract:

Despite a rapid increase in the number of school counselors in the recent past; procuring the service of school counselors is a luxury that many Sri Lankan schools cannot afford. In addition, school counseling in Sri Lanka also faces new challenges in implementation due to the fact that a generally agreed consensus on training, ethical standards, role identity, counseling model, and structures for school counselors has not been reached. Therefore, this paper has several objectives. First, it reviews a brief history of school counseling in Sri Lanka and describes its current status. Second, it describes current trends/ problems specific to Sri Lankan school counseling milieu which have limited the progress of school counseling as a practice. Third, it discusses societal and cultural issues that are important to consider when implementing school counseling as a practices in Sri Lanka and provides recommendations to improve it.

Keywords: Sri Lanka, school counseling, current situation, recommendations

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
24 Provide Adequate Protection to Avoid Secondary Victimization: Ensuring the Rights of the Child Victims in the Criminal Justice System

Authors: Muthukuda Arachchige Dona Shiroma Jeeva Shirajanie Niriella

Abstract:

The necessity of protection of the rights of victims of crime is a matter of concerns today. In the criminal justice system, child victims who are subjected to sexual abuse/violence are more vulnerable than the other crime victims. When they go to the police to lodge the complaint and until the end of the court proceedings, these victims are re-victimized in the criminal justice system. The rights of the suspects, accused and convicts are recognized and guaranteed by the constitution under fair trial norm, contemporary penal laws where crime is viewed as an offence against the State and existing criminal justice system in many jurisdictions including Sri Lanka. In this backdrop, a reasonable question arises as to whether the existing criminal justice system, especially which follow the adversarial mode of judicial trial protect the fair trial norm in the criminal justice process. Therefore, this paper intends to discuss the rights of the sexually abused child victims in the criminal justice system in order to restore imbalance between the rights of the wrongdoer and victim and suggest legal reforms to strengthen their rights in the criminal justice system which is essential to end secondary victimization. The paper considers Sri Lanka as a sample to discuss this issue. The paper looks at how the child victims are marginalized in the traditional adversarial model of the justice process, whether the contemporary penal laws adequately protect the right of these victims and whether the current laws set out the provisions to provide sufficient assistance and protection to them. The study further deals with the important principles adopted in international human rights law relating to the protection of the rights of the child victims in sexual offences cases. In this research paper, rights of the child victims in the investigation, trial and post-trial stages in the criminal justice process will be assessed. This research contains an extensive scrutiny of relevant international standards and local statutory provisions. Case law, books, journal articles, government publications such as commissions’ reports under this topic are rigorously reviewed as secondary resources. Further, randomly selected 25 child victims of sexual offences from the decided cases in last two years, police officers from 5 police divisions where the highest numbers of sexual offences were reported in last two years and the judicial officers both Magistrates and High Court Judges from the same judicial zones are interviewed. These data will be analyzed in order to find out the reasons for this specific sexual victimization, needs of these victims in various stages of the criminal justice system, relationship between victimization and offending and the difficulties and problems that these victims come across in criminal justice system. The author argues that the child victims are considerably neglected and their rights are not adequately protected in the adversarial model of the criminal justice process.

Keywords: Criminal Justice System, International Standards, Sri Lanka, child victims of sexual violence, rights of child victims

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
23 Determinants of the Income of Household Level Coir Yarn Labourers in Sri Lanka

Authors: G. H. B. Dilhari, A. A. D. T. Saparamadu

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is one of the prominent countries for the coir production. The coir is one of the by-products of the coconut and the coir industry is considered to be one of the traditional industries in Sri Lanka. Because of the inherent nature of the coir industry, labourers play a significant role in the coir production process. The study has analyzed the determinants of the income of the household level coir yarn labourers. The study was conducted in the Kumarakanda Grama Niladhari division. Simple random sampling was used to generate a sample of 100 household level coir yarn labourers and structured questionnaire, personal interviews, and discussion were performed to gather the required data. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for mean comparison. The findings revealed that the household level coir yarn industry is dominated by the female workers and it was identified that fewer numbers of workers have engaged in this industry as the main occupation. In addition to that, elderly participation in the industry is higher than the younger participation and most of them have engaged in the industry as a source of extra income. Level of education, the methods of engagement, satisfaction, engagement in the industry by the next generation, support from the government, method of government support, working hours per day, employed as a main job, number of completed units per day, suffering from job related diseases and type of the diseases were related with income level of household level coir yarn laboures. The recommendations as to flourish in future includes, technological transformation for coir yarn production, strengthening the raw material base and regulating the raw material supply, introduction of new technologies, markets and training programmes, the establishment of the labourers’ association, the initiation of micro credit schemes and better consideration about the job oriented diseases.

Keywords: Income, determinants, Sri Lanka, coir yarn

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
22 Study on Effective Continuous Assessments Methods to Improve Undergraduates English Language Skills

Authors: K. M. R. Siriwardhana

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is a developing country in South Asia which uses English as its second language. Today, most of the university students in Sri Lanka are eagerly exploring knowledge giving special consideration to English as their 2nd Language with the understanding that to climb up the career ladder, English is inevitable both in local and international contexts. However, still a considerable failing rate in English can also be seen among the Sri Lankan undergraduates Further, most of the Sri Lankan universities now practice English as their medium of instructions making English a credited Subject to brighten the future of the Sri Lankan students. Accordingly, in many universities an array of assessments are employed to evaluate undergraduates’ competence in English language. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the effective assessment methods to improve the 2nd language skills of the Sri Lankan university students which also create a more interest in them to learn English. Accordingly, hundred (100) undergraduates were selected as the research sample and the primary data was collected employing a semi structured questionnaire along with class room observations and semi structured interviews. Data was mainly analyzed descriptively employing graphical illustrations. According to the research findings, it was revealed that practical assessments such as oral tests, competitive drama and presentations are more effective in improving their language skills and preferred by the majority of students than written assignments and papers. Further, most of the students have scored better in practical assignments than in the written assignments. Hence, the study concludes that best and the benefited way of improving English language skills of Sri Lankan undergraduates is practical assessments as it gives them the opportunity to apply the language with much confidence and competence in actual situations. Further, the study recommends the language teachers to improve their own skills and creativity in practicing and employing such assessments as it will develop both second language teaching and learning skills. Ultimately, the university graduates will be able to secure their positions internationally as they are well capable in English, the lingua franca of the world.

Keywords: Second Language, Sri Lanka, assessments, undergraduates

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
21 Market-Driven Process of Brain Circulation in Knowledge Services Industry in Sri Lanka

Authors: Panagodage Janaka Sampath Fernando

Abstract:

Brain circulation has become a buzzword in the skilled migration literature. However, promoting brain circulation; returning of skilled migrants is challenging. Success stories in Asia, for instances, Taiwan, and China, are results of rigorous policy interventions of the respective governments. Nonetheless, the same policy mix has failed in other countries making it skeptical to attribute the success of brain circulation to the policy interventions per se. The paper seeks to answer whether the success of brain circulation within the Knowledge Services Industry (KSI) in Sri Lanka is a policy driven or a market driven process. Mixed method approach, which is a combination of case study and survey methods, was employed. Qualitative data derived from ten case studies of returned entrepreneurs whereas quantitative data generated from a self-administered survey of 205 returned skilled migrants (returned skilled employees and entrepreneurs) within KSI. The pull factors have driven the current flow of brain circulation within KSI but to a lesser extent, push factors also have influenced. The founding stone of the industry has been laid by a group of returned entrepreneurs, and the subsequent growth of the industry has attracted returning skilled employees. Sri Lankan government has not actively implemented the reverse brain drain model, however, has played a passive role by creating a peaceful and healthy environment for the industry. Therefore, in contrast to the other stories, brain circulation within KSI has emerged as a market driven process with minimal government interventions. Entrepreneurs play the main role in a market-driven process of brain circulation, and it is free from the inherent limitations of the reverse brain drain model such as discriminating non-migrants and generating a sudden flow of low-skilled migrants. Thus, to experience a successful brain circulation, developing countries should promote returned entrepreneurs by creating opportunities in knowledge-based industries.

Keywords: return migration, Sri Lanka, brain circulation, knowledge services industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
20 Prevention of Ragging and Sexual Gender Based Violence (SGBV) in Higher Education Institutions in Sri Lanka

Authors: Anusha Edirisinghe

Abstract:

Sexual Gender based violence is a most common social phenomenon in higher education institutions. It has become a hidden crime of the Universities. Masculinities norms and attitudes are more influential and serve as key drivers and risk for ragging and SGBV. This research will reveal that in Sri Lankan universities, SGBV takes from the violence and murder of women students, assault and battery coerced sex, sexual harassment including harassment via information technology. This study focus is to prevention of ragging and SGBV in University system. Main objective of this paper describes and critically analyses of plight of ragging and SGBV in higher education institutions and legal and national level policy implementation to prevent these crimes in society. This paper is with special reference to ragging case from University of Kelaniya 2016. University Grant commission introduced an Act for the prevention of Ragging and gender standing committee established in Sri Lanka in 2016. And each university has been involved in the prevention of SGBV and ragging in higher education institutions. Case study from first year female student, reported sexual harassment was reported to the police station in May in 2016. After this case, the university has been implementing emergency action plan, short term and long term action plan. Ragging and SGBV task force was established and online complaint center opened to all students and academic and non- academics. Under these circumstances student complained to SGBV and other harassment to the university. University security system was strong support with police and marshals, and vigilant committees including lecturers. After this case all universities start to several programmes to stop violence in university

Keywords: Higher Education, Sri Lanka, ragging, sexual gender-based violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
19 Bridging the Gaping Levels of Information Entree for Visually Impaired Students in the Sri Lankan University Libraries

Authors: Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Education is a key determinant of future success, and every person deserves non-discriminant access to information for educational inevitabilities in any case. Analysing and understanding complex information is a crucial learning tool, especially for students. In order to compete equally with sighted students, visually impaired students require the unhinged access to access to all the available information resources. When the education of visually impaired students comes to a focal point, it can be stated that visually impaired students encounter several obstacles and barriers before they enter the university and during their time there as students. These obstacles and barriers are spread across technical, organizational and social arenas. This study reveals the possible approaches to absorb and benefit from the information provided by the Sri Lankan University Libraries for visually impaired students. Purposive sampling technique was used to select sample visually impaired students attached to the Sri Lankan National universities. There are 07 National universities which accommodate the visually impaired students and with the identified data, they were selected for this study and 80 visually impaired students were selected as the sample group. Descriptive type survey method was used to collect data. Structured questionnaires, interviews and direct observation were used as research instruments. As far as the Sri Lankan context spread is concerned, visually impaired students are able to finish their courses through their own determination to overcome the barriers they encounter on their way to graduation, through moral and practical support from their own friends and very often through a high level of creativity. According to the findings there are no specially trained university librarians to serve visually impaired users and less number of assistive technology equipment are available at present. This paper enables all university libraries in Sri Lanka to be informed about the social isolation of visually compromised students at the Sri Lankan universities and focuses on the rectification issues by considering their distinct case for interaction.

Keywords: University Libraries, Information Access, Visual Impairment, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
18 Pattern of Deliberate Self-Harm Repetition in Rural Sri Lanka

Authors: P. H. G. J. Pushpakumara, Andrew Dawson

Abstract:

Introduction: Deliberate self harm (DSH) is a major public health problem globally. Suicide rates of Sri Lanka are being among the highest national rates in the world, since 1950. Previous DSH is the most important independent predictor of repetition. The estimated 1 year non-fatal repeat self-harm rate was 16.3%. Asian countries had considerably lower rate, 10.0%. Objectives: To calculate incidence of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) and suicides, repetition rate of DSP in Kurunegala District (KD). To determine the pattern of repeated DSP in KD. Methods: Study had two components. In the first component, demographic and event related details of, DSP admission in 46 hospitals and suicides in 28 police stations of KD were collected for 3 years from January 2011. Demographic details of cohort of DSP patients admitted to above hospitals in 2011 were linked with hospital admissions and police records of next two years period from the index admission. Records were screened for links with high sensitivity using the computer then did manual matching which would have been much more specific. In the second component, randomly selected DSP patients (n=438), who admitted to main referral centre which receives 60% of DSP cases of the district, were interviewed to assess life-time repetition. Results: There were 16,993 DSP admissions and 1078 suicides for the three year period. Suicide incidences in KD were, 21.6, 20.7 and 24.3 per 100,000 population in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Average male to female ratio for suicide incidences was 5.5. DSP incidences were 205.4, 248.3 and 202.5 per 100,000 population. Male incidences were slightly greater than the female incidences, male: female ratio was 1.1:1. Highest age standardized male and female incidence was reported in 20-24 years age group, 769.6/100,000, and 15-19 years age group 1304.0/100,000. Male to female ratio of the incidence increased with the age. There were 318 (179 male and 139 female) patients attempted DSH within two years. Female repetitive patients were ounger compared to the males, p < 0.0001, median age: males 28 and females 19 years. 290 (91.2%) had only one repetitive attempt, 24 (7.5%) had two, 3 (0.9%) had three and one (0.3%) had four in that period. One year repetition rate was 5.6 and two year repetition rate was 7.9%. Average intervals between indexed events and first repetitive DSP events were 246.8 (SD:223.4) and 238.5 (SD:207.0) days among males and females. One fifth of first repetitive events occurred within first two weeks in both males and females. Around 50% of males and females had the second event within 28 weeks. Within the first year of the indexed event, around 70% had the second event. First repetitive event was fatal for 28 (8.8%) individuals. Ages of those who died, mean 49.7 years (SD:15.3), were significantly higher compared to those who had non-fatal outcome, p<0.0001. 9.5% had life time history of DSH attempts. Conclusions: Both, DSP and suicide incidences were very high in KD. However, repetition rates were lesser compared regional values. Prevention of repetition alone may not produce significant impact on prevention of DSH.

Keywords: Suicide, deliberate self-harm, Sri Lanka, incidence, repetition

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
17 Analyzing the Plausible Alternatives in Contracting the Societal Fissure Caused by Digital Divide in Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

'Digital Divide' is a concept that has existed in this paradigm ever since the discovery of the first-generation technologies. Before the turn of the century, it was basically used to describe the gap between those with telephone communication access and those without it. At present, it is plainly descriptive in itself to illustrate the cavity among those with Internet access and those without. Though the concept of digital divide has been merely lying in sight for as long as time itself, the friction it caused has not yet been fully realized to solve major crisis situations. Unlike well-developed countries, Sri Lanka is still in the verge of moving farther away from a developing country in the race towards reaching a developed state. Access to technological resources varies from region to region, even within the island itself, with one region having a considerable percentage of its community exposed to the Internet and its related technologies, and the other unaware of such. Thus, this paper intends to analyze the roots for the still-extant gap instigated based on the concept of ‘Digital Divide’ and explores the plausible potentials that could be brought about by narrowing this prevailing percentage among the population, specifically entrenching the advantages reaped towards an economic augmentation and culture or lifestyle revolution on the path towards development.

Keywords: Society, Digital Divide, Communication, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
16 Viability of Smart Grids for Green IT Sustainability: Contemplated within the Context of Sri Lanka

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Information Technology (IT) is considered to be the prime contributor towards most of the energy releases and hence recursively impacting on the environmental Carbon Footprint on a major scale. The hostile effects brought about due to this massive carbon release such as global warming and ecosystem wipe-outs are currently being realized in Sri Lanka due to the rapid development and merging of computer based technologies. Sri Lanka, being a nature-rich island, has the undying need to preserve its natural environment hence resolving to better ‘Green IT’ practices in all possible spheres. Green IT implies the IT related practices for environmental sustainability. But the industrial divisions in Sri Lanka are still hesitant to fully realize the benefits of applying better “Green IT” principles due to considerations related to costs and other issues. In order to bring about a positive awareness of Green IT, the use of Smart Grids, which is yet a conceptualized principle within the Sri Lankan context, can be considered as a feasible proof in hand. This paper tends to analyze the feasibility of utilizing Smart Grids to ensure minimized cost and effects in preserving the environment hence ensuring Sustainable Green IT practices in an economically and technologically viable manner in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: Sustainability, Smart Grid, Industry, Green IT, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
15 Breaking through Barricades to Enhance the University Library Infrastructure to Aid the Visually Challenged - Contemplated Based within the Sri Lankan Context

Authors: Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj

Abstract:

The Sri Lankan legislative acts dictate several recommendations to improve accessibility of services for the visually challenged. But the main consideration here is the feasibility and extent to which these endorsements have been implemented in actuality within Sri Lankan academic libraries. This paper tends to assess the existent issues that impediment the implementation of accessibility features for the visually challenged in Sri Lankan academic libraries. Visually challenged students continually walk through immense challenges to step forth into their university life. Reaching their undergrad stage of their academic phase, they should be entitled to access information resources with ease and with equality in comparison to the sighted users of a university library. The current university libraries in Sri Lanka, have well improved services that they render to their users. But, what lacks in this scenario is the consideration as to whether these features offered by libraries are user-friendly and easily accessible by the visually challenged users as well. Hence, this paper tends to analyze the inhibitions in delivering services oriented towards the visually challenged and the sighted, and propose feasible alternatives to create a neutral high-end university library environment.

Keywords: Accessibility, Sri Lanka, university library, visually-challenged

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
14 Streamline Marketing Strategies for Survival of Librarianship in Developing Countries in the 21st Century: A Study Related to Sri Lanka

Authors: Wilfred Jeyatheese Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Considering the current digital age, Library Marketing, in its entirety, has evolved to elucidate the importance of falling back to the roots of searching for tangible and intangible resources, traversing through pages and references to acquire the required knowledge needs with proper guidance. With the turn of the century, the present generation has deeply entrenched their virtual presence, browsing via search engines for all their information needs. Not fully realizing the adverse effects of the materials available digitally, the authenticity of such resources cannot be verified. So a user might be led to believe false misdirected data. This paper tends to elucidate the prominent strategies to market Sri Lankan libraries in a proper manner so as to captivate a large user base making them aware that all resources and materials that they access without guidance outside the libraries are also available within the libraries with added guidance towards accessing the right data. The main contemplation here is to focus on getting more users to visit libraries in person to copiously apprehend the importance of browsing for materials with the proper direction. The current library marketing strategies in Sri Lankan libraries need to be streamlined to align with the best interest of acquiring the present generations to visit libraries in person to reap its benefits.

Keywords: Marketing, Accessibility, Librarianship, Sri Lanka

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
13 Implementing Green IT Practices in Non-IT Industries in Sri Lanka: Contemplating the Feasibility and Methods to Ensure Sustainability

Authors: Manuela Nayantara Jeyaraj

Abstract:

Green IT is a term that refers to the collective strategic and tactical practices that unswervingly condense the carbon footprint to a diminished proportion in an establishment’s computing procedures. This concept has been tightly knit with IT related organizations; hence it has been precluded to be applied within non-IT organizations in Sri Lanka. With the turn of the century, computing technologies have taken over commonplace activities in every nook and corner in Sri Lanka, which is still on the verge of moving forth in its march towards being a developed country. Hence, it needs to be recursively proven that non-IT industries are well-bound to adhere to ‘Green IT’ practices as well, in order to reduce their carbon footprint and move towards considering the practicality of implementing Green-IT practices within their work-arounds. There are several spheres that need to be taken into account in creating awareness of ‘Green IT’, such as the economic breach, technologies available, legislative bounds, community mind-set and many more. This paper tends to reconnoiter causes that currently restrain non-IT organizations from considering Green IT concepts. By doing so, it is expected to prove the beneficial providence gained by implementing this concept within the organization. The ultimate goal is to propose feasible ‘Green IT’ practices that could be implemented within the context of Sri Lankan non-IT sectors in order to ensure that organization’s sustainable growth towards a long term existence.

Keywords: Sustainability, Green IT, Sri Lanka, computing practices, non-IT industries

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
12 An Assessment of Health Hazards in Urban Communities: A Study of Spatial-Temporal Variations of Dengue Epidemic in Colombo, Sri Lanka

Authors: U. Thisara G. Perera, C. M. Kanchana N. K. Chandrasekara

Abstract:

Dengue is an epidemic which is spread by Aedes Egyptai and Aedes Albopictus mosquitoes. The cases of dengue show a dramatic growth rate of the epidemic in urban and semi urban areas spatially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Incidence of dengue has become a prominent reason for hospitalization and deaths in Asian countries, including Sri Lanka. During the last decade the dengue epidemic began to spread from urban to semi-urban and then to rural settings of the country. The highest number of dengue infected patients was recorded in Sri Lanka in the year 2016 and the highest number of patients was identified in Colombo district. Together with the commercial, industrial, and other supporting services, the district suffers from rapid urbanization and high population density. Thus, drainage and waste disposal patterns of the people in this area exert an additional pressure to the environment. The district is situated in the wet zone and thus low lying lands constitute the largest portion of the district. This situation additionally facilitates mosquito breeding sites. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of dengue epidemic in Kolonnawa MOH area (Medical Officer of Health) in the district of Colombo. The study was carried out using 615 recorded dengue cases in Kollonnawa MOH area during the south east monsoon season from May to September 2016. The Moran’s I and Kernel density estimation were used as analytical methods. The analysis of data was accomplished through the integrated use of ArcGIS 10.1 software packages along with Microsoft Excel analytical tool. Field observation was also carried out for verification purposes during the study period. Results of the Moran’s I index indicates that the spatial distribution of dengue cases showed a cluster distribution pattern across the area. Kernel density estimation emphasis that dengue cases are high where the population has gathered, especially in areas comprising housing schemes. Results of the Kernel Density estimation further discloses that hot spots of dengue epidemic are located in the western half of the Kolonnawa MOH area, which is close to the Colombo municipal boundary and there is a significant relationship with high population density and unplanned urban land use practices. Results of the field observation confirm that the drainage systems in these areas function poorly and careless waste disposal methods of the people further encourage mosquito breeding sites. This situation has evolved harmfully from a public health issue to a social problem, which ultimately impacts on the economy and social lives of the country.

Keywords: Health Hazards, Sri Lanka, kernel density, Dengue epidemic, Moran’s I

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
11 Sustainable Manufacturing of Concentrated Latex and Ribbed Smoked Sheets in Sri Lanka

Authors: Pasan Dunuwila, V. H. L. Rodrigo, Naohiro Goto

Abstract:

Sri Lanka is one the largest natural rubber (NR) producers of the world, where the NR industry is a major foreign exchange earner. Among the locally manufactured NR products, concentrated latex (CL) and ribbed smoked sheets (RSS) hold a significant position. Furthermore, these products become the foundation for many products utilized by the people all over the world (e.g. gloves, condoms, tires, etc.). Processing of CL and RSS costs a significant amount of material, energy, and workforce. With this background, both manufacturing lines have immensely challenged by waste, low productivity, lack of cost efficiency, rising cost of production, and many environmental issues. To face the above challenges, the adaptation of sustainable manufacturing measures that use less energy, water, materials, and produce less waste is imperative. However, these sectors lack comprehensive studies that shed light on such measures and thoroughly discuss their improvement potentials from both environmental and economic points of view. Therefore, based on a study of three CL and three RSS mills in Sri Lanka, this study deploys sustainable manufacturing techniques and tools to uncover the underlying potentials to improve performances in CL and RSS processing sectors. This study is comprised of three steps: 1. quantification of average material waste, economic losses, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions via material flow analysis (MFA), material flow cost accounting (MFCA), and life cycle assessment (LCA) in each manufacturing process, 2. identification of improvement options with the help of Pareto and What-if analyses, field interviews, and the existing literature; and 3. validation of the identified improvement options via the re-execution of MFA, MFCA, and LCA. With the help of this methodology, the economic and environmental hotspots, and the degrees of improvement in both systems could be identified. Results highlighted that each process could be improved to have less waste, monetary losses, manufacturing costs, and GHG emissions. Conclusively, study`s methodology and findings are believed to be beneficial for assuring the sustainable growth not only in Sri Lankan NR processing sector itself but also in NR or any other industry rooted in other developing countries.

Keywords: Sri Lanka, natural rubber, concentrated latex, ribbed smoked sheets

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
10 Sri Lankan Contribution to Peace and Security in the World: Legal Perspective

Authors: Muthukuda Arachchige Dona Shiroma Jeeva Shirajanie Niriella

Abstract:

Suppressing terrorism and ensuring peace and security of the people is one of the topics which have gained serious attention of the world community. Commissions of terrorist activities, locally and internationally lead to an uncertainty of peace and security, violations of human rights of the people. Thereby it demands stringent security laws and strong criminal justice systems, both at domestic and international levels. This paper intends to evaluate security laws in Sri Lanka through the criminal justice perspective, including their efficacy in relation to combat terrorism. The paper further intends to discuss the importance of such laws in upholding the peace and security at both local and universal levels. The paper argues that the term ‘efficacy’ does not stand for, sending people to jail at large-scale, but the ability to combat terrorism crime without violating the rights of the innocent people. The qualitative research method is followed to conduct this research which contains an extensive examination of security laws available as counter-terrorism laws in Sri Lanka with the relevant international standards adopted by the UN treaties. Primary sources which are relevant to the research, including judicial pronouncements are also discussed in this regard. Secondary sources such as reports, research articles and textbooks on this topic and information available on the internet are also reviewed in this analysis.

Keywords: Terrorism, Criminal Justice System, Sri Lanka, security laws, international treaty law

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
9 Language Anxiety and Learner Achievement among University Undergraduates in Sri Lanka: A Case Study of University of Sri Jayewardenepura

Authors: Sujeeva Sebastian Pereira

Abstract:

Language Anxiety (LA) – a distinct psychological construct of self-perceptions and behaviors related to classroom language learning – is perceived as a significant variable highly correlated with Second Language Acquisition (SLA). However, the existing scholarship has inadequately explored the nuances of LA in relation to South Asia, especially in terms of Sri Lankan higher education contexts. Thus, the current study, situated within the broad areas of Psychology of SLA and Applied Linguistics, investigates the impact of competency-based LA and identity-based LA on learner achievement among undergraduates of Sri Lanka. Employing a case study approach to explore the impact of LA, 750 undergraduates of the University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, thus covering 25% of the student population from all seven faculties of the university, were selected as participants using stratified proportionate sampling in terms of ethnicity, gender, and disciplines. The qualitative and quantitative research inquiry utilized for data collection include a questionnaire consisting a set of structured and unstructured questions, and semi-structured interviews as research instruments. Data analysis includes both descriptive and statistical measures. As per the quantitative measures of data analysis, the study employed Pearson Correlation Coefficient test, Chi-Square test, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis; it used LA as the dependent variable, and two types of independent variables were used: direct and indirect variables. Direct variables encompass the four main language skills- reading, writing, speaking and listening- and test anxiety. These variables were further explored through classroom activities on grammar, vocabulary and individual and group presentations. Indirect variables are identity, gender and cultural stereotypes, discipline, social background, income level, ethnicity, religion and parents’ education level. Learner achievement was measured through final scores the participants have obtained for Compulsory English- a common first-year course unit mandatory for all undergraduates. LA was measured using the FLCAS. In order to increase the validity and reliability of the study, data collected were triangulated through descriptive content analysis. Clearly evident through both the statistical analysis and the qualitative analysis of the results is the significant linear negative correlation between LA and learner achievement, and the significant negative correlation between LA and culturally-operated gender stereotypes which create identity disparities in learners. The study also found that both competency-based LA and identity-based LA are experienced primarily and inescapably due to the apprehensions regarding speaking in English. Most participants who reported high levels of LA were from an urban socio-economic background of lower income families. Findings exemplify the linguistic inequality prevalent in the socio-cultural milieu in Sri Lankan society. This inequality makes learning English a dire need, yet, very much an anxiety provoking process because of many sociolinguistic, cultural and ideological factors related to English as a Second Language (ESL) in Sri Lanka. The findings bring out the intricate interrelatedness of both the dependent variable (LA) and the independent variables stated above, emphasizing that the significant linear negative correlation between LA and learner achievement is connected to the affective, cognitive and sociolinguistic domains of SLA. Thus, the study highlights the promise in linguistic practices such as code-switching, crossing and accommodating hybrid identities as strategies in minimizing LA and maximizing the experience of ESL.

Keywords: Sri Lanka, Language Anxiety, TESL, identity-based anxiety, competence-based anxiety

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
8 Metamorphosis of Caste: An Examination of the Transformation of Caste from a Material to Ideological Phenomenon in Sri Lanka

Authors: Pradeep Peiris, Hasini Lecamwasam

Abstract:

The fluid, ambiguous, and often elusive existence of caste among the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka has inspired many scholarly endeavours. Originally, Sinhalese caste was organized according to the occupational functions assigned to various groups in society. Hence cultivators came to be known as Goyigama, washers Dobi, drummers Berava, smiths Navandanna and so on. During pre-colonial times the specialized services of various groups were deployed to build water reservoirs, cultivate the land, and/or sustain the Buddhist order by material means. However, as to how and why caste prevails today in Sinhalese society when labour is in ideal terms free to move where it wants, or in other words, occupation is no longer strictly determined or restricted by birth, is a question worth exploring. Hence this paper explores how, and perhaps more interestingly why, when the nexus between traditional occupations and caste status is fast disappearing, caste itself has managed to survive and continues to be salient in politics in Sri Lanka. In answer to this larger question, the paper looks at caste from three perspectives: 1) Buddhism, whose ethical project provides a justification of social stratifications that transcends economic bases 2) Capitalism that has reactivated and reproduced archaic relations in a process of 'accumulation by subordination', not only by reinforcing the marginality of peripheral caste groups, but also by exploiting caste divisions to hinder any realization of class interests and 3) Democracy whose supposed equalizing effect expected through its ‘one man–one vote’ approach has been subverted precisely by itself, whereby the aggregate ultimately comes down to how many such votes each ‘group’ in society has. This study draws from field work carried out in Dedigama (in the District of Kegalle, Central Province) and Kelaniya (in the District of Colombo, Western Province) in Sri Lanka over three years. The choice of field locations was encouraged by the need to capture rural and urban dynamics related to caste since caste is more apparently manifest in rural areas whose material conditions partially warrant its prevalence, whereas in urban areas it exists mostly in the ideological terrain. In building its analysis, the study has employed a combination of objectivist and subjectivist approaches to capture the material and ideological existence of caste and caste politics in Sinhalese society. Therefore, methods such as in-depth interviews, observation, and collection of demographical and interpretive data from secondary sources were used for this study. The paper has been situated in a critical theoretical framework of social inquiry in an attempt to question dominant assumptions regarding such meta-labels as ‘Capitalism’ and ‘Democracy’, and also the supposed emancipatory function of religion (focusing on Buddhism).

Keywords: Democracy, Capitalism, Buddhism, Sri Lanka, caste

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
7 Emergency Management and Patient Transportation of Road Traffic Accident Victims Admitted to the District General Hospital, Matale, Sri Lanka

Authors: Asanka U. K. Godamunne

Abstract:

Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a leading cause of death globally as well as in Sri Lanka and results in a large proportion of disability especially among young people. Ninety-percent of world’s road traffic deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. The gross disparities in injury outcomes relate to immediate post-crash and hospital management. Emergency management, methods of patient transportation following road traffic accidents and safety measures are important factors to reduce mortality and morbidity. Studies in this area are limited in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this research was to assess the emergency management and proper method of transportation of road traffic accident victims. This offers the best way to explore the ways to reduce the mortality and morbidity and raise the public awareness. This study was conducted as a descriptive cross-sectional study. All the consecutive road traffic accident victims admitted to surgical wards at District General Hospital, Matale, Sri Lanka, over a period of three months were included in the study. Data from 387 victims were analyzed. The majority were in the 20-30 year age group. Seventy six percent of the patients were males. Motorcycles and trishaws were most affected. First-aid was given to only 2% of patients and it was given by non-medical persons. A significant proportion of patients (75%) were transported to the hospital by trishaws and only 1% transported by ambulance. About 86% of the patients were seated while transport and 14% were flat. Limbs and head were the most affected areas of the body. As per this study, immediate post-crash management and patient transportation were not satisfactory. There is a need to strengthen certain road safety laws and make sure people follow them.

Keywords: Emergency Management, Sri Lanka, patient transportation, road traffic accident victims

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
6 Improving the Detection of Depression in Sri Lanka: Cross-Sectional Study Evaluating the Efficacy of a 2-Question Screen for Depression

Authors: Prasad Urvashi, Wynn Yezarni, Williams Shehan, Ravindran Arun

Abstract:

Introduction: Primary health services are often the first point of contact that patients with mental illness have with the healthcare system. A number of tools have been developed to increase detection of depression in the context of primary care. However, one challenge amongst many includes utilizing these tools within the limited primary care consultation timeframe. Therefore, short questionnaires that screen for depression that are just as effective as more comprehensive diagnostic tools may be beneficial in improving detection rates of patients visiting a primary care setting. Objective: To develop and determine the sensitivity and specificity of a 2-Question Questionnaire (2-QQ) to screen for depression in in a suburban primary care clinic in Ragama, Sri Lanka. The purpose is to develop a short screening tool for depression that is culturally adapted in order to increase the detection of depression in the Sri Lankan patient population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving two steps. Step one: verbal administration of 2-QQ to patients by their primary care physician. Step two: completion of the Peradeniya Depression Scale, a validated diagnostic tool for depression, the patient after their consultation with the primary care physician. The results from the PDS were then correlated to the results from the 2-QQ for each patient to determine sensitivity and specificity of the 2-QQ. Results: A score of 1/+ on the 2-QQ was most sensitive but least specific. Thus, setting the threshold at this level is effective for correctly identifying depressed patients, but also inaccurately captures patients who are not depressed. A score of 6 on the 2-QQ was most specific but least sensitive. Setting the threshold at this level is effective for correctly identifying patients without depression, but not very effective at capturing patients with depression. Discussion: In the context of primary care, it may be worthwhile setting the 2-QQ screen at a lower threshold for positivity (such as a score of 1 or above). This would generate a high test sensitivity and thus capture the majority of patients that have depression. On the other hand, by setting a low threshold for positivity, patients who do not have depression but score higher than 1 on the 2-QQ will also be falsely identified as testing positive for depression. However, the benefits of identifying patients who present with depression may outweigh the harms of falsely identifying a non-depressed patient. It is our hope that the 2-QQ will serve as a quick primary screen for depression in the primary care setting and serve as a catalyst to identify and treat individuals with depression.

Keywords: Primary Care, Depression, Sri Lanka, screening tool

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
5 Opportunity Cost of Producing Sugarcane, Sweet Orange and Soybean in Sri Lankan Context: An Economic Analysis

Authors: Tharsinithevy Kirupananthan

Abstract:

This study analyzed the decision on growing three different crops which suit dry zone of Sri Lanka using the opportunity cost concept in economics. The variable cost of production of sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean was 112,418.76, 13,463 and 10,928.08 Sri Lankan Rs. (LKR) per acre in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The yield of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were 49.33 tons, 25,595 fruits, and 1032 kg per acre. The market price of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were 4200 LKR/ton, LKR 14.66 per fruit and LKR 89.69 per kg. The market value or the total income of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean were LKR 207194.4, 283090.74, and 92560.08. The accounting profit of the sugar cane, sweet orange, and soybean was 94,775.64, 269,627.74, and 81,632 LKR per acre. Therefore, the opportunity cost of sugarcane per acre in terms of accounting profit was LKR. 269,627.74 from sweet orange and LKR 81,632 from soybean. The highest opportunity cost per acre in terms of accounting profit was found when soybean is produced instead of sweet orange. The opportunity cost which compared among the crops in terms of market value for sugar cane per acre was LKR 283090.74 of sweet orange and LKR 92560.08 of soybean. The highest opportunity cost both in terms of accounting profit and market value was found when growing soybean instead of sweet orange by using the resource per acre of land. The economic profit of sugar cane production in place of sweet orange was LKR -188315.1 per acre. The highest economic profit LKR 177067.66 was found when sweet orange is produced in place of soybean. A positive value of economic profit was found in all combination of sweet orange production without considering the first harvest duration of the crop.

Keywords: Agricultural Economics, Crop, Sri Lanka, opportunity cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 164