Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

splitting Related Abstracts

3 Being Authentic is the New “Pieces”: A Mixed Methods Study on Authenticity among African Christian Millennials

Authors: Victor Counted


Staying true to self is complicated. In most cases, we might not fully come to terms with this realities. Just like any journey, a self-discovery experience with the ‘self’, is like a rollercoaster ride. The researcher attempts to engage the reader in an empirical study on authenticity tendencies of African Christian Millennials. Hence, attempting the all-important question: What does it actually mean to be true to self for the African youth? A comprehensive, yet an unfinished business that applies the authenticity theory in its exploratory navigations to uncover the “lived world” of the participants who were part of this study. Using a mixed methods approach, the researcher will exhaustively give account to the authenticity tendencies and experiences of the respondents in the study by providing the reader with a unique narrative for understanding what it means to be true to oneself in Africa. At the quantitative study, the participants recorded higher scores on the Authenticity Scale (AS) authentic living, while showing a significant correlation within the subscales. Hypotheses were tested at the quantitative phase, which statistically supported gender and church affiliation as possible predictors for the authenticity orientations of the participants, while being a Christian native and race/ethnicity were not impact factors statistically. The results helped the researcher to develop the objectives behind the qualitative study, where only fifteen AS-authentic living participants were interviewed to understand why they scored high on authentic living, in order to understand what it means to be authentic. The hallmark of the qualitative case study exploration was the common coping mechanism of splitting adopted by the respondents to deal with their self-crisis as they tried to remain authentic to self, whilst self-regulating and self-investing the self to discover ‘self’. Specifically, the researcher observed the concurrent utilization of some kind of the religious-self by the respondents to regulate their self crisis, as they relate with self fragmenting through different splitting stages in hope for some kind of redemption. It was an explanation that led to the conclusion that being authentic is the new pieces. Authenticity is in fragments. This proposition led the researcher to introduce a hermeneutical support-system that will enable future researchers engage more critically and responsibly with their “living human documents” in order to inspire timely solutions that resolve the concerns of authenticity and wellbeing among Millennials in Africa.

Keywords: Identity, Self, Authenticity, self-fragmentation, weak self integration, postmodern self, splitting

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2 A Forbidden-Minor Characterization for the Class of Co-Graphic Matroids Which Yield the Graphic Element-Splitting Matroids

Authors: Prashant Malavadkar, Santosh Dhotre, Maruti Shikare


The n-point splitting operation on graphs is used to characterize 4-connected graphs with some more operations. Element splitting operation on binary matroids is a natural generalization of the notion of n-point splitting operation on graphs. The element splitting operation on a graphic (cographic) matroid may not yield a graphic (cographic) matroid. Characterization of graphic (cographic) matroids whose element splitting matroids are graphic (cographic) is known. The element splitting operation on a co-graphic matroid, in general may not yield a graphic matroid. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the cographic matroid to yield a graphic matroid under the element splitting operation. In fact, we prove that the element splitting operation, by any pair of elements, on a cographic matroid yields a graphic matroid if and only if it has no minor isomorphic to M(K4); where K4 is the complete graph on 4 vertices.

Keywords: splitting, binary matroids, element splitting, forbidden minor

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1 A Case of Borderline Personality Disorder: An Explanatory Study of Unconscious Conflicts through Dream-Analysis

Authors: Mariam Anwaar, Kiran B. Ahmad


Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is an invasive presence of affect instability, disturbance in self-concept and attachment in relationships. The profound indicator is the dichotomous approach of the world in which the ego categorizes individuals, especially their significant others, into secure or threatful beings, leaving little room for a complex combination of characteristics in one person. This defense mechanism of splitting their world has been described through the explanatory model of unconscious conflict theorized by Sigmund Freud’s Electra Complex in the Phallic Stage. The central role is of the father with whom the daughter experiences penis envy, thus identifying with the mother’s characteristics to receive the father’s attention. However, Margret Mahler, an object relation theorist, elucidates the central role of the mother and that the split occurs during the pre-Electra complex stage. Amid the 14 and 24 months of the infant, it acknowledges the world away from the mother as they have developed milestones such as crawling. In such novelty, the infant crawls away from the mother creating a sense of independence (individuation). On the other hand, being distant causes anxiety, making them return to their original object of security (separation). In BPD, the separation-individuation stage is disrupted, due to contradictory actions of the caregiver, which results in splitting the object into negative and positive aspects, repressing the former and adhering to the latter for survival. Thus, with time, the ego distorts the reality into dichotomous categories, using the splitting defenses, and the mental representation of the self is distorted due to the internalization of the negative objects. The explanatory model was recognized in the case study of Fizza, at 21-year-old Pakistani female, residing in Karachi. Her marital status is single with an occupation being a dental student. Fizza lives in a nuclear family but is surrounded by her extended family as they all are in close vicinity. She came with the complaints of depressive symptoms for two-years along with self-harm due to severe family conflicts. Through the intervention of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), the self-harming actions were reduced, however, this libidinal energy transformed into claustrophobic symptoms and, along with this, Fizza has always experienced vivid dreams. A retrospective method of Jungian dream-analysis was applied to locate the origins of the splitting in the unconscious. The result was the revelation of a sexual harassment trauma at the age of six-years which was displaced in the form of self-harm. In addition to this, the presence of a conflict at the separation-individuation stage was detected during the dream-analysis, and it was the underlying explanation of the claustrophobic symptoms. This qualitative case study implicates the use of a patient’s subjective experiences, such as dreams, to journey through the spiral of the unconscious in order to not only detect repressed memories but to use them in psychotherapy as a means of healing the patient.

Keywords: unconscious, splitting, borderline personality disorder, dream-analysis, Electra complex, separation-individuation

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