Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Spectroscopy Related Abstracts

17 Modified Surface Morphology, Structure and Enhanced Weathering Performance of Polyester-Urethane/Organoclay Nanocomposite Coatings

Authors: Gaurav Verma

Abstract:

Organoclay loaded (0-5 weight %) polyester-urethane (PU) coatings were prepared with a branched hydroxyl-bearing polyester and an aliphatic poly-isocyanate. TEM micrographs show partial exfoliation and intercalation of clay platelets in organoclay-polyester dispersions. AFM surface images reveals that the PU hard domains tend to regularise and also self-organise into spherical shapes of sizes 50 nm (0 wt %), 60 nm (2 wt %) and 190 nm (4 wt %) respectively. IR analysis shows that PU chains have increasing tendency to interact with exfoliated clay platelets through hydrogen bonding. This interaction strengthens inter-chain linkages in PU matrix and hence improves anti-ageing properties. 1000 hours of accelerated weathering was evaluated by ATR spectroscopy, while yellowing and overall discoloration was quantified by the Δb* and ΔE* values of the CIELab colour scale. Post-weathering surface properties also showed improvement as the loss of thickness and reduction in gloss in neat PU was 25% and 42%; while it was just 3.5% and 14% respectively for the 2 wt% nanocomposite coating. This work highlights the importance of modifying surface and bulk properties of PU coatings at nanoscale, which led to improved performance in accelerated weathering conditions.

Keywords: Coatings, Ageing, Spectroscopy, AFM

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16 Isolation and Structural Elucidation of 20 Hydroxyecdystone from Vitex doniana Sweet Stem Bark

Authors: Mustapha A. Tijjani, Fanna I. Abdulrahman, Irfan Z. Khan, Umar K. Sandabe, Cong Li

Abstract:

Air dried sample V. doniana after collection and identification was extracted with ethanol and further partition with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Ethanolic extract (11.9g) was fractionated on a silica gel accelerated column chromatography using solvents such as n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Each eluent fractions (150ml aliquots) were collected and monitored with thin layer chromatography. Fractions with similar Rf values from same solvents system were pooled together. Phytochemical test of all the fractions were performed using standard procedure. Complete elution yielded 48 fractions (150ml/fraction) which were pooled to 24 fractions base on the Rf values. It was further recombined and 12 fractions were obtained on the basis on Rf values and coded Vd1 to Vd12 fractions. Vd8 was further eluted with ethylacetate and methanol and gave fourteen sub fractions Vd8-a, -Vd8-m. Fraction Vd8-a (56mg) gave a white crystal compound coded V1. It was further checked on TLC and observed under ultraviolet lamp and was found to give a single spot. The Rf values were calculated to be 0.433. The melting point was determined using Gallenkamp capillary melting point apparatus and found to be 241-243°C uncorrected. Characterization of the isolated compound coded V1 was done using FT-infra-red spectroscopy, HNMR, 13CNMR(1and 2D) and HRESI-MS. The IR spectrum of compound V1 shows prominent peaks that corresponds to OHstr (3365cm-1) and C=0 (1652cm-1) etc. This spectrum suggests that among the functional moiety in compound V1 are the carbonyl and hydroxyl group. The 1H NMR (400 MHz) spectrum of compound V1 in DMSO-d6 displayed five singlet signals at δ 0.72 (3H, s, H-18), 0.79 (3H, s, H-19), 1.03 (3H, s, H-21), 1.04 (3H, s, H-26), 1.06 (3H, s, H-27) each integrating for three protons indicating the five methyl functional groups present in the compound. It further showed a broad singlet at δ 5.58 integrated for 1 H due to an olefinic H-atom adjacent to the carbonyl carbon atom. Three signals at δ 3.10 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, H-22), 3.59 (m, 1H, 2H-a) and 3.72 (m, 1H, 3H-e), each integrating for one proton is due to oxymethine protons indicating that three oxymethine H-atoms are present in the compound. These all signals are characteristic to the ecdysteroid skeletons. The 13C-NMR spectrum showed the presence of 27 carbon atoms, suggesting that may be steroid skeleton. The DEPT-135 experiment showed the presence of five CH3, eight CH2, and seven CH groups, and seven quaternary C-atoms. The molecular formula was established as C27H44O7 by high resolution electron spray ionization-mass spectroscopy (HRESI-MS) positive ion mode m/z 481.3179. The signals in mass spectrum are 463, 445, and 427 peaks corresponding to losses of one, two, three, or four water molecules characteristic for ecdysterone skeleton reported in the literature. Based on the spectral analysis (HNMR, 13CNMR, DEPT, HMQC, IR, HRESI-MS) the compound V1 is thus concluded to have ecdysteriod skeleton and conclusively conforms with 2β, 3β 14α, 20R, 22R, 25-hexahydroxy-5 β cholest-7-ene-6- one, or 2, 3, 14, 20, 22, 25 hexahydroxy cholest-7-ene-6-one commonly known as 20-hydroxyecdysone.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Purification, Chromatography, Isolation, phytochemical, vitex

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15 Spectroscopy Study of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil for Pharmaceutical Applications

Authors: Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Nany Hairunisa

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the thermal properties and spectroscopy study of Malaysian Jatropha curcas seed oil. The J. curcas seed oil physicochemical properties such as free fatty acid (FFA %), acid value, saponification value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter, and viscosity (cp) gave values of 1.89±0.10%, 3.76±0.07, 203.36±0.36 mg/g, 4.90±0.25, 1.76±0.03%, and 32, respectively. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to determine the fatty acids (FAs) composition. J. curcas seed oil is consisting of saturated FAs (19.55%) such as palmitic (13.19%), palmitoleic (0.40%), and stearic (6.36%) acids and unsaturated FAs (80.42%) such as oleic (43.32%) and linoleic (36.70%) acids. The thermal properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that crystallized TAG was observed at -6.79°C. The melting curves displayed three major exothermic regions of J. curcas seed oil, monounsaturated (lower-temperature peak) at -31.69°C, di-unsaturated (medium temperature peak) at -20.23°C and tri-unsaturated (higher temperature peak) at -12.72°C. The results of this study showed that the J. curcas seed oil is a plausible source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to be developed in the future for pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: Crystallization, Spectroscopy, Melting, Thermal Properties, Jatropha curcas seed oil

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14 Effect of Doping Ag and N on the Photo-Catalytic Activity of ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Degradation of Methyl Orange under UV and Visible Radiation

Authors: O. P. Yadav

Abstract:

Nano-size Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite photo-catalyst has been synthesized by chemical method and characterized using XRD, TEM, FTIR, AAS and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. Photo-catalytic activity of as-synthesized nanomaterial has been studied using degradation of methyl orange as a probe under UV as well as visible radiations. Ag-N co-doped ZnO/CuO composite showed higher photo-catalytic activity than Ag- or N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO-CuO composite photo-catalysts. The observed highest activity of Ag-N co-doped ZnO-CuO among the studied photo-catalysts is attributed to the cumulative effects of lowering of band-gap energy and decrease of recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes owing to doped N and Ag, respectively. Effects of photo-catalyst load, pH and substrate initial concentration on degradation of methyl orange have also been studied. Photo-catalytic degradation of methyl orange follows pseudo first order kinetics.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, nanocomposite, degradation, XRD, photocatalyst

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13 Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Murada Alholy, Mengshi Lin, Omar Alhaj, Mahmoud Abugoush

Abstract:

Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, bacillus, PCA, FT-IR, alicyclobacillus

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12 Soil Macronutrients Sensing for Precision Agriculture Purpose Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Hossein Navid, Maryam Adeli Khadem, Shahin Oustan, Mahmoud Zareie

Abstract:

Among the nutrients needed by the plants, three elements containing nitrate, phosphorus and potassium are more important. The objective of this research was measuring these nutrient amounts in soil using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in range of 400- 4000 cm-1. Soil samples for different soil types (sandy, clay and loam) were collected from different areas of East Azerbaijan. Three types of fertilizers in conventional farming (urea, triple superphosphate, potassium sulphate) were used for soil treatment. Each specimen was divided into two categories: The first group was used in the laboratory (direct measurement) to extract nitrate, phosphorus and potassium uptake by colorimetric method of Olsen and ammonium acetate. The second group was used to measure drug absorption spectrometry. In spectrometry, the small amount of soil samples mixed with KBr and was taken in a small pill form. For the tests, the pills were put in the center of infrared spectrometer and graphs were obtained. Analysis of data was done using MINITAB and PLSR software. The data obtained from spectrometry method were compared with amount of soil nutrients obtained from direct drug absorption using EXCEL software. There were good fitting between these two data series. For nitrate, phosphorus and potassium R2 was 79.5%, 92.0% and 81.9%, respectively. Also, results showed that the range of MIR (mid-infrared) is appropriate for determine the amount of soil nitrate and potassium and can be used in future research to obtain detailed maps of land in agricultural use.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Phosphorus, potassium, nitrate, soil nutrients

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11 Green Synthesis of Silver and Silver-Gold Alloy Nanoparticle Using Cyanobacteria as Bioreagent

Authors: Piya Roychoudhury, Ruma Pal

Abstract:

Cyanobacteria, commonly known as blue green algae were found to be an effective bioreagent for nanoparticle synthesis. Nowadays silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are very popular due to their antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activity. To exploit these characters in different biotechnological fields, it is very essential to synthesize more stable, non-toxic nano-silver. For this reason silver-gold alloy (Ag-AuNPs) nanoparticles are of great interest as they are more stable, harder and more effective than single metal nanoparticles. In the present communication we described a simple technique for rapid synthesis of biocompatible AgNP and Ag-AuNP employing cyanobacteria, Leptolyngbya and Lyngbya respectively. For synthesis of AgNP the biomass of Leptolyngbya valderiana (200 mg Fresh weight) was exposed to 9 mM AgNO3 solution (pH 4). For synthesis of Ag-AuNP Lyngbya majuscula (200 mg Fresh weight) was exposed to equimolar solution of hydrogen tetra-auro chlorate and silver nitrate (1mM, pH 4). After 72 hrs of exposure thallus of Leptolyngyba turned brown in color and filaments of Lyngbya turned pink in color that indicated synthesis of nanoparticles. The produced particles were extracted from the cyanobacterial biomass using nano-capping agent, sodium citrate. Firstly, extracted brown and pink suspensions were taken for Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis to confirm the presence of silver in brown suspension and presence of both gold and silver in pink suspension. Extracted nanoparticles showed a distinct single plasmon band (AgNP at 411 nm; Ag-Au NP at 481 nm) in Uv-vis spectroscopy. It was revealed from Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that all the synthesized particles were spherical in nature with a size range of ~2-25 nm. In X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis four intense peaks appeared at 38.2°, 44.5°, 64.8°and 77.8° which confirmed the crystallographic nature of synthesized particles. Presence of different functional groups viz. N-H, C=C, C–O, C=O on the surface of nanoparticles were recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the surface topography of metal treated filaments of cyanobacteria. The stability of the particles was observed by Zeta potential study. Antibiotic property of synthesized particles was tested by Agar well diffusion method against gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Overall, this green-technique requires low energy, less manufacturing cost and produces rapidly eco-friendly metal nanoparticles.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Cyanobacteria, Silver Nanoparticles, silver-gold alloy nanoparticles

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10 Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy for the Characterization of CdSxSe1-x Quantum Dots in a Glass Matrix

Authors: C. Fornacelli, P. Colomban, E. Mugnaioli, I. Memmi Turbanti

Abstract:

When semiconductor particles are reduced in scale to nanometer dimension, their optical and electro-optical properties strongly differ from those of bulk crystals of the same composition. Since sampling is often not allowed concerning cultural heritage artefacts, the potentialities of two non-invasive techniques, such as Raman and Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS), have been investigated and the results of the analysis on some original glasses of different colours (from yellow to orange and deep red) and periods (from the second decade of the 20th century to present days) are reported in the present study. In order to evaluate the potentialities of the application of non-invasive techniques to the investigation of the structure and distribution of nanoparticles dispersed in a glass matrix, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy-disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, together with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Diffraction Tomography (EDT) have also been used. Raman spectroscopy allows a fast and non-destructive measure of the quantum dots composition and size, thanks to the evaluation of the frequencies and the broadening/asymmetry of the LO phonons bands, respectively, though the important role of the compressive strain arising from the glass matrix and the possible diffusion of zinc from the matrix to the nanocrystals should be taken into account when considering the optical-phonons frequency values. The incorporation of Zn has been assumed by an upward shifting of the LO band related to the most abundant anion (S or Se), while the role of the surface phonons as well as the confinement-induced scattering by phonons with a non-zero wavevectors on the Raman peaks broadening has been verified. The optical band gap varies from 2.42 eV (pure CdS) to 1.70 eV (CdSe). For the compositional range between 0.5≤x≤0.2, the presence of two absorption edges has been related to the contribution of both pure CdS and the CdSxSe1-x solid solution; this particular feature is probably due to the presence of unaltered cubic zinc blende structures of CdS that is not taking part to the formation of the solid solution occurring only between hexagonal CdS and CdSe. Moreover, the band edge tailing originating from the disorder due to the formation of weak bonds and characterized by the Urbach edge energy has been studied and, together with the FWHM of the Raman signal, has been assumed as a good parameter to evaluate the degree of topological disorder. SEM-EDS mapping showed a peculiar distribution of the major constituents of the glass matrix (fluxes and stabilizers), especially concerning those samples where a layered structure has been assumed thanks to the spectroscopic study. Finally, TEM-EDS and EDT were used to get high-resolution information about nanocrystals (NCs) and heterogeneous glass layers. The presence of ZnO NCs (< 4 nm) dispersed in the matrix has been verified for most of the samples, while, for those samples where a disorder due to a more complex distribution of the size and/or composition of the NCs has been assumed, the TEM clearly verified most of the assumption made by the spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Glass, CdSxSe1-x, EDT, TEM-EDS

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9 Optical Characterization of Lead Sulphide Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

Authors: Ekpekpo Arthur

Abstract:

Thin films can either be conductive or dielectric (non-conductive). It is formed through atom/molecules state or formed after decomposing the materials into atomic/molecular scale by physical or chemical processes. In this study, thin films of Lead Sulphide were deposited on glass substrate prepared from lead acetate and thiourea solution using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The glass slides were subjected to the pretreatment by soaking them in a solution of 50% sulphuric acid and 50% nitric acid. Lead sulphide was deposited at different parameters such as deposition time and temperature. The optical properties of the thin films were determined from spectroscopy measurements of absorbance and reflectance. Optical studies show that the band gap of lead sulphide ranges between 0.41 eV to 300K.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, reflectance, lead sulphide, absorbance

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8 Biological Studies of N-O Donor 4-Acypyrazolone Heterocycle and Its Pd/Pt Complexes of Therapeutic Importance

Authors: Omoruyi Gold Idemudia, Alexander P. Sadimenko

Abstract:

The synthesis of N-heterocycles with novel properties, having broad spectrum biological activities that may become alternative medicinal drugs, have been attracting a lot of research attention due to the emergence of medicinal drug’s limitations such as disease resistance and their toxicity effects among others. Acylpyrazolones have been employed as pharmaceuticals as well as analytical reagent and their application as coordination complexes with transition metal ions have been well established. By way of a condensation reaction with amines acylpyrazolone ketones form a more chelating and superior group of compounds known as azomethines. 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one was reacted with phenylhydrazine to get a new phenylhydrazone which was further reacted with aqueous solutions of palladium and platinum salts, in an effort towards the discovery of transition metal based synthetic drugs. The compounds were characterized by means of analytical, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric analysis TGA, as well as x-ray crystallography. 4-propyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one phenylhydrazone crystallizes in a triclinic crystal system with a P-1 (No. 2) space group based on x-ray crystallography. The bidentate ON ligand formed a square planar geometry on coordinating with metal ions based on FTIR, electronic and NMR spectra as well as magnetic moments. Reported compounds showed antibacterial activities against the nominated bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion technique at 20 mg/ml in triplicates. The metal complexes exhibited a better antibacterial activity with platinum complex having an MIC value of 0.63 mg/ml. Similarly, ligand and complexes also showed antioxidant scavenging properties against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical at 0.5mg/ml relative to ascorbic acid (standard drug).

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Metal Complexes, acylpyrazolone, antibacterial studies, phenylhydrazone

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7 Biophysical Study of the Interaction of Harmalol with Nucleic Acids of Different Motifs: Spectroscopic and Calorimetric Approaches

Authors: Kakali Bhadra

Abstract:

Binding of small molecules to DNA and recently to RNA, continues to attract considerable attention for developing effective therapeutic agents for control of gene expression. This work focuses towards understanding interaction of harmalol, a dihydro beta-carboline alkaloid, with different nucleic acid motifs viz. double stranded CT DNA, single stranded A-form poly(A), double-stranded A-form of poly(C)·poly(G) and clover leaf tRNAphe by different spectroscopic, calorimetric and molecular modeling techniques. Results of this study converge to suggest that (i) binding constant varied in the order of CT DNA > poly(C)·poly(G) > tRNAphe > poly(A), (ii) non-cooperative binding of harmalol to poly(C)·poly(G) and poly(A) and cooperative binding with CT DNA and tRNAphe, (iii) significant structural changes of CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe with concomitant induction of optical activity in the bound achiral alkaloid molecules, while with poly(A) no intrinsic CD perturbation was observed, (iv) the binding was predominantly exothermic, enthalpy driven, entropy favoured with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) while it was entropy driven with tRNAphe and poly(A), (v) a hydrophobic contribution and comparatively large role of non-polyelectrolytic forces to Gibbs energy changes with CT DNA, poly(C)·poly(G) and tRNAphe, and (vi) intercalated state of harmalol with CT DNA and poly(C)·poly(G) structure as revealed from molecular docking and supported by the viscometric data. Furthermore, with competition dialysis assay it was shown that harmalol prefers hetero GC sequences. All these findings unequivocally pointed out that harmalol prefers binding with ds CT DNA followed by ds poly(C)·poly(G), clover leaf tRNAphe and least with ss poly(A). The results highlight the importance of structural elements in these natural beta-carboline alkaloids in stabilizing different DNA and RNA of various motifs for developing nucleic acid based better therapeutic agents.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Calorimetry, docking, DNA/RNA-alkaloid interaction, harmalol

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6 Experimental Device for Fluorescence Measurement by Optical Fiber Combined with Dielectrophoretic Sorting in Microfluidic Chips

Authors: Jan Jezek, Zdenek Pilat, Filip Smatlo, Pavel Zemanek

Abstract:

We present a device that combines fluorescence spectroscopy with fiber optics and dielectrophoretic micromanipulation in PDMS (poly-(dimethylsiloxane)) microfluidic chips. The device allows high speed detection (in the order of kHz) of the fluorescence signal, which is coming from the sample by an inserted optical fiber, e.g. from a micro-droplet flow in a microfluidic chip, or even from the liquid flowing in the transparent capillary, etc. The device uses a laser diode at a wavelength suitable for excitation of fluorescence, excitation and emission filters, optics for focusing the laser radiation into the optical fiber, and a highly sensitive fast photodiode for detection of fluorescence. The device is combined with dielectrophoretic sorting on a chip for sorting of micro-droplets according to their fluorescence intensity. The electrodes are created by lift-off technology on a glass substrate, or by using channels filled with a soft metal alloy or an electrolyte. This device found its use in screening of enzymatic reactions and sorting of individual fluorescently labelled microorganisms. The authors acknowledge the support from the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (GA16-07965S) and Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (LO1212) together with the European Commission (ALISI No. CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0017).

Keywords: laser, Spectroscopy, Fiber Optics, dielectrophoretic sorting, microfluidic chips, microdroplets

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5 Phase Detection Using Infrared Spectroscopy: A Build up to Inline Gas–Liquid Flow Characterization

Authors: Kwame Sarkodie, William Cheung, Andrew R. Fergursson

Abstract:

The characterization of multiphase flow has gained enormous attention for most petroleum and chemical industrial processes. In order to fully characterize fluid phases in a stream or containment, there needs to be a profound knowledge of the existing composition of fluids present. This introduces a problem for real-time monitoring of fluid dynamics such as fluid distributions, and phase fractions. This work presents a simple technique of correlating absorbance spectrums of water, oil and air bubble present in containment. These spectra absorption outputs are derived by using an Fourier Infrared spectrometer. During the testing, air bubbles were introduced into static water column and oil containment and with light absorbed in the infrared regions of specific wavelength ranges. Attenuation coefficients are derived for various combinations of water, gas and oil which reveal the presence of each phase in the samples. The results from this work are preliminary and viewed as a build up to the design of a multiphase flow rig which has an infrared sensor pair to be used for multiphase flow characterization.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Infrared, Attenuation, multiphase

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4 Fluorination Renders the Wood Surface Hydrophobic without Any Loos of Physical and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Martial Pouzet, Marc Dubois, Karine Charlet, Alexis Béakou

Abstract:

The availability, the ecologic and economic characteristics of wood are advantages which explain the very wide scope of applications of this material, in several domains such as paper industry, furniture, carpentry and building. However, wood is a hygroscopic material highly sensitive to ambient humidity and temperature. The swelling and the shrinking caused by water absorption and desorption cycles lead to crack and deformation in the wood volume, making it incompatible for such applications. In this study, dynamic fluorination using F2 gas was applied to wood samples (douglas and silver fir species) to decrease their hydrophilic character. The covalent grafting of fluorine atoms onto wood surface through a conversion of C-OH group into C-F was validated by Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy and 19F solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. It revealed that the wood, which is initially hydrophilic, acquired a hydrophobic character comparable to that of the Teflon, thanks to fluorination. A good durability of this treatment was also determined by aging tests under ambient atmosphere and under UV irradiation. Moreover, this treatment allowed obtaining hydrophobic character without major structural (morphology, density and colour) or mechanical changes. The maintaining of these properties after fluorination, which requires neither toxic solvent nor heating, appears as a remarkable advantage over other more traditional physical and chemical wood treatments.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Surface treatment, Cellulose, water absorption

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3 Bioactive Rare Acetogenins from the Red Alga Laurencia obtusa

Authors: Nahed O. Bawakid, Walied M. Alarif, Mohamed A. Ghandourah

Abstract:

Halogenated cyclic enynes and terpenoids are commonly identified among secondary metabolites of the genus Laurencia. Laurencian acetogenins are entirly C15 non-terpenoid haloethers with different carbocyclic nuclei; a specimen of the Red Sea red alga L. obtusa was investigated for its acetogenin content. The dichloromethane extract of the air-dried red algal material was fractionated on aluminum oxide column preparative thin-layer chromatography. Three new rare C12 acetogenin derivatives (1-3) were isolated from the organic extract obtained from Laurencia obtusa, collected from the territorial Red Sea water of Saudi Arabia. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by means of spectroscopical data analyses. Examining the isolated compounds in activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed potent Anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by inhibition of NFκB and release of other inflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Anti-Inflammatory, Fatty Acids, Red Sea, red algae

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2 Online Monitoring and Control of Continuous Mechanosynthesis by UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

Authors: John Mack, Darren A. Whitaker, Dan Palmer, Jens Wesholowski, James Flaherty, Ahmad B. Albadarin, Gavin Walker

Abstract:

Traditional mechanosynthesis has been performed by either ball milling or manual grinding. However, neither of these techniques allow the easy application of process control. The temperature may change unpredictably due to friction in the process. Hence the amount of energy transferred to the reactants is intrinsically non-uniform. Recently, it has been shown that the use of Twin-Screw extrusion (TSE) can overcome these limitations. Additionally, TSE enables a platform for continuous synthesis or manufacturing as it is an open-ended process, with feedstocks at one end and product at the other. Several materials including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), co-crystals and small organic molecules have been produced mechanochemically using TSE. The described advantages of TSE are offset by drawbacks such as increased process complexity (a large number of process parameters) and variation in feedstock flow impacting on product quality. To handle the above-mentioned drawbacks, this study utilizes UV-Vis spectrophotometry (InSpectroX, ColVisTec) as an online tool to gain real-time information about the quality of the product. Additionally, this is combined with real-time process information in an Advanced Process Control system (PharmaMV, Perceptive Engineering) allowing full supervision and control of the TSE process. Further, by characterizing the dynamic behavior of the TSE, a model predictive controller (MPC) can be employed to ensure the process remains under control when perturbed by external disturbances. Two reactions were studied; a Knoevenagel condensation reaction of barbituric acid and vanillin and, the direct amidation of hydroquinone by ammonium acetate to form N-Acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP) commonly known as paracetamol. Both reactions could be carried out continuously using TSE, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the percentage conversion of starting materials to product. This information was used to construct partial least squares (PLS) calibration models within the PharmaMV development system, which relates the percent conversion to product to the acquired UV-Vis spectrum. Once this was complete, the model was deployed within the PharmaMV Real-Time System to carry out automated optimization experiments to maximize the percentage conversion based on a set of process parameters in a design of experiments (DoE) style methodology. With the optimum set of process parameters established, a series of PRBS process response tests (i.e. Pseudo-Random Binary Sequences) around the optimum were conducted. The resultant dataset was used to build a statistical model and associated MPC. The controller maximizes product quality whilst ensuring the process remains at the optimum even as disturbances such as raw material variability are introduced into the system. To summarize, a combination of online spectral monitoring and advanced process control was used to develop a robust system for optimization and control of two TSE based mechanosynthetic processes.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical, Spectroscopy, Advanced Process Control, continuous synthesis

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1 Structural Changes Induced in Graphene Oxide Film by Low Energy Ion Beam Irradiation

Authors: Chetna Tyagi, Ambuj Tripathi, Devesh Avasthi

Abstract:

Graphene oxide consists of sp³ hybridization along with sp² hybridization due to the presence of different oxygen-containing functional groups on its edges and basal planes. However, its sp³ / sp² hybridization can be tuned by various methods to utilize it in different applications, like transistors, solar cells and biosensors. Ion beam irradiation can also be one of the methods to optimize sp² and sp³ hybridization ratio for its desirable properties. In this work, graphene oxide films were irradiated with 100 keV Argon ions at different fluences varying from 10¹³ to 10¹⁶ ions/cm². Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements showed an increase in crystallinity at the low fluence of 10¹³ ions/cm². Raman spectroscopy performed on irradiated samples determined the defects induced by the ion beam qualitatively. Also, identification of different groups and their removal with different fluences was done using Fourier infrared spectroscopy technique.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, Graphene Oxide, X-Ray Diffraction, ion beam irradiation

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