Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

spin coating Related Abstracts

6 FTIR and AFM Properties of Doubly Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

Authors: Bahattin Düzgün, Adem Kocyigit, Demet Tatar, Ahmet Battal


Tin oxide thin films are semiconductor materials highly transparent and with high mechanical and chemical stability, except for their interactions with oxygen atoms at high temperature. Many dopants, such as antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), fluorine (F), indium (In), molybdenum and (Mo) etc. have been used to improve the electrical properties of tin oxide films. Among these, Sb and F are found to be the most commonly used dopants for solar cell layers. Also Tin oxide tin films investigated and characterized by researchers different film deposition and analysis method. In this study, tin oxide thin films are deposited on glass substrate by spin coating technique and characterized by FTIR and AFM. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that all films have O-Sn-O and Sn-OH vibration bonds not changing with layer effect. AFM analysis indicates that all films are homogeneity and uniform. It can be seen that all films have needle shape structure in their surfaces. Uniformity and homogeneity of the films generally increased for increasing layers. The results found in present study showed that doubly doped SnO2 thin films is a good candidate for solar cells and other optoelectronic and technological applications.

Keywords: doubly doped, spin coating, FTIR analysis, AFM analysis

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5 Solution Growth of Titanium Nitride Nanowires for Implantation Application

Authors: Richard Cross, Roaa Sait


The synthesis and characterization of one dimensional nanostructure such as nanowires has received considerable attention. Much effort has concentrated on TiN material especially in the biological field due to its useful and unique properties in this field. Therefore, for the purpose of this project, synthesis of Titanium Nitride (TiN) nanowires (NWs) will be presented. They will be synthesised by growing titanium dioxide (Ti) NWs in an aqueous solution at low temperatures under atmospheric pressure. Then the grown nanowires will undergo a 'Nitrodation process' in which results in the formation of TiN NWs. The structure, morphology and composition of the grown nanowires will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Obtaining TiN NWs is a challenging task since it has not been formulated before, as far as we acknowledge. This might be due to the fact that nitriding Ti NWs can be difficult in terms of optimizing experimental parameters.

Keywords: nanowires, Deposition, nucleation, spin coating, dissolution-growth, PECVD, scanning electron microscopic analysis, cyclic voltammetry analysis

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4 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver/Graphene Oxide Co-Decorated TiO2 Nanotubular Arrays for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Alireza Rafieerad, Bushroa Abd Razak, Bahman Nasiri Tabrizi, Jamunarani Vadivelu


Recently, reports on the fabrication of nanotubular arrays have generated considerable scientific interest, owing to the broad range of applications of the oxide nanotubes in solar cells, orthopedic and dental implants, photocatalytic devices as well as lithium-ion batteries. A more attractive approach for the fabrication of oxide nanotubes with controllable morphology is the electrochemical anodization of substrate in a fluoride-containing electrolyte. Consequently, titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) have been highly considered as an applicable material particularly in the district of artificial implants. In addition, regarding long-term efficacy and reasons of failing and infection after surgery of currently used dental implants required to enhance the cytocompatibility properties of Ti-based bone-like tissue. As well, graphene oxide (GO) with relevant biocompatibility features in tissue sites, osseointegration and drug delivery functionalization was fully understood. Besides, the boasting antibacterial ability of silver (Ag) remarkably provided for implantable devices without infection symptoms. Here, surface modification of Ti–6Al–7Nb implants (Ti67IMP) by the development of Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs was examined. Initially, the anodic TiO2 nanotubes obtained at a constant potential of 60 V were annealed at 600 degree centigrade for 2 h to improve the adhesion of the coating. Afterward, the Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs were developed by spin coating on Ti67IM. The microstructural features, phase composition and wettability behavior of the nanostructured coating were characterized comparably. In a nutshell, the results of the present study may contribute to the development of the nanostructured Ti67IMP with improved surface properties.

Keywords: Biomedical Applications, Graphene Oxide, Silver, spin coating, anodic tio2 nanotube

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3 Formulation of Hybrid Nanopowder-Molecular Ink for Fabricating Critical Material-Free Cu₂ZnSnS₄ Thin Film Solar Absorber

Authors: Neha Bansal, Anies Mutiari, Martin Artner, Veronika Mayer, Juergen Roth, Mathias Weil, Rachmat Adhi Wibowo


Cu₂ZnSnS₄ (CZTS) compound (mineral name kesterite) has attracted considerable interests for photovoltaic application owing to its optoelectrical properties. Moreover, its elemental abundance in Earth’s crust offers a comparative advantage for envisaged large-scale photovoltaic deployment without any material shortage issues. In this contribution, we present an innovative route to prepare CZTS solar absorber layer for photovoltaic application from low-cost and up-scalable process. CZTS layers were spin coated on the Molybdenum-coated glass from two inks composed of different solvents; dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and ultrapure water. Into each solvent; 0.57M CuCl₂, 0.39M ZnCl₂, 0.53M SnCl₂, and 1.85M Thiourea or Na₂S₂O₃, as well as pre-synthesized CZTS nanopowder, were added as sources of Cu, Zn, Sn and S in the ink. The crystallisation of ink into CZTS dense layers was carried out by firstly annealing the as-deposited CZTS layer in open air at 300°C for 1 minute, followed by sulfurisation at 560–620°C under atmospheric pressure for 120 minutes. Complementary electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations suggest that both solvents can be used for preparing high quality and device relevant CZTS solar absorber layers. The sulphurisation crystallizes the as-deposited CZTS into highly polycrystalline CZTS layer with tetragonal structure demonstrated by the presence of tetrahedrally-shaped grains with the size of 1 µm. An advancement of the CZTS layer preparation was made by gradual substitution of volatile organic compound solvent of DMSO with ultrapure water. It is revealed that by using similar air annealing and sulphurisation process, dense and compact CZTS layers can also be fabricated from an ink with reduced volatile organic compound content.

Keywords: photovoltaics, spin coating, Kesterite, solar ink

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2 A Comparative Study of Single- and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Incorporation to Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes for Solar Cells

Authors: G. Gokceli, O. Eksik, E. Ozkan Zayim, N. Karatepe


Alternative electrode materials for optoelectronic devices have been widely investigated in recent years. Since indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most preferred transparent conductive electrode, producing ITO films by simple and cost-effective solution-based techniques with enhanced optical and electrical properties has great importance. In this study, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT and MWCNT) incorporated into the ITO structure to increase electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and chemical stability. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were firstly functionalized by acid treatment (HNO3:H2SO4), and the thermal resistance of CNTs after functionalization was determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thin films were then prepared by spin coating technique and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-point probe measurement system and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The effects of process parameters were compared for ITO, MWCNT-ITO, and SWCNT-ITO films. Two factors including CNT concentration and annealing temperature were considered. The UV-Vis measurements demonstrated that the transmittance of ITO films was 83.58% at 550 nm, which was decreased depending on the concentration of CNT dopant. On the other hand, both CNT dopants provided an enhancement in the crystalline structure and electrical conductivity. Due to compatible diameter and better dispersibility of SWCNTs in the ITO solution, the best result in terms of electrical conductivity was obtained by SWCNT-ITO films with the 0.1 g/L SWCNT dopant concentration and heat-treatment at 550 °C for 1 hour.

Keywords: thin film, spin coating, CNT incorporation, ITO electrode

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1 Highly Responsive p-NiO/n-rGO Heterojunction Based Self-Powered UV Photodetectors

Authors: Souvik Kundu, P. Joshna


Detection of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is very important as it has exhibited a profound influence on humankind and other existences, including military equipment. In this work, a self-powered UV photodetector was reported based on oxides heterojunctions. The thin films of p-type nickel oxide (NiO) and n-type reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used for the formation of p-n heterojunction. Low-Cost and low-temperature chemical synthesis was utilized to prepare the oxides, and the spin coating technique was employed to deposit those onto indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The top electrode platinum was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. NiO offers strong UV absorption with high hole mobility, and rGO prevents the recombination rate by separating electrons out from the photogenerated carriers. Several structural characterizations such as x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope were used to study the materials crystallinity, microstructures, and surface roughness. On one side, the oxides were found to be polycrystalline in nature, and no secondary phases were present. On the other side, surface roughness was found to be low with no pit holes, which depicts the formation of high-quality oxides thin films. Whereas, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical compositions and oxidation structures. The electrical characterizations such as current-voltage and current response were also performed on the device to determine the responsivity, detectivity, and external quantum efficiency under dark and UV illumination. This p-n heterojunction device offered faster photoresponse and high on-off ratio under 365 nm UV light illumination of zero bias. The device based on the proposed architecture shows the efficacy of the oxides heterojunction for efficient UV photodetection under zero bias, which opens up a new path towards the development of self-powered photodetector for environment and health monitoring sector.

Keywords: Chemical Synthesis, Photodetectors, Oxides, spin coating

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