Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Sport Related Abstracts

26 Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation

Authors: Yurlov Sergey


The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.

Keywords: Sport, amendment, legal problem, right

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25 Transferring World Athletic Championship-Winning Principles to Entrepreneurship: The Case of Abdelkader El Mouaziz

Authors: Abderrahman Hassi, Omar Bacadi, Khaoula Zitouni


Abdelkader El Mouaziz is a Moroccan long-distance runner with a career-best time of 2:06:46 in the Chicago Marathon. El Mouaziz is a winner of the Madrid Marathon in 1994, the London Marathon in 1999 and 2001, as well as the New York Marathon in 2001. While he was playing for the Moroccan national team, he used to train in the Ifrane-Azrou region owing to its altitude, fresh forests, non-polluted air and quietness. After winning so many international competitions and retiring, he left his native Casablanca and went back to the Ifrane-Azrou region and started a business that employs ten people. In March 2010, El Mouaziz opened a bed and breakfast called Tourtite with a nice view on the mountain near the city of Ifrane in the way to Azrou. He wanted to give back to the region that helped him become a sport legend. His management style is not different than his sport style: performance and competitiveness combined with fair play. The objective of the present case study is to further enhance the understanding of the dynamics of transferring athletic championship-winning principles to entrepreneurial activities. The case study is a real-life situation and experience designed to provoke and stimulate reflections about a particular approach of management, especially for start-up businesses.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Sport, winning principles, Abdelkader El Mouaziz

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24 Sports: A Vital Tool for Promotion of Good Health and Prevention of Diseases

Authors: Agburuga Obi, Madumere Akuego Jane


This paper explores the important role sports can play in the promotion of good health and prevention of diseases. Technological advancements in today’s world has come along with some difficulties to man. This is because work formally done by man has been taken over by machines, thus, man has become sedentary. This has created a lot of health problems to man such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. To nip this ugly situation in the bud, the following recommendations are made: specific measures should be taken to raise the awareness within the government, key sectors and the population of the diverse benefits or physical activity and sports and the risk and costs of inactivity, provision of equipment, facilities for sports and recreational activities in every community, participation in physical activities in sports if not on daily basis at least thrice a week.

Keywords: Sport, Diseases, Prevention, Physical Activities, good health

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23 Oxidative Stress Markers in Sports Related to Training

Authors: S. Petrovska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, S. Mancevska, V. Antevska, E. Sivevska, I. Karagjozova


Introduction: The aim of this study was to optimise the laboratory oxidative stress (OS) markers in soccer players. Material and methods: In a number of 37 soccer players (21±3 years old) and 25 control subjects (sedenters), plasma samples were taken for d-ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) and NO (nitric oxide) determination. The d-ROMs test was performed by measurement of hydroperoxide levels (Diacron, Italy). For NO determination the method of nitrate enzyme reduction with the Greiss reagent was used (OXIS, USA). The parameters were taken after the training of the soccer players and were compared with the control group. Training was considered as maximal exercise treadmill test. The criteria of maximum loading for each subject was established as >95% maximal heart rate. Results: The level of d-ROMs was found to be increased in the soccer players vs. control group but no significant difference was noticed. After the training d-ROMs in soccer players showed increased value of 299±44 UCarr (p<0.05). NO showed increased level in all soccer players vs. controls but significant difference was found after the training 102±29 μmol (p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to these results we may suggest that the measuring these OS markers in sport medicine may be useful for better estimation and evaluation of the training program. More oxidative stress should be used to clarify optimization of the training intensity program.

Keywords: Sport, training, oxidative stress markers, soccer players

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22 The Rupture of Tendon Achilles During the Recreative and Sports Activities

Authors: Jasmin S. Nurkovic, Ljubisa Dj. Jovasevic, Zana C. Dolicanin, Zoran S. Bajin


Ruptured muscles and tendons very often must be repatriated by open operation in young persons. In young, muscles are ruptured more often than tendons, at the sane time in older persons are more exposed to rupture than muscles. Ruptured of the calcaneus are the most present of all ruptures. Sometime the rupture is complete, but very often the incomplete rupture can be noticed. During six years, from 2006 to 2012, we treated nineteen male patients and three female patients with the rupture of tendon Achilles. The youngest patient was aged thirty two, and the oldest was also managed sixty four. The youngest female patient was forty one and the oldest was forty six. One of our patients who was under corticosteroid treatment did not take any part in sport activities but she was, as she told us, going for a long walk, the same was with other two patients one man and one woman. We had nineteen male patients age 32 to 64 and three female patients age 41, 44 and 46. Conservative treatment by cast was applied in five patients and very good results were in three of them. In two patients surgical treatment failed in patient’s age 53 and 64. Only one of all patients treated by surgery had healing problems because of necrotic changes of the skin where incision was made. One of our female patients age 45 was under steroid treatment for almost 20 years because of asthmatic problems. We suggested her wearing boots with 8cm long heels by day and by night eight weeks. The final results were satisfactory and all the time she was able to work and to walk. It was the only case we had with bilateral tendon rupture. After eight weeks the cast is removed and psychiatric treatment started, patient is using crutches with partial weight bearing over a period of two weeks. Quite the same treatment conservative treatment, only the cast is not removed after two but after four weeks. Everyday activities after the surgical treatment started ten weeks and sport activities can start after fourteen to sixteen weeks. An increased activity of our patient without previous preparing for forces activity can result, as we already see, with tendon rupture. Treatment is very long and very often surgical. We find that surgical treatment resulted as safer and better solution for patients. We also had a patient with spontaneous rupture of tendon during longer walking but this patient was under prolonged corticosteroid treatment.

Keywords: Sport, tendon, Achilles, rupture

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21 Investigating the Relationship between Bioethics and Sports

Authors: Franco Bruno Castaldo


Aim: The term bioethics is a term coined by VanPotter R ., who in 1970 thought of a discipline, capable of contributing to a better quality of human life and the cosmos. At first he intended bioethics as a wisdom capable of creating a bridge between bios and ethos and between bio-experimental science and ethical-anthropological sciences.Similarly, the modern sport is presented as a polysemic phenomenon, multidisciplinary, pluris value. From the beginning, the sport is included in the discussion of bioethical problems with doping. Today, the ethical problems of the sport are not only ascribable to doping, the medicalization of society, Techniques for enhancement, violence, Fraud, corruption, even the acceptance of anthropological transhumanist theories. Our purpose is to shed light on these issues so that there is a discernment, a fine-tuning also in educational programs, for the protection of all the sport from a scientist adrift, which would lead to an imbalance of values. Method: Reading, textual and documentary analysis, evaluation of critical examples. Results: Harold VanderZwaag, (1929-2011) in ancient times, asked: how many athletic directors have read works of sport philosophy or humanities? Along with E.A. Zeigler (North American Society for Sport Management) are recognized as pioneers of educational Sport Management. Comes the need to leave the confines of a scientific field, In order to deal with other than itself. Conclusion: The quantitative sciences attracts more funds than qualitative ones, the philosopher M. Nussbaum, has relaunched the idea that the training of students will have to be more disinterested than utilitarian, Offering arguments against the choice of anti-classical, analyzing and comparing different educational systems. schools, universities must assign a prominent place in the program of study to the humanistic, literary and artistic subjects, cultivating a participation that can activate and improve the ability to see the world through the eyes of another person. In order to form citizens who play their role in society, science and technology alone are not enough, we need disciplines that are able to cultivate critical thinking, respect for diversity, solidarity, the judgment, the freedom of expression. According to A. Camelli, the humanities faculties prepare for that life-long learning, which will characterize tomorrow's jobs.

Keywords: Management, Sport, bioethics, transhumanist, medicalization

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20 Sport and Religion, the Specificity of Polish Stadiums

Authors: Michal Mazurkiewicz


It would seem at first glance that sport and religion are totally separate spheres. Yet, as a matter of fact, sport exists in religion (for example, In the teachings of John Paul II) and religion exists in sport (not only in religious rituals of players and fans). In this paper, the author examining the specific behaviours of Polish football fans and players analyses the question of religion in sport, mostly football. Like in the case of other countries, football holds a special place in Polish sporting history which constitutes an interesting subject of scientific research. It is a great identity builder and it influences culture which manifests itself in many ways (films, music, literature, etc.). Football is definitely a fascinating and colourful discipline pervaded with miscellaneous phenomena worth analysing. The aim of the paper is to show the "religious" uniqueness of Polish football fandom –namely, religious choreographies, participation in masses and pilgrimages to the Jasna Gora Shrine in Częstochowa. The peculiar combination of sport and religion visible at the stadiums and during the pilgrimages is analysed by the author. This mixture definitely adds colour to Polish sport and makes it intriguing to people from other countries. Religious rituals of the players are also examined here. The methods of the research included: Observations of numerous matches, looking through sports books, newspapers and magazines, interviews with the fans. The conclusions corroborate the thesis that sport may be and often is an important element of sporting contests. The main reasons and justifications are given in this analysis.

Keywords: Sport, Religion, football, newspapers, colourful

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19 What Children Do and Do Not Like about Taking Part in Sport: Using Focus Groups to Investigate Thoughts and Feelings of Children with Hearing Loss

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare, P. Leighton


Limited participation in physical activity and sport has been linked to poorer mental and physical health in children. Studies have shown that children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sport are also more likely to continue their participation into their adult life. Deaf or hard of hearing children should have the same opportunities to participate in sport and receive the benefits as their hearing peers. Anecdotal evidence suggests this isn’t always the case. This is concerning given there are 45,000 children in the UK with permanent hearing loss. The aim of this study was to understand what encourages or discourages deaf or hard of hearing children to take part in sports. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the University of Nottingham School of Medicine ethics committee. We conducted eight focus groups with deaf or hard of hearing children aged 10 to 15 years. A total of 45 children (19 male, 26 female) recruited from local schools and sports clubs took part. Information was gathered on the children’s thoughts and feelings about participation in sport. This included whether they played sports and who with, whether they did or did not like sport, and why they got involved in sport. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Several key themes were identified as being associated with levels of sports participation. These included friendships, family and communication. Deaf or hard of hearing children with active siblings had participated in more sports. Communication was a common theme throughout regardless of the type of hearing-assistive technology a child used. Children found communication easier during sport if they were allowed to use their technology and had particular difficulty during sports such as swimming. Children expressed a desire not to have to identify themselves at a club as having a hearing loss. This affected their confidence when participating in sport. Not surprisingly, children who are deaf or hard of hearing are more likely to participate in sport if they have a good support network of parents, coaches and friends. The key barriers to participation for these children are communication, lack of visual information, lack of opportunity and a lack of awareness. By addressing these issues more deaf and hard of hearing children will take part in sport and will continue their participation.

Keywords: Sport, barrier, Children, Participation, Deaf, hard of hearing

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18 Barriers to Participation in Sport for Children without Disability: A Systematic Review

Authors: S. Somerset, D. J. Hoare


Participation in sport is linked to better mental and physical health in children and adults. Studies have shown children who participate in sports benefit from improved social skills, self-confidence, communication skills and a better quality of life. Children who participate in sports from a young age are also more likely to continue to have active lifestyles during adulthood. This is an important consideration with a nation where physical activity levels are declining and the incidences of obesity are rising. Getting children active and keeping them active can provide long term health benefits to the individual but also a potential reduction in health costs in the future. This systematic review aims to identify the barriers to participation in sport for children aged up to 18 years and encompasses both qualitative and quantitative studies. The bibliographic databases, EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and SportDiscus were searched. Additional hand searches were carried out on review articles found in the searches to identify any studies that may have been missed. Studies involving children up to 18 years without additional needs focusing on barriers to participation in sport were included. Randomised control trials, policy guidelines, studies with sport as an intervention, studies focusing on the female athlete triad, tobacco abuse, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, pre exercise testing, and cardiovascular disease were excluded. Abstract review, full paper review and quality appraisal were conducted by two researchers. A consensus meeting took place to resolve any differences at the abstract, full text and data extraction / quality appraisal stages. The CASP qualitative studies appraisal tool and the CASP cohort studies tool (excluding question 3 and 4 which refer to interventions) were used for quality appraisal in this review. The review identified several salient barriers to participation in sport for children. These barriers ranged from the uniform worn during school physical education lessons to the weather during participation in sport. The most commonly identified barriers in the review include parental support, time allocation, location of the activity and the cost of the activity. Therefore, it would be beneficial for a greater provision to be made within the school environment for children to participate sport. This can reduce the cost and time commitment required from parents to encourage participation. This would help to increase activity levels of children, which ultimately can only be a good thing.

Keywords: Sport, barrier, Children, Participation

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17 Executive Leadership in Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Science: The Five 'C' Concept

Authors: Jim Weese


The Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Science environment remain excellent venues for leadership research. Prescribed leadership (coaching), emergent leadership (players and organizations), and executive leadership are all popular themes in the research literature. Leadership remains a popular area of inquiry in the sport management domain as well as an interesting area for practitioners who wish to heighten their leadership practices and effectiveness. The need for effective leadership in these areas given competing demands for attention and resources may be at an all-time high. The presenter has extensive research and practical experience in the area and has developed his concept based on the latest leadership literature. He refers to this as the Five ’C’s of Leadership. These components, noted below, have been empirically validated and have served as the foundation for extensive consulting with academic, sport, and business leaders. Credibility (C1) is considered the foundation of leadership. There are two components to this area, namely: (a) leaders being respected for having the relevant knowledge, insights, and experience to be seen as credible sources of information, and (b) followers perceiving the leader as being a person of character, someone who is honest, reliable, consistent, and trustworthy. Compelling Vision (C2) refers to the leader’s ability to focus the attention of followers on a desired end goal. Effective leaders understand trends and developments in their industry. They also listen attentively to the needs and desires of their stakeholders and use their own instincts and experience to shape these ideas into an inspiring vision that is effectively and continuously communicated. Charismatic Communicator (C3) refers to the leader’s ability to formally and informally communicate with members. Leaders must deploy mechanisms and communication techniques to keep their members informed and engaged. Effective leaders sprinkle in ‘proof points’ that reinforce the vision’s relevance and/or the unit’s progress towards its attainment. Contagious Enthusiasm (C4) draws on the emotional intelligence literature as it relates to exciting and inspiring followers. Effective leaders demonstrate a level of care, commitment, and passion for their people and feelings of engagement permeate the group. These leaders genuinely care about the task at hand, and for the people working to make it a reality. Culture Builder (C5) is the capstone component of the model and is critical to long-term success and survival. Organizational culture refers to the dominant beliefs, values and attitudes of members of a group or organization. Some have suggested that developing and/or imbedding a desired culture for an organization is the most important responsibility for a leader. The author outlines his Five ‘C’s’ of Leadership concept and provide direct application to executive leadership in Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Science.

Keywords: Leadership, Management, Sport, Effectiveness

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16 Researching Servant Leadership Behaviors of Sport Managers

Authors: Betul Altinok


The aim of this study is researching servant leadership behaviors of sports managers. For this purpose, Servant Leadership behaviors of Sport Managers (N=69) working as Dean, School Principal and Head of Department in Sport Sciences Faculties, Physical Education and Sport Schools and Departments educating Physical Education and Sport investigated via questionnaires applied to academicians (N=1185) working in these institutions. Servant Leadership Questionnaire sent via e-mail to all Academicians working in Physical Education and Sport educating Faculties, Schools of Universities and Departments in Turkey. 406 survey which is responded and accurately completed by Academicians were evaluated. In this study, Servant Leadership Questionnaire developed and conducted validity and reliability analysis by Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) used to investigate sports managers servant leadership behaviors. Scale translated into Turkish then validity and reliability analysis were conducted. After measurement model of servant leadership questionnaire verified, Shapiro Wilk normality test was applied to obtained data to determine whether has got a normal distribution or not, depending on gender, job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. Results of practiced normality test showed that data has not got a normal distribution (nonparametric). After normality test, Mann Whitney-U test applied at 0.05 value for determining whether there is a difference between servant leadership scores according to gender and Kruskal Wallis Test applied at 0.05 value for determining whether there is a difference between servant leadership scores according to job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. Test results showed that there were not differences between Altruistic Calling (p>0.05), Emotional Healing (p>0.05), Wisdom (p>0.05), Persuasive Mapping (p>0.05) and (p>0.05), Organizational Stewardship sub-dimensions according to gender. Test results showed that there were not differences between Altruistic Calling (p>0.05), Emotional Healing (p>0.05), Wisdom (p>0.05), Persuasive Mapping (p>0.05) and (p>0.05), Organizational Stewardship sub-dimensions according to job title, profession time, department and evaluated manager. In the light of study results, it can be said that applied survey is objective and unfurls evaluated managers servant leadership behaviors. Empirical and practical contribution of this study is to test sports managers servant leadership behaviors in Turkey for the very first time.

Keywords: Management, Sport, Servant Leadership, academicians

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15 An Investigation into the Social Factors that Influence Sport Participation: A Case of Gymnastics in the Western Cape

Authors: W. C. Lucas, S. Titus, M. E. M. Young


Gymnastics is the umbrella term that represents seven different and unique disciplines of gymnastics. Men and women of all ages and abilities practice this sport, and participation in gymnastics can develop both gross and fine motor skills, strength, flexibility, coordination and balance. There are various social factors, such as a family’s socioeconomic status or accessibility to sports facilities that may play a role in affecting levels of participation. The aim of this study is to investigate the social factors that have an influence on gymnastics participation in the Western Cape. To this end, a qualitative approach is adopted to collect data. This study also adopts the ecological systems theory as the theoretical framework, and is used to analyze and interpret current social factors that directly or indirectly influence participation in gymnastics. The study’s objectives were to ascertain which social factors hinder participation, and which social factors promote participation, thus, coaches, parents and gymnasts participated in focus group discussions. Key informant interviews took place with experts in the field of gymnastics in the Western Cape. A thematic analysis was conducted on transcriptions from the focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Social factors investigated in this study occurred in the chronosystem, macrosystem, exosystem, mesosystem, and microsystem, and had both a direct and indirect influence on the gymnast’s continued participation. These systems are defined as the environment of the individual, in which they grow and develop. The research findings of this paper are used to draw conclusions and make specific recommendations for practice and further research. The information gathered in this study can assist all stakeholders within the field of gymnastics, such as parents, judges, coaches, gymnasts, and the supporting community which surround the participating gymnast.

Keywords: Facilities, Sport, Participation, Socioeconomic Status, ecological systems theory, Gymnastics, influence, social factors, developing child, federation

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14 Investigation of Various Variabilities of Social Anxiety Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students

Authors: Turan Cetinkaya


The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level of social anxiety to various variables of the students in physical education and sports departments. 229 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, sports management and coaching in Ahi Evran University, College of Physical Education and Sports participate in the research. Personal information tool and social anxiety scale consisting 30 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t-test and ANOVA test were used in the comparison of the related data. As a result of statistical analysis, social anxiety levels do not differ according to gender, income level, sports type and national player status.

Keywords: Sport, social anxiety, undergraduates, unıversty

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13 Examining the Impact of Intelligence Quotients on Balance and Coordination in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Suat Erel, Sehmus Aslan, Bilge B. Calik, Ummuhan B. Aslan


Objective: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance and coordination performance determined between mild and moderate ID adolescents who regularly play sport. Methods: The study comprised a total of 179 participants, of which 135 were male adolescents with mild and moderate-level ID who regularly play sports (16.52 ± 2.17 years) and 44 age-matched male adolescents with typical development without ID who do not do any sports (16.52 ± 0.99 years). The participants with ID were students of Special Education Schools for the mentally disabled and had been diagnosed with ID at a Ministry of Health Hospital. The adolescents with mild and moderate ID had been playing football in their school teams at least 2 days a week, for at least one year. Balance and coordination of adolescents were assessed by Bilateral coordination and balance subtests of Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF). Results: As a result of the evaluations comparing coordination and balance scores significant differences were determined between all three groups in favor of the peers without ID (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was observed that balance and coordination levels of adolescents with mild ID were better than those of adolescents with moderate-level ID but lower than those of peers without ID. These results indicate a relationship between IQ level and motor performance. Further comparative studies are needed on individuals with ID who play and do not play sports in order to examine the impact of participation in sports on the motor skills of individuals with ID.

Keywords: Sport, coordination, Intellectual Disability, Balance, motor skills

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12 An Evaluation of Self-Esteem in Physically Disabled Adults Who Particapated in Sports

Authors: Sehmus Aslan, Ummuhan Bas Aslan


Objective: Physical disability includes impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Individuals with physical disabilities have lower self-esteem compared non-disabled people. Self-esteem is widely accepted as a key indicator of emotional stability and adjustment to life demands. There is very limited study to investigate the effect of sports on self-esteem in physically disabled people. The aim of the present study was to evaluate of self-esteem in physically disabled adults who participated in sports. Methods: Fifty physically disabled adults who participated in sports aged between 18 to 35 years participated in the study. Self-esteem of the participants was assessed by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The scale is a 10-item measure of global self-esteem. The higher score on the scale indicates greater self-esteem. Scores between 15 and 25 are the normal range of and scores below 15 suggest low self-esteem. Results: Average age of participants was 25.18±6.20 years. 58% of the participants were 23 (46.0%) of the participants were wheelchair users, 8 (16.0%) were mobile with a walking aid and 19 (38.0%) were mobile without a walking aid. The length of physically disabled adults had been participating in their sports (basketball: 54%, athleticism: 32%, volleyball: 6%, cycling: 6%) was 4.94±3.86 years. The average Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale score of the participants was 21.88 ±4.34. Conclusions: Our results suggest that physically disabled adults who participated in sports have the healthy level of self-esteem. Participating in sports could have positive effects on self-esteem in that physically, disabled people. There is needed future comparative studies on this topic.

Keywords: Sport, self-esteem, adult, physical disability

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11 Social Networks as a Tool for Sports Marketing

Authors: Márcia Aparecida Teixeira


Sports, in particular football, boosts considerably the financial market of a certain locality, be it city or even a country. The financial transactions involving this medium stand out from other existing businesses, such as small industries. Strategically, social networks are inserted in this sporting environment, in order to promote and attract new fans of this modality. The present study analyzes the use of social networks in Sports Marketing with a focus on football. For the object of this study, it was chosen a specific club, the Club Atlético Mineiro, a Brazilian club of great national notoriety. The social networks on focus will be: Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It will be analyzed the content and frequency of the posts, reception of the target public in relation to the content made available and its feedback.

Keywords: Marketing, Sport, Strategy, Social Network

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10 Current Perspectives of Bemitil Use in Sport

Authors: K. Ivanov, S. Ivanova


Bemitil (2-ethylthiobenzimidazole hydrobromide) is a synthetic adaptogen and actoprotector, with wide-ranging pharmacological activities such as nootropic, antihypoxic, antioxidant, immunostimulant. The intake of Bemitil increases mental and physical performance and could be applied under either normal or extreme conditions. Until 2017 Bemitil was not considered as doping and was used by professional athletes more than 30 years because of its high efficiency and safety. The drug was included in WADA monitoring programme for 2018, and most likely it would be included in WADA Prohibited List for 2019. Usually, a substance/method is included in WADA Prohibited List if it meets any two of the following three criteria: the potential to enhance or enhances sports performance/ potential health risk to the athlete/ violates the spirit of sport. Bemitil has high performance-enhancing potential, but it is also safe- it is controversial whether it should be considered as doping.

Keywords: Sport, Doping, bemitil, actoprotector

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9 The Use of Actoprotectors by Professional Athletes

Authors: Kalin Ivanov, Stanislava Ivanova


Actoprotectors are substances with hight performance enchasing potential and hight antioxidant activity. Most of these drugs have been developed in USSR for military medicine purposes. Based on their chemical composition actoprotectors could be classified into three categories: benzimidazole derivatives (ethomersol, bemitil); adamantane derivatives (bromantane), other chemical classes. First data for intake of actoprotectors from professional athletes is from 1980. The daily intake of actoprotectors demonstrate many benefits for athletes like: positive effect on the efficiency of physical work, antihypoxic effects, antioxidant effects, nootropic effects, rapid recovery. Since 1997, bromantane is considered as doping. This is a result of Summer Olympic Games in Athlanta (1996) when several Russian athletes tested positive for bramantane. Even the drug is safe for athletes health its use is considered as violation of anti- doping rules. More than 37 years bemetil has been used by professional athletes with no risk but currently it is included in WADA monitoring programme for 2018. Current perspectives are that most used actoprotectors would be considered as doping. Many clinical studies have confirmed that intake of bemitil and bromantan demonstrate positive influence on the physical work capacity but data for other actoprotectors like chlodantane, ademol, ethomersol is limited.

Keywords: Sport, Doping, bemitil, actoprotector

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8 Football Chants in Israel: Persistent Values and Changing Trends

Authors: Ilan Tamir


Fans’ chants in sports stadium have, over the years, become an integral part of the spectator experience. While chants add color, atmosphere, and a demonstration of fans’ support for their team, chants also play a significant role in defining fans’ perceptions of their team’s identity and its differentiation from other teams. An analysis of football chants may therefore shed light on fans’ deep-seated worldviews of their own role, their team, the sport in general, and even life itself. This study, based on an analysis of Israeli football chants over years, identifies key changing and stable perceptions of football fans. Overall 94 chants collected, over a period of five decades. After a pilot study, the chants organized in two groups (one covering 1970-1999 and the other 2000-2016). The chants analyzed through qualitative content analysis in order to understand fans values as a reflection of the society. Findings point to several values that have remained stable over years, including fans’ attitudes toward their team and its rivals, and their attitude toward God. On the other hand, recently emerging phenomena such as radicalization of hatred toward the commercialization of sport reflect social and cultural changes, both in and outside the world of sport.

Keywords: Sport, Fans, soccer, chants

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7 The Relation between Sports Practice and the Academic Performance

Authors: Albert Perez-Bellmunt, Eila Rivera, Aida Valls, Berta Estragues, Sara Ortiz, Roberto Seijas, Pedro Alvarez


INTRODUCTION: Physical and sports activity on a regular basis present numerous health benefits such as the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Also, there is a relation between sport and the psychological or the cognitive process of children and young people. The objective of the present study is to know if the sports practice has any positive influence on the university academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The level of the physical activity of 220 students of different degrees in health science was evaluated and compared with the academic results (grades). To assess the level of physical and sports activity, the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (to calculate the sporting level in a general way) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (to estimate the physical activity carried out during the days leading up to the academic exams) were used. RESULTS: The students that realized an average level of sports activity the days before the exam obtained better grades than the rest of their classmate and the result was statistically significant. Controversially, if the sports level was analyzed in a general way, no relationship was observed between academic performance and the level of sport realized. CONCLUSION: A moderate physical activity, on the days leading up to an assessment, can be a positive factor for the university academic performance. Despite the fact that a regular sports activity improves many cognitive and physiological processes, the present study did not observe a direct relationship between sport/physical activity and academic performance.

Keywords: Sport, Academic Performance, academic results, global physical activity questionnaire, physical activity questionnaire, sport practice

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6 Case Study on Gender Equality in the United Arab Emirates through the Lens of Sport

Authors: Nioofar Margarite Rouhani


Using a case study methodology, this study explores the lived experiences of elite women footballers (soccer) team in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the challenges and enablers women in this country encountered in their journey to competing at an international level. Through a series of face-to-face interviews with members of the first all-Emirati (people with UAE passport) women’s football team, members of the team’s coaching staff and key policymakers, the study sought to explore the social and cultural conditions that enabled the emergence of this team. A key aim of the study was to analyze the cultural shifts that have seemingly facilitated changes to gender relations in the UAE and to highlight possibilities for future gender equality work. The study explores the significance of sport in UAE society and its role in disrupting traditional gender boundaries. To do this, the study identifies and analyses contemporary social (religion, class, and culture) conditions that facilitate, and/or restrict, women’s sports participation in the public sphere of sport. Drawing on a feminist poststructural framework the study sought to analyse the discursive enactment of (disruptive) gender identity positions, using lenses such as ‘discourse’ and ‘power’. With a particular focus on elite women’s sport, the study sought to build knowledge around the advance of female participation in what has long been considered as a masculine domain. Here, the study sought to explore the lived experience of social change through a series of face-to-face interviews with members of the first all-Emirati- women’s football team and key support personnel. To maintain representational integrity, the principles of narrative methodology were employed for their ability to privilege the voices of participants while integrating contextual forces that comprised the stories they told about their experiences and the key people who participated in them. This approach supported a key aim of the study, being to analyse the cultural shifts that have supported changes in gender performance in the UAE and to highlight possibilities for future gender disruption. While the results of the study convey a growing sense of opportunity for aspiring sportswomen in the UAE, they also reveal that the participant pathways were full of contestation and restriction. What we learn from the stories of the first Emirate women’s football team is that where the will is strong enough, there can be a way. While it is reasonable to assume that such pathways will become easier in the future, as the participation of women in such sporting arenas becomes less exceptional, there are factors that are likely to enable and disable such journeys. Prominent here is the presence of a ‘powerful’ guardian and mentor who can offer sustained support, and influence. In a society where males continue to have disproportionate access to social and domestic power, such support can be extremely influential. Guardians and mentors can play a crucial role in garnering the support of dominant male figures, or helping to find ways to work around it.

Keywords: Sport, Middle East, Women, Gender equality

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5 Sociological Approach to the Influence of Gender Stereotypes in Sport Education

Authors: Sara Rozenwajn Acheroy


This study aims to analyze gender stereotypes’ influence of physical education’s teachers in secondary education and coaches in sports clubs of five sports: swimming, beach-volley, tennis, gymnastics and football. Because sport is a major socializing agent of high symbolic, ideological and economical relevance with an impact in the social values and the construct of identity, in addition, to be an international and global phenomenon, States tend to institutionalize it through education, federations, and clubs, as well as build sports facilities. Research in the field is now needed more than ever, given that sport is still considered as a masculine practice, and that such perspective is spread at school since the age of six in physical education lessons. For all those reasons, and more, it is necessary to study which stereotypes are transmitted in its everyday practice and how it affects young people’s self-perception on their physical and body capacities. This study’s objectives are centered on 4 points: 1) stereotypes and self-perception of students and young people, 2) teachers and coaches’ stereotypes and influence, 3) social status of parents (indicative) and 4) environmental analysis of schools and sport clubs. To that end, triangular methodology has been favored. Quantitative and qualitative data, through semi-structured interviews with coaches and teachers; group interviews with young people; 450 surveys in high schools from Madrid, Barcelona and Canary Islands; and participant observation in clubs. Remarks made at this stage of the study are diverse and not conclusive. For example, physical education teachers have more gender stereotypes than coaches in sport clubs, matching with our hypothesis so far. It also seems that young people at the age of 16-17 still do not have internalized gender stereotypes as deep as their teachers. This among other observations of the current fieldwork will be exposed, hoping to give a better understanding of the need for gender policies and educational programs with gender perspective in all sectors that includes sport’s activities.

Keywords: Sport, Gender, Sexism, Sport Education, gender stereotypes

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4 Selection of Qualitative Research Strategy for Bullying and Harassment in Sport

Authors: J. Vveinhardt, V. B. Fominiene, L. Jeseviciute-Ufartiene


Relevance of Research: Qualitative research is still regarded as highly subjective and not sufficiently scientific in order to achieve objective research results. However, it is agreed that a qualitative study allows revealing the hidden motives of the research participants, creating new theories, and highlighting the field of problem. There is enough research done to reveal these qualitative research aspects. However, each research area has its own specificity, and sport is unique due to the image of its participants, who are understood as strong and invincible. Therefore, a sport participant might have personal issues to recognize himself as a victim in the context of bullying and harassment. Accordingly, researcher has a dilemma in general making to speak a victim in sport. Thus, ethical aspects of qualitative research become relevant. The plenty fields of sport make a problem determining the sample size of research. Thus, the corresponding problem of this research is which and why qualitative research strategies are the most suitable revealing the phenomenon of bullying and harassment in sport. Object of research is qualitative research strategy for bullying and harassment in sport. Purpose of the research is to analyze strategies of qualitative research selecting suitable one for bullying and harassment in sport. Methods of research were scientific research analyses of qualitative research application for bullying and harassment research. Research Results: Four mane strategies are applied in the qualitative research; inductive, deductive, retroductive, and abductive. Inductive and deductive strategies are commonly used researching bullying and harassment in sport. The inductive strategy is applied as quantitative research in order to reveal and describe the prevalence of bullying and harassment in sport. The deductive strategy is used through qualitative methods in order to explain the causes of bullying and harassment and to predict the actions of the participants of bullying and harassment in sport and the possible consequences of these actions. The most commonly used qualitative method for the research of bullying and harassment in sports is semi-structured interviews in speech and in written. However, these methods may restrict the openness of the participants in the study when recording on the dictator or collecting incomplete answers when the participant in the survey responds in writing because it is not possible to refine the answers. Qualitative researches are more prevalent in terms of technology-defined research data. For example, focus group research in a closed forum allows participants freely interact with each other because of the confidentiality of the selected participants in the study. The moderator can purposefully formulate and submit problem-solving questions to the participants. Hence, the application of intelligent technology through in-depth qualitative research can help discover new and specific information on bullying and harassment in sport. Acknowledgement: This research is funded by the European Social Fund according to the activity ‘Improvement of researchers’ qualification by implementing world-class R&D projects of Measure No. 09.3.3-LMT-K-712.

Keywords: Sport, Qualitative Research, Bullying, Narrative, focus group, harassment

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3 Sport and Psychological Need Satisfaction: A Cross Sectional Study Applied to Children and Adolescents with Disabilities

Authors: Isabel Stolz, Vera Tillmann, Volker Anneken


The relationship between sport participation and psychological need satisfaction was examined by an analysis of interest and involvement in the sport of 937 children and adolescents with disabilities and their self-perceived need satisfaction. The Children’s intrinsic need-satisfaction Scale (CINSS) has been used to measure sport-related need satisfaction in this cross-sectional study. CINSS scores for the dimensions competence, autonomy and relatedness of the study’s participants were generally located in higher score levels. Significant relations between interest and involvement in sport and higher levels of psychological need satisfaction were found in the questioned children and adolescents. Examining the results of each need, the competence-dimension displayed a particular relevance for an increased sport-related lifestyle. The further results showed a negative correlation between children’s need satisfaction and a lack of confidence of participating in sport. A negative correlation was also found between children’s need satisfaction and experiencing difficulties in making contact with others. Despite the general interest in sport and the wish to participate in another sporting activity, the participation of the questioned children and adolescents in organized sport is comparatively low and decreases with age. Participation in sport seems to be beneficial to children and adolescents with disabilities’ psychological need satisfaction. This research highlights the positive impact of sport on psychological need satisfaction of children and adolescents with disabilities and emphasizes the demand for greater participation in organized sport for children and adolescents with disabilities.

Keywords: Sport, Physical Activity, Health, Children and Adolescents

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2 Great Food, No Atmosphere: A Review of Performance Nutrition for Application to Extravehicular Activities in Spaceflight

Authors: Lauren E. Church


Background: Extravehicular activities (EVAs) are a critical aspect of missions aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It has long been noted that the spaceflight environment and the physical demands of EVA cause physiological and metabolic changes in humans; this review aims to combine these findings with nutritional studies in analogues of the spaceflight and EVA environments to make nutritional recommendations for astronauts scheduled for and immediately returning from EVAs. Results: Energy demands increase during orbital spaceflight and see further increases during EVA. Another critical element of EVA nutrition is adequate hydration. Orbital EVA appears to provide adequate hydration under current protocol, but during lunar surface EVA (LEVA) and in a 10km lunar walk-back test astronauts have stated that up to 20% more water was needed. Previous attempts for in-suit edible sustenance have not been adequately taken up by astronauts to be economically viable. In elite endurance athletes, a mixture of glucose and fructose is used in gels, improving performance. Discussion: A combination of non-caffeinated energy drink and simple water should be available for astronauts during EVA, allowing more autonomy. There should also be provision of gels or a similar product containing appropriate sodium levels to maintain hydration, but not so much as to hyperhydrate through renal water reabsorption. It is also suggested that short breaks be built into the schedule of EVAs for these gels to be consumed, as it is speculated that reason for low uptake of in-suit sustenance is the lack of time available in which to consume it.

Keywords: Sport, Nutrition, Space, astronaut

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1 History Impact of Cuba's Sports Results on Panamerican Games

Authors: Jose Ramon Sanabria Navarro, Yahilina Silveira Perez


The Pan American Games are one of the best regional sports integration events for the Americas, thousands of athletes from different countries are integrated based on obtaining satisfactory sports results and bringing the glory of the national identity of the sport to their country. There are countries that despite the small number of inhabitants have obtained very satisfactory results such as Cuba. Objective: To analyze the impact of Cuba's sports results in the Pan American Games. The methodology was based on the postulates of the materialist dialectic since the investigated reality was studied from historicity, systematicity and in its systemic character. The population and sample consisted of 41 countries of the American continent, and the 15 events carried out to date were analyzed. The impact of Cuba is very relevant because it is the country that has the second place by country in terms of number of medals, is among the first in terms of medals per inhabitants and in general sense of all the indicators treated assumes the fourth place integral. What is the current status of Cuba's sports results in Pan American Games? Having as a general objective, analyze the impact of Cuba's sports results in the Pan American Games. The hypotheses that will lead this research have the following methodological and interaction order: H1: Cuba's performance in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the amount of medals obtained. H2: The amount of medals from Cuba in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the general podium for countries of these regional events. H3: The amount of medals obtained by Cuba in Pan American Sports Games positively impacts the number of inhabitants. H4: The amount of medals obtained by Cuba positively impacts the overall result of the countries. H5: Cuba's performance in the Panamerican Sports Games positively impacts the overall results of these regional events. In general, it is possible to demonstrate the impact of Cuba's sports performance in Pan American Games and the organizational sports structure that has allowed the country to obtain them is evidenced.

Keywords: Sport, Cuba, history of sport, sports games, regional events

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