Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

spironolactone Related Abstracts

4 Spironolactone in Psoriatic Arthritis: Safety, Efficacy and Effect on Disease Activity

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Pawan Krishan, Inderjit Verma

Abstract:

Therapeutic approaches used previously relied on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that had only partial clinical benefit and were associated with significant toxicity. Spironolactone, an oral aldosterone antagonist, suppresses inflammatory mediators. Clinical efficacy of spironolactone compared with placebo in patients with active psoriatic arthritis despite treatment with prior traditional DMARDs. In the 24-week, placebo-controlled study patients (n=31) were randomized to placebo and spironolactone (2 m/kg/day). Patients on background concurrent DMARDs continued stable doses (methotrexate, leflunomide, and/or sulfasalazine). Primary outcome measures were the assessment of disease activity measures i.e. 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and diseases activity in psoriatic arthritis (DAPSA) at week 24. The key secondary endpoint was change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire–Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at week 24. Additional efficacy outcome measures at week 24 included improvements in the markers of inflammation (ESR and CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1. At week 24, spironolactone significantly reduced disease activity measure DAS-28 (p<0.001) and DAPSA (p=0.001) compared with placebo. Significant improvements in key secondary measures HAQ-DI (disability index) were evident with spironolactone (p=0.02) versus placebo. After week 24, there was significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines level TNF-α, IL-6 (p<0.01) as compared with placebo group. However, there was no significant improvement in IL-1 in both treatment and placebo groups. There were minor side effects which did not mandate stopping of spironolactone. No change in any biochemical profile was noted after spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone was effective in the treatment of PsA, improving disease activity, physical function and suppressing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone demonstrated an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated.

Keywords: Inflammation, spironolactone, inflammatory cytokine, psoriatic arthritis

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3 Vitamin D Supplementation Potentiates the Clinical Benefits of Metformin and Pioglitazone in Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Mohd Asharf Ganie, Aafia Rashid, Mohd Afzal Zargar, Showkat Ali Zargar, Syed Mudasar, Tabasum Parvaiz, Zafar Amin Shah

Abstract:

Accumulating evidence suggests that Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) might at least contribute to the metabolic co-morbidities in PCOS. Hence, we aimed to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation in co-prescription with insulin sensitizers like metformin and pioglitazone on clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. In this open label randomized, controlled trial a total of 120 women with PCOS diagnosis (AE-PCOS 2009 Criteria) were assigned to four treatment groups (n= 30 in each): group I (metformin 1 gm/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group II (pioglitazone 30 mg/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group III (metformin 1 gm /day) and group IV (pioglitazone 30 mg/day). Vitamin D supplementation was given as 60,000 units every two weeks for 24 weeks. All the subjects were routinely evaluated for clinical, biochemical, hormonal and insulin sensitivity parameters in addition to various safety parameters especially serum calcium levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of the treatment. Our results indicate that 95.5% of PCOS women were vitamin D deficient at baseline. Serum 25 (OH) D levels increased significantly (p < 0.001) in groups I and II without any adverse effects after 24 weeks of oral administration of 4000 IU cholecalciferol daily. However, serum 25 (OH) D levels remained unchanged in group III and IV. By six months, number of menstrual cycles per year increased whereas Ferriman-Gallwey score, serum total testosterone and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in the treatment groups supplemented with cholecalciferol as compared to those treated either drug alone. No significant beneficial changes were observed on weight, BMI, blood pressure, glucose tolerance and serum lipids in any of the groups supplemented with cholecalciferol. We conclude that daily dose of 4000 IU cholecalciferol might be a useful adjunct in complex treatment of PCOS with fewer adverse events. Furthermore, pioglitazone and cholecalciferol combination seems to be marginally better although there was no statistical significance.

Keywords: insulin resistance, metformin, PCOS, pioglitazone, spironolactone, vitamin D supplementation

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2 A Study to Identify Resistant Hypertension and Role of Spironolactone in its Management

Authors: A. Singh, A. Kumar, D. Himanshu, Ak Vaish, K. Usman, R. Misra, V. Atam, S. P. Verma, S. Singhal

Abstract:

Introduction: Resistant and uncontrolled hypertension offer great challenge, in terms of higher risk of morbidity, mortality and not the least, difficulty in diagnosis and management. Our study tries to identify the importance of two crucial aspects of hypertension management, i.e. drug compliance and optimum dosing and also the effect of spironolactone on blood pressure in cases of resistant hypertension. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out among patients, who were referred as case of resistant hypertension to Hypertension Clinic at Gandhi memorial and associated hospital, Lucknow, India from August, 2013 to July 2014. A total of 122 Subjects having uncontrolled BP with ≥3 antihypertensives were selected. After ruling out secondary resistance and with appropriate lifestyle modifications, effect of adherence and optimum doses was seen with monitoring of BP. Only those having blood pressure still uncontrolled were true resistant. These patients were given spironolactone to see its effect on BP over next 12 weeks. Results: Mean baseline BP of all (n=122) patients was 150.4±7.2 mmHg systolic and 92.1±5.7 mmHg diastolic. After promoting adherence to the regimen, there was reduction of 4.20±3.65 mmHg systolic and 2.08±4.74 mmHg Diastolic blood pressure, with 26 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Further reduction of 6.66±5.99 mmHg in systolic and 2.59±3.67 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed after optimizing the drug doses with another 66 patients achieving target blood pressure goal. Only 30 patients were true resistant hypertensive and prescribed spironolactone. Over 12 weeks, mean reduction of 20.62±3.65 mmHg in systolic and 10.08 ± 6.46 mmHg in diastolic BP was observed. Out of these 30, BP was controlled in 24 patients. Side effects observed were hyperkalemia in 2 patients and breast tenderness in 2 patients. Conclusion: Improper adherence and suboptimal regimen appear to be the important reasons for uncontrolled hypertension. By virtue of maintaining proper adherence to an optimum regimen, target BP goal can be reached in many without adding much to the regimen. Spironolactone is effective in patients with resistant hypertension, in terms of blood pressure reduction with minimal side effects.

Keywords: Hypertension, Blood Pressure, resistant, spironolactone

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1 Lipid Nanoparticles for Spironolactone Delivery: Physicochemical Characteristics, Stability and Invitro Release

Authors: M. Saeedi, H. R. Kelidari, J. Akbari, K. Morteza-Semnani, H. Valizadeh

Abstract:

Spironolactoe (SP) a synthetic steroid diuretic is a poorly water-soluble drug with a low and variable oral bioavailability. Regarding to the good solubility of SP in lipid materials, SP loaded Solid lipid nanoparticles (SP-SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carrier (SP-SLNs) were thus prepared in this work for accelerating dissolution of this drug. The SP loaded NLC with stearic acid (SA) as solid lipid and different Oleic Acid (OA) as liquid lipid content and SLN without OA were prepared by probe ultrasonication method. With increasing the percentage of OA from 0 to 30 wt% in SLN/NLC, the average size and zeta potential of nanoparticles felled down and entrapment efficiency (EE %) rose dramatically. The obtained micrograph particles showed pronounced spherical shape. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) measurements indicated that the presence of OA reduced the melting temperature and melting enthalpy of solid lipid in NLC structure. The results reflected good long-term stability of the nanoparticles and the measurements show that the particle size remains lower in NLC compare to SLN formulations, 6 months after production. Dissolution of SP-SLN and SP-NLC was about 5.1 and 7.2 times faster than raw drugs in 120 min respectively. These results indicated that the SP loaded NLC containing 70:30 solid lipid to liquid lipid ratio is a suitable carrier of SP with improved drug EE and steady drug release properties.

Keywords: Stability, Lipid Nanoparticles, Drug Release, spironolactone

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