Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

spent coffee grounds Related Abstracts

3 Cotton Treated with Spent Coffee Extract for Realizing Functional Textiles

Authors: Kyung Hwa Hong

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of spent coffee extract to enhance the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of cotton fabrics. The emergence and spread of infectious diseases has raised a global interest in the antimicrobial substances. The safety of chemical agents, such as antimicrobials and dyes, which may irritate the skin, cause cellular and organ damage, and have adverse environmental impacts during their manufacturing, in relation to the human body has not been established. Nevertheless, there is a growing interest in natural antimicrobials that kill microorganisms or stop their growth without dangerous effects on human health. Spent coffee is the by-product of coffee brewing and amounted to 96,000 tons worldwide in 2015. Coffee components such as caffeine, melanoidins, and chlorogenic acid have been reported to possess multifunctional properties, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Therefore, the current study examined the possibility of applying spent coffee in functional textile finishing. Spent coffee was extracted with 60% methanol solution, and the major components of the extract were quantified. In addition, cotton fabrics treated with spent coffee extract through a pad-dry-cure process were investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract showed an increase in yellowness, which is an unfavorable outcome from the fabric finishing process. However, the cotton fabrics finished with the spent coffee extract exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. In particular, the antioxidant ability significantly increased with increasing concentrations of the spent coffee extract. The finished cotton fabrics showed antimicrobial ability against S. aureus but relatively low antimicrobial ability against K. pneumoniae. Therefore, further investigations are needed to determine the appropriate concentration of spent coffee extract to inhibit the growth of various pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Cotton, antioxidant activity, spent coffee grounds, natural finishing agent

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2 Evaluation of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment for Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Brijesh K. Tiwari, Amit K. Jaiswal, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Abstract:

Waste materials from a wide range of agro-industrial processes may be used as substrates for microbial growth, and subsequently the production of a range of high value products and bioenergy. In addition, utilization of these agro-residues in bioprocesses has the dual advantage of providing alternative substrates, as well as solving their disposal problems. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a by-product (45%) of coffee processing. SCG is a lignocellulosic material, which is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Thus, a pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of such carbohydrates. In this context, microwave pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass without the addition of harsh chemicals represents a green technology. Moreover, microwave treatment has a high heating efficiency and is easy to implement. Thus, microwave pretreatment of SCG without adding of harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, microwave pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG at varying power levels (100, 250, 440, 600, and 1000 W) for 60 s. By increasing microwave power to a certain level (which vary by varying biomass), reducing sugar increases, then reducing sugar from biomass start to decrease with microwave power increase beyond this level. Microwave pretreatment of SCG at 60s followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 91.6 ± 7.0 mg/g of biomass (at microwave power of 100 w). Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose using microwave was found to be an effective and energy efficient technology to improve saccharification and glucose yield. Energy performance will be evaluated for the microwave pretreatment, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol and other high value products.

Keywords: Microwave, Pretreatment, lignocellulose, spent coffee grounds

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1 Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment on Saccharification of Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Brijesh K. Tiwari, Amit K. Jaiswal, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Abstract:

EU is known as the destination with the highest rate of the coffee consumption per capita in the world. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the main by-product of coffee brewing. SCG is either disposed as a solid waste or employed as compost, although the polysaccharides from such lignocellulosic biomass might be used as feedstock for fermentation processes. However, SCG as a lignocellulose have a complex structure and pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates. However, commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Ultrasound is a promising candidate as a sustainable green pretreatment solution for lignocellulosic biomass utilization in a large scale biorefinery. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment of SCG without adding harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, ultrasound pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG using different ultrasound frequencies (25, 35, 45, 130, and 950 kHz) for 60 min. Regardless of ultrasound power, low ultrasound frequency is more effective than high ultrasound frequency in pretreatment of biomass. Ultrasound pretreatment of SCG (at ultrasound frequency of 25 kHz for 60 min) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 56.1 ± 2.8 mg/g of biomass. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose by low frequency ultrasound in water only was found to be an effective green approach for SCG to improve saccharification and glucose yield compared to native biomass. Pretreatment conditions will be optimized, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Pretreatment, lignocellulose, spent coffee grounds

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