Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Speech Related Abstracts

10 A Semantic Analysis of Modal Verbs in Barak Obama’s 2012 Presidential Campaign Speech

Authors: Kais A. Kadhim

Abstract:

This paper is a semantic analysis of the English modals in Obama’s speech. The main objective of this study is to analyze selected modal auxiliaries identified in selected speeches of Obama’s campaign based on Coates’ (1983) semantic clusters. A total of fifteen speeches of Obama’s campaign were selected as the primary data and the modal auxiliaries selected for analysis include will, would, can, could, should, must, ought, shall, may and might. All the modal auxiliaries taken from the speeches of Barack Obama were analyzed based on the framework of Coates’ semantic clusters. Such analytical framework was carried out to examine how modal auxiliaries are used in the context of persuading people in Obama’s campaign speeches. The findings reveal that modals of intention, prediction, futurity and modals of possibility, ability, permission are mostly used in Obama’s campaign speeches.

Keywords: Speech, meaning, Persuasion, modals

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9 EEG and ABER Abnormalities in Children with Speech and Language Delay

Authors: Bharati Mehta, Manish Parakh, Bharti Bhandari, Sneha Ambwani

Abstract:

Speech and language delay (SLD) is seen commonly as a co-morbidity in children having severe resistant focal and generalized, syndromic and symptomatic epilepsies. It is however not clear whether epilepsy contributes to or is a mere association in the pathogenesis of SLD. Also, it is acknowledged that Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABER), besides used for evaluating hearing threshold, also aid in prognostication of neurological disorders and abnormalities in the hearing pathway in the brainstem. There is no circumscribed or surrogate neurophysiologic laboratory marker to adjudge the extent of SLD. The current study was designed to evaluate the abnormalities in Electroencephalography (EEG) and ABER in children with SLD who do not have an overt hearing deficit or autism. 94 children of age group 2-8 years with predominant SLD and without any gross motor developmental delay, head injury, gross hearing disorder, cleft lip/palate and autism were selected. Standard video Electroencephalography using the 10:20 international system and ABER after click stimulus with intensities 110 db until 40 db was performed in all children. EEG was abnormal in 47.9% (n= 45; 36 boys and 9 girls) children. In the children with abnormal EEG, 64.5% (n=29) had an abnormal background, 57.8% (n=27) had presence of generalized interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), 20% (n=9) had focal epileptiform discharges exclusively from left side and 33.3% (n=15) had multifocal IEDs occurring both in isolation or associated with generalised abnormalities. In ABER, surprisingly, the peak latencies for waves I, III & V, inter-peak latencies I-III & I-V, III-V and wave amplitude ratio V/I, were found within normal limits in both ears of all the children. Thus in the current study it is certain that presence of generalized IEDs in EEG are seen in higher frequency with SLD and focal IEDs are seen exclusively in left hemisphere in these children. It may be possible that even with generalized EEG abnormalities present in these children, left hemispheric abnormalities as a part of this generalized dysfunction may be responsible for the speech and language dysfunction. The current study also emphasizes that ABER may not be routinely recommended as diagnostic or prognostic tool in children with SLD without frank hearing deficit or autism, thus reducing the burden on electro physiologists, laboratories and saving time and financial resources.

Keywords: Speech, eeg, ABER, language delay

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8 An Analysis of Illocutioary Act in Martin Luther King Jr.'s Propaganda Speech Entitled 'I Have a Dream'

Authors: Mahgfirah Firdaus Soberatta

Abstract:

Language cannot be separated from human life. Humans use language to convey ideas, thoughts, and feelings. We can use words for different things for example like asserted, advising, promise, give opinions, hopes, etc. Propaganda is an attempt which seeks to obtain stable behavior to adopt everyone to his everyday life. It also controls the thoughts and attitudes of individuals in social settings permanent. In this research, the writer will discuss about the speech act in a propaganda speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. in Washington at Lincoln Memorial on August 28, 1963. 'I Have a Dream' is a public speech delivered by American civil rights activist MLK, he calls from an end to racism in USA. In this research, the writer uses Searle theory to analyze the types of illocutionary speech act that used by Martin Luther King Jr. in his propaganda speech. In this research, the writer uses a qualitative method described in descriptive, because the research wants to describe and explain the types of illocutionary speech acts used by Martin Luther King Jr. in his propaganda speech. The findings indicate that there are five types of speech acts in Martin Luther King Jr. speech. MLK also used direct speech and indirect speech in his propaganda speech. However, direct speech is the dominant speech act that MLK used in his propaganda speech. It is hoped that this research is useful for the readers to enrich their knowledge in a particular field of pragmatic speech acts.

Keywords: Speech, propaganda, speech act, Martin Luther King Jr

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7 Acoustic Analysis for Comparison and Identification of Normal and Disguised Speech of Individuals

Authors: Surbhi Mathur, J. M. Vyas

Abstract:

Although the rapid development of forensic speaker recognition technology has been conducted, there are still many problems to be solved. The biggest problem arises when the cases involving disguised voice samples come across for the purpose of examination and identification. Such type of voice samples of anonymous callers is frequently encountered in crimes involving kidnapping, blackmailing, hoax extortion and many more, where the speaker makes a deliberate effort to manipulate their natural voice in order to conceal their identity due to the fear of being caught. Voice disguise causes serious damage to the natural vocal parameters of the speakers and thus complicates the process of identification. The sole objective of this doctoral project is to find out the possibility of rendering definite opinions in cases involving disguised speech by experimentally determining the effects of different disguise forms on personal identification and percentage rate of speaker recognition for various voice disguise techniques such as raised pitch, lower pitch, increased nasality, covering the mouth, constricting tract, obstacle in mouth etc by analyzing and comparing the amount of phonetic and acoustic variation in of artificial (disguised) and natural sample of an individual, by auditory as well as spectrographic analysis.

Keywords: Identification, Forensic, Speech, Speaker recognition, voice, disguise

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6 A Profile of the Patients at the Hearing and Speech Clinic at the University of Jordan: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Maisa Haj-Tas, Jehad Alaraifi

Abstract:

The significance of the study: This retrospective study examined the speech and language profiles of patients who received clinical services at the University of Jordan Hearing and Speech Clinic (UJ-HSC) from 2009 to 2014. The UJ-HSC clinic is located in the capital Amman and was established in the late 1990s. It is the first hearing and speech clinic in Jordan and one of first speech and hearing clinics in the Middle East. This clinic provides services to an annual average of 2000 patients who are diagnosed with different communication disorders. Examining the speech and language profiles of patients in this clinic could provide an insight about the most common disorders seen in patients who attend similar clinics in Jordan. It could also provide information about community awareness of the role of speech therapists in the management of speech and language disorders. Methodology: The researchers examined the clinical records of 1140 patients (797 males and 343 females) who received clinical services at the UJ-HSC between the years 2009 and 2014 for the purpose of data analysis for this study. The main variables examined in the study were disorder type and gender. Participants were divided into four age groups: children, adolescents, adults, and older adults. The examined disorders were classified as either speech disorders, language disorders, or dysphagia (i.e., swallowing problems). The disorders were further classified as childhood language impairments, articulation disorders, stuttering, cluttering, voice disorders, aphasia, and dysphagia. Results: The results indicated that the prevalence for language disorders was the highest (50.7%) followed by speech disorders (48.3%), and dysphagia (0.9%). The majority of patients who were seen at the JU-HSC were diagnosed with childhood language impairments (47.3%) followed consecutively by articulation disorders (21.1%), stuttering (16.3%), voice disorders (12.1%), aphasia (2.2%), dysphagia (0.9%), and cluttering (0.2%). As for gender, the majority of patients seen at the clinic were males in all disorders except for voice disorders and cluttering. Discussion: The results of the present study indicate that the majority of examined patients were diagnosed with childhood language impairments. Based on this result, the researchers suggest that there seems to be a high prevalence of childhood language impairments among children in Jordan compared to other types of speech and language disorders. The researchers also suggest that there is a need for further examination of the actual prevalence data on speech and language disorders in Jordan. The fact that many of the children seen at the UJ-HSC were brought to the clinic either as a result of parental concern or teacher referral indicates that there seems to an increased awareness among parents and teachers about the services speech pathologists can provide about assessment and treatment of childhood speech and language disorders. The small percentage of other disorders (i.e., stuttering, cluttering, dysphasia, aphasia, and voice disorders) seen at the UJ-HSC may indicate a little awareness by the local community about the role of speech pathologists in the assessment and treatment of these disorders.

Keywords: Language, Speech, Disorders, profile, clinic

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5 Childhood Apraxia of Speech and Autism: Interaction Influences and Treatment

Authors: Elad Vashdi

Abstract:

It is common to find speech deficit among children diagnosed with Autism. It can be found in the clinical field and recently in research. One of the DSM-V criteria suggests a speech delay (Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language), but doesn't explain the cause of it. A common perception among professionals and families is that the inability to talk results from the autism. Autism is a name for a syndrome which just describes a phenomenon and is defined behaviorally. Since it is not based yet on a physiological gold standard, one can not conclude the nature of a deficit based on the name of the syndrome. A wide retrospective research (n=270) which included children with motor speech difficulties was conducted in Israel. The study analyzed entry evaluations in a private clinic during the years 2006-2013. The data was extracted from the reports. High percentage of children diagnosed with Autism (60%) was found. This result demonstrates the high relationship between Autism and motor speech problem. It also supports recent findings in research of Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) occurrence among children with ASD. Only small percentage of the participants in this research (10%) were diagnosed with CAS even though their verbal deficits well fitted the guidelines for CAS diagnosis set by ASHA in 2007. This fact raises questions regarding the diagnostic procedure in Israel. The understanding that CAS might highly exist within Autism and can have a remarkable influence on the course of early development should be a guiding tool within the diagnosis procedure. CAS can explain the nature of the speech problem among some of the autistic children and guide the treatment in a more accurate way. Calculating the prevalence of CAS which includes the comorbidity with ASD reveals new numbers and suggests treating differently the CAS population.

Keywords: Speech, treatment, autism, childhood apraxia of speech

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4 Effects of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Speech and Communication Skills of Children with Autism

Authors: Aristi Alopoudi, Sofia Beloka, Vassiliki Pliogou

Abstract:

Autism is a complex neuro-developmental disorder with a variety of difficulties in many aspects such as social interaction, communication skills and verbal communication (speech). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of therapeutic horseback riding in improving the verbal and communication skills of children diagnosed with autism during 16 sessions. The researcher examined whether the expression of speech, the use of vocabulary, semantics, pragmatics, echolalia and communication skills were influenced by the therapeutic horseback riding when we increase the frequency of the sessions. The researcher observed two subjects of primary-school aged, in a two case observation design, with autism during 16 therapeutic horseback riding sessions (one riding session per week). Compared to baseline, at the end of the 16th therapeutic session, therapeutic horseback riding increased both verbal skills such as vocabulary, semantics, pragmatics, formation of sentences and communication skills such as eye contact, greeting, participation in dialogue and spontaneous speech. It was noticeable that echolalia remained stable. Increased frequency of therapeutic horseback riding was beneficial for significant improvement in verbal and communication skills. More specifically, from the first to the last riding session there was a great increase of vocabulary, semantics, and formation of sentences. Pragmatics reached a lower level than semantics but the same as the right usage of the first person (for example, I make a hug) and echolalia used for that. A great increase of spontaneous speech was noticed. The eye contact was presented in a lower level, and there was a slow but important raise at the greeting as well as the participation in dialogue. Last but not least; this is a first study conducted in therapeutic horseback riding studying the verbal communication and communication skills in autistic children. According to the references, therapeutic horseback riding is a therapy with a variety of benefits, thus; this research made clear that in the benefits of this therapy there should be included the improvement of verbal speech and communication.

Keywords: Speech, autism, Communication Skills, therapeutic horseback riding

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3 The Language Use of Middle Eastern Freedom Activists' Speeches: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas

Abstract:

Examining the role of Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech based on gender perspective is considered noteworthy because the society in the Middle East is patriarchal. This research aims to examine the language use of the Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speeches through gender perspective. The data sources are from male and female Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech videos. In analyzing the data, the theories employed are about Language Style from Gender Perspective and The Language for Speech. The result reveals that there are sets of spoken language differences between male and female speakers. In using the language for speech, both male and female speakers produce metaphor, euphemism, the ‘rule of three’, parallelism, and pronouns in random frequency of production, which cannot be separated by genders. Moreover, it cannot be concluded that one gender is more potential than the other to influence the audience in delivering speech. There are other factors, particularly non-verbal factors, existing to give impacts on how a speech can influence the audience.

Keywords: Speech, language use, gender perspective, Middle Eastern freedom activists

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2 Multimodal Database of Emotional Speech, Video and Gestures

Authors: Tomasz Sapiński, Dorota Kamińska, Adam Pelikant, Egils Avots, Cagri Ozcinar, Gholamreza Anbarjafari

Abstract:

People express emotions through different modalities. Integration of verbal and non-verbal communication channels creates a system in which the message is easier to understand. Expanding the focus to several expression forms can facilitate research on emotion recognition as well as human-machine interaction. In this article, the authors present a Polish emotional database composed of three modalities: facial expressions, body movement and gestures, and speech. The corpora contains recordings registered in studio conditions, acted out by 16 professional actors (8 male and 8 female). The data is labeled with six basic emotions categories, according to Ekman’s emotion categories. To check the quality of performance, all recordings are evaluated by experts and volunteers. The database is available to academic community and might be useful in the study on audio-visual emotion recognition.

Keywords: Speech, Emotion recognition, gestures, body movement, facial expressions, emotional corpus, multimodal database

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1 The Importance of Right Speech in Buddhism and Its Relevance Today

Authors: Gautam Sharda

Abstract:

The concept of right speech is the third stage of the noble eightfold path as prescribed by the Buddha and followed by millions of practicing Buddhists. The Buddha lays a lot of importance on the notion of right speech (Samma Vacca). In the Angutara Nikaya, the Buddha mentioned what constitutes right speech, which is basically four kinds of abstentions; namely abstaining from false speech, abstaining from slanderous speech, abstaining from harsh or hateful speech and abstaining from idle chatter. The Buddha gives reasons in support of his view as to why abstaining from these four kinds of speeches is favourable not only for maintaining the peace and equanimity within an individual but also within a society. It is a known fact that when we say something harsh or slanderous to others, it eventually affects our individual peace of mind too. We also know about the many examples of hate speeches which have led to senseless cases of violence and which are well documented within our country and the world. Also, indulging in false speech is not a healthy sign for individuals within a group as this kind of a social group which is based on falsities and lies cannot really survive for long and will eventually lead to chaos. Buddha also told us to refrain from idle chatter or gossip as generally we have seen that idle chatter or gossip does more harm than any good to the individual and the society. Hence, if most of us actually inculcate this third stage (namely, right speech) of the noble eightfold path of the Buddha in our daily life, it would be highly beneficial both for the individual and for the harmony of the society.

Keywords: Society, Speech, Individual, Buddhism

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