Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Spectroscopic Methods Related Abstracts

2 Lignin Pyrolysis to Value-Added Chemicals: A Mechanistic Approach

Authors: Binod Shrestha, Sandrine Hoppe, Thierry Ghislain, Phillipe Marchal, Nicolas Brosse, Anthony Dufour

Abstract:

The thermochemical conversion of lignin has received an increasing interest in the frame of different biorefinery concepts for the production of chemicals or energy. It is needed to better understand the physical and chemical conversion of lignin for feeder and reactor designs. In-situ rheology reveals the viscoelastic behaviour of lignin upon thermal conversion. The softening, re-solidification (char formation), swelling and shrinking behaviours are quantified during pyrolysis in real-time [1]. The in-situ rheology of an alkali lignin (Protobind 1000) was conducted in high torque controlled strain rheometer from 35°C to 400°C with a heating rate of 5°C.min-1. The swelling, through glass phase transition overlapped with depolymerization, and solidification (crosslinking and “char” formation) are two main phenomena observed during lignin pyrolysis. The onset of temperatures for softening and solidification for this lignin has been found to be 141°C and 248°C respectively. An ex-situ characterization of lignin/char residues obtained at different temperatures after quenching in the rheometer gives a clear understanding of the pathway of lignin degradation. The lignin residues were sampled from the mid-point temperatures of the softening range and solidification range to study the chemical transformations undergoing. Elemental analysis, FTIR and solid state NMR were conducted after quenching the solid residues (lignin/char). The quenched solid was also extracted by suitable solvent and followed by acetylation and GPC-UV analysis. The combination of 13C NMR and GPC-UV reveals the depolymerization followed by crosslinking of lignin/char. NMR and FTIR provide the evolution of functional moieties upon temperature. Physical and chemical mechanisms occurring during lignin pyrolysis are accounted in this study. Thanks to all these complementary methods.

Keywords: Rheology, pyrolysis, Mechanism, Valorization, Spectroscopic Methods, Solidification, bio-chemicals, softening, cross linking

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1 Physicochemical Investigation of Caffeic Acid and Caffeinates with Chosen Metals (Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ru, Os)

Authors: Grzegorz Swiderski, Włodzimierz Lewandowski, Renata Świsłocka, Aleksandra Golonko, Monika Kalinowska

Abstract:

Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic) is distributed in a free form or as ester conjugates in many fruits, vegetables and seasonings including plants used for medical purpose. Caffeic acid is present in propolis – a substance with exceptional healing properties used in natural medicine since ancient times. The antioxidant, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of caffeic acid are widely described in the literature. The biological activity of chemical compounds can be modified by the synthesis of their derivatives or metal complexes. The structure of the compounds determines their biological properties. This work is a continuation of the broader topic concerning the investigation of the correlation between the electronic charge distribution and biological (anticancer and antioxidant) activity of the chosen phenolic acids and their metal complexes. In the framework of this study the synthesis of new metal complexes of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, iron (III) ruthenium (III) and osmium (III) with caffeic acid was performed. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were studied by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, ¹H and ¹³C NMR. The quantum-chemical calculations (at B3LYP/LAN L2DZ level) of caffeic acid and selected complexes were done. Moreover the antioxidant properties of synthesized complexes were studied in relation to selected stable radicals (method of reduction of DPPH and method of reduction of ABTS). On the basis of the differences in the number, intensity and locations of the bands from the IR, Raman, UV/Vis and NMR spectra of caffeic acid and its metal complexes the effect of metal cations on the electronic system of ligand was discussed. The geometry, theoretical spectra and electronic charge distribution were calculated by the use of Gaussian 09 programme. The geometric aromaticity indices (Aj – normalized function of the variance in bond lengths; BAC - bond alternation coefficient; HOMA – harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity and I₆ – Bird’s index) were calculated and the changes in the aromaticity of caffeic acid and its complexes was discussed. This work was financially supported by National Science Centre, Poland, under the research project number 2014/13/B/NZ7/02-352.

Keywords: Metal Complexes, Spectroscopic Methods, caffeic acid, Antioxidant properties

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