Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

sputtering Related Abstracts

11 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

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10 Growth of Metal Oxide (Tio2/Ag) Thin Films Sputtered by Hipims Effective in Bacterial Inactivation: Plasma Chemistry and Energetic

Authors: O. Baghriche, A. Zertal, C. Pulgarin, J. Kiwi, R. Sanjines

Abstract:

High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) is a technology that belongs to the field of Ionized PVD of thin films. This study shows the first complete report on ultrathin TiO2/Ag nano-particulate films sputtered by highly ionized pulsed plasma magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) leading to fast bacterial loss of viability. The Ag and the TiO2/Ag sputtered films induced complete Escherichia coli inactivation in the dark, which was not observed in the case of TiO2. When Ag was present, the bacterial inactivation was accelerated under low intensity solar simulated light and this has implications for a potential for a practical technology. The design, preparation, testing and surface characterization of these innovative films are described in this study. The HIPIMS sputtered composite films present an appreciable savings in metals compared to films obtained by conventional sputtering methods. HIPIMS sputtering induces a strong interaction with the rugous polyester 3-D structure due to the higher fraction of the Ag-ions (M+) attained in the magnetron chamber. The immiscibility of Ag and TiO2 in the TiO2/Ag films is shown by High Angular Dark Field (HAADF) microscopy. The ionization degree of the film forming species is significantly increased and film growth is assisted by an intense ion flux. Reports have revealed the significant enhancement of the film properties as the HIPIMS technology is used. However, a decrease of the deposition rate, as compared to the conventional DC magnetron sputtering Pulsed (DCMSP) process is commonly observed during HIPIMS.

Keywords: E. coli, sputtering, HIPIMS, inactivation bacterial

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9 Response Surface Methodology for Optimum Hardness of TiN on Steel Substrate

Authors: R. Joseph Raviselvan, K. Ramanathan, P. Perumal, M. R. Thansekhar

Abstract:

Hard coatings are widely used in cutting and forming tool industries. Titanium Nitride (TiN) possesses good hardness, strength and corrosion resistant. The coating properties are influenced by many process parameters. The coatings were deposited on steel substrate by changing the process parameters such as substrate temperature, nitrogen flow rate and target power in a D.C planer magnetron sputtering. The structure of coatings were analysed using XRD. The hardness of coatings was found using Micro hardness tester. From the experimental data, a regression model was developed and the optimum response was determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

Keywords: Hardness, sputtering, RSM, TiN XRD

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8 Deposition of Cr-doped ZnO Thin Films and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

Authors: Namhyun An, Byungho Lee, Hwauk Lee, Youngmin Lee, Deuk Young Kim, Sejoon Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the Cr-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method with different Cr-contents (1.0at.%, 2.5at.% and 12.5at.%) and their ferromagnetic properties have been characterized. All films revealed clear ferromagnetism above room temperature. However, the spontaneous magnetization of the films was observed to depend on the Cr contents in the films. Namely, the magnitude of effective magnetic moment (per each Cr ion) was exponentially decreased with increasing the Cr contents. We attributed the decreased spontaneous magnetization to the degraded crystal magnetic anisotropy. In other words, we found out that the high concentration of magnetic ions causes the lattice distortion in the magnetic ion-doped thin film, and it consequently degrades ferromagnetic channeling in the solid-state material system.

Keywords: magnetization, thin film, sputtering, ferromagnetic properties, Cr-doped ZnO

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7 Influence of Argon Gas Concentration in N2-Ar Plasma for the Nitridation of Si in Abnormal Glow Discharge

Authors: R. Ahmad, K. Abbas, I. A. Khan, S. Saleem, U. Ikhlaq

Abstract:

Nitriding of p-type Si samples by pulsed DC glow discharge is carried out for different Ar concentrations (30% to 90%) in nitrogen-argon plasma whereas the other parameters like pressure (2 mbar), treatment time (4 hr) and power (175 W) are kept constant. The phase identification, crystal structure, crystallinity, chemical composition, surface morphology and topography of the nitrided layer are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) respectively. The XRD patterns reveal the development of different diffraction planes of Si3N4 confirming the formation of polycrystalline layer. FTIR spectrum confirms the formation of bond between Si and N. Results reveal that addition of Ar into N2 plasma plays an important role to enhance the production of active species which facilitate the nitrogen diffusion.

Keywords: Crystallinity, Nitriding, sputtering, glow discharge

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6 Sensing Characteristics of Gold Nanoparticles Decorated Sputtered Tin Oxide Thin Films as Nitrogen Oxide Sensor

Authors: Qasem Drmosh, Zain Yamai, Amar Mohamedkhair, Abdulmajid Hendi

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the reduction of the nitrogen oxides NOx (NO2, NO) gases resulting from automotive or combustion emissions. Recently, metal additives in nanometer dimension onto the surface of SnO2 nanorods, nanowires and nanotubes sensitizer to further increase the sensor response have been used. In contrast, there is a lack study focused on modifying the surface of SnO2 thin films by nanoparticles. The challenge in case of thin films is how to fabricate these nanoparticles on the surfaces in cost-effective method, high purity as well as without hampering electrical and topographical properties. Here in this report, a simple and facile strategy has been demonstrated to acquire high sensitive and fast response NO2 gas sensor. Structural, electrical, morphological, optical, and compositional properties of the fabricated sensors were investigated through different analytical technique including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning emission microscope (FESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sensing performance of the prepared sensors are studied at different temperatures for various concentrations of NO2 and compared with pristine SnO2 film.

Keywords: Thin Films, sputtering, SnO2, NO2 sensor

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5 Characterization of Electrical Transport across Ultra-Thin SrTiO₃ and BaTiO₃ Barriers in Tunnel Junctions

Authors: Henry Navarro, Martin Sirena, Nestor Haberkorn

Abstract:

We report the electrical transport through voltage-current curves (I-V) in tunnels junction GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d/ insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d, and Nb/insulator/ GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d is analyzed using a conducting atomic force microscope (CAFM) at room temperature. The measurements were obtained on tunnel junctions with different areas (900 μm², 400 μm² and 100 μm²). Trilayers with GdBa₂Cu₃O₇-d (GBCO) as the bottom electrode, SrTiO₃ (STO) or BaTiO₃ (BTO) as the insulator barrier (thicknesses between 1.6 nm and 4 nm), and GBCO or Nb as the top electrode were grown by DC sputtering on (100) SrTiO₃ substrates. For STO and BTO barriers, asymmetric IV curves at positive and negative polarization can be obtained using electrodes with different work function. The main difference is that the BTO is a ferroelectric material, while in the STO the ferroelectricity can be produced by stress or deformation at the interfaces. In addition, hysteretic IV curves are obtained for BTO barriers, which can be ascribed to a combined effect of the FE reversal switching polarization and an oxygen vacancy migration. For GBCO/ BTO/ GBCO heterostructures, the IV curves correspond to that expected for asymmetric interfaces, which indicates that the disorder affects differently the properties at the bottom and top interfaces. Our results show the role of the interface disorder on the electrical transport of conducting/ insulator/ conduction heterostructures, which is relevant for different applications, going from resistive switching memories (at room temperature) to Josephson junctions (at low temperatures). The superconducting transition of the GBCO electrode was characterized by electrical transport using the 4-prong configuration with low density of topological defects and with Tc over liquid N₂ can be obtained for thicknesses of 16 nm, our results demonstrate that GBCO films with an average root-mean-square (RMS) smaller than 1 nm and areas (up 100 um²) free of 3-D topological defects can be obtained.

Keywords: thin film, sputtering, conductive atomic force microscopy, tunnel junctions

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4 A Facile and Room Temperature Growth of Pd-Pt Decorated Hexagonal-ZnO Framework and Their Selective H₂ Gas Sensing Properties

Authors: Ramesh Chandra, Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik

Abstract:

The attractive and multifunctional properties of ZnO make it a promising material for the fabrication of highly sensitive and selective efficient gas sensors at room temperature. This presented article focuses on the development of highly selective and sensitive H₂ gas sensor based on the Pd-Pt decorated ZnO framework and its sensing mechanisms. The gas sensing performance of sputter made Pd-Pt/ZnO electrode on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate toward H₂ gas is studied under low detection limit (2–500 ppm) of H₂ in the air. The chemiresistive sensor demonstrated sublimate selectivity, good sensing response, and fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H₂ at low temperature operation under ambient environment. The elaborate selective measurement of Pd-Pt/ZnO/PSi structure was performed towards different oxidizing and reducing gases. This structure exhibited advance and reversible response to H₂ gas, which revealed that the acquired architecture with ZnO framework is a promising candidate for H₂ gas sensor.

Keywords: Gas Sensor, sputtering, porous silicon, ZnO framework, XPS spectra

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3 A Fast Chemiresistive H₂ Gas Sensor Based on Sputter Grown Nanocrystalline P-TiO₂ Thin Film Decorated with Catalytic Pd-Pt Layer on P-Si Substrate

Authors: Ramesh Chandra, Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik

Abstract:

In the present work, we have fabricated and studied a resistive H₂ gas sensor based on Pd-Pt decorated room temperature sputter grown nanocrystalline porous titanium dioxide (p-TiO₂) thin film on porous silicon (p-Si) substrate for fast H₂ detection. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/p-TiO₂/p-Si sensing electrode towards H₂ gas under low (10-500 ppm) detection limit and operating temperature regime (25-200 °C) was discussed. The sensor is highly sensitive even at room temperature, with response (Ra/Rg) reaching ~102 for 500 ppm H₂ in dry air and its capability of sensing H₂ concentrations as low as ~10 ppm was demonstrated. At elevated temperature of 200 ℃, the response reached more than ~103 for 500 ppm H₂. Overall the fabricated resistive gas sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, and fast response/recovery time with good stability towards H₂.

Keywords: sputtering, hydrogen gas sensor, porous silicon (p-Si), TiO₂ thin film

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2 Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ Alloys with Tuneable Energy Band Gap on GaAs (100) Substrate Manufactured by a Modified Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: Li Qian, Jinchao Tong, Daohua Zhang, Weijun Fan, Fei Suo

Abstract:

Photonic applications based on group IV semiconductors have always been an interest but also a challenge for the research community. We report manufacturing group IV Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ alloys with tuneable energy band gap on (100) GaAs substrate by a modified radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering. Images were taken by atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope clearly demonstrates a smooth surface profile, and Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ nano clusters are with the size of several tens of nanometers. Transmittance spectra were measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that showed changing energy gaps with the variation in elementary composition. Calculation results by 8-band k.p method are consistent with measured gaps. Our deposition system realized direct growth of Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ thin film on GaAs (100) substrate by sputtering. This simple deposition method was modified to be able to grow high-quality photonic materials with tuneable energy gaps. This work provides an alternative and successful method for fabricating Group IV photonic semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Photonic, Crystal Growth, sputtering, GeSn

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1 Adhesion of Sputtered Copper Thin Films Deposited on Flexible Substrates

Authors: Rwei-Ching Chang, Bo-Yu Su

Abstract:

Adhesion of copper thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthAdhesion of copper thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrate by direct current sputtering with different sputtering parameters is discussed in this work. The effects of plasma treatment with 0, 5, and 10 minutes on the thin film properties are investigated first. Various argon flow rates at 40, 50, 60 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), deposition power at 30, 40, 50 W, and film thickness at 100, 200, 300 nm are also discussed. The 3-dimensional surface profilometer, micro scratch machine, and optical microscope are used to characterize the thin film properties. The results show that the increase of the plasma treatment time on the polyethylene terephthalate surface affects the roughness and critical load of the films. The critical load increases as the plasma treatment time increases. When the plasma treatment time was adjusted from 5 minutes to 10 minutes, the adhesion increased from 8.20 mN to 13.67 mN. When the argon flow rate is decreased from 60 sccm to 40 sccm, the adhesion increases from 8.27 mN to 13.67 mN. The adhesion is also increased by the condition of higher power, where the adhesion increased from 13.67 mN to 25.07 mN as the power increases from 30 W to 50 W. The adhesion of the film increases from 13.67 mN to 21.41mN as the film thickness increases from 100 nm to 300 nm. Comparing all the deposition parameters, it indicates the change of the power and thickness has much improvement on the film adhesion.alate substrate by direct current sputtering with different sputtering parameters is discussed in this work. The effects of plasma treatment with 0, 5, and 10 minutes on the thin film properties are investigated first. Various argon flow rates at 40, 50, 60 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm), deposition power at 30, 40, 50 W, and film thickness at 100, 200, 300 nm are also discussed. The 3-dimensional surface profilometer, micro scratch machine, and optical microscope are used to characterize the thin film properties. The results show that the increase of the plasma treatment time on the polyethylene terephthalate surface affects the roughness and critical load of the films. The critical load increases as the plasma treatment time increases. When the plasma treatment time was adjusted from 5 minutes to 10 minutes, the adhesion increased from 8.20 mN to 13.67 mN. When the argon flow rate is decreased from 60 sccm to 40 sccm, the adhesion increases from 8.27 mN to 13.67 mN. The adhesion is also increased by the condition of higher power, where the adhesion increased from 13.67 mN to 25.07 mN as the power increases from 30 W to 50 W. The adhesion of the film increases from 13.67 mN to 21.41mN as the film thickness increases from 100 nm to 300 nm. Comparing all the deposition parameters, it indicates the change of the power and thickness has much improvement on the film adhesion.

Keywords: Adhesion, sputtering, flexible substrate, copper thin film

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