Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

spectral indices Related Abstracts

3 Assessment of Spectral Indices for Soil Salinity Estimation in Irrigated Land

Authors: R. Lhissou, A. El Harti, K. Chokmani, E. Bachaoui, A. El Ghmari


Soil salinity is a serious environmental hazard in many countries around the world especially the arid and semi-arid countries like Morocco. Salinization causes negative effects on the ground; it affects agricultural production, infrastructure, water resources and biodiversity. Remote sensing can provide soil salinity information for large areas, and in a relatively short time. In addition, remote sensing is not limited by extremes in terrain or hazardous condition. Contrariwise, experimental methods for monitoring soil salinity by direct measurements in situ are very demanding of time and resources, and also very limited in spatial coverage. In the irrigated perimeter of Tadla plain in central Morocco, the increased use of saline groundwater and surface water, coupled with agricultural intensification leads to the deterioration of soil quality especially by salinization. In this study, we assessed several spectral indices of soil salinity cited in the literature using Landsat TM satellite images and field measurements of electrical conductivity (EC). Three Landsat TM satellite images were taken during 3 months in the dry season (September, October and November 2011). Based on field measurement data of EC collected in three field campaigns over the three dates simultaneously with acquisition dates of Landsat TM satellite images, a two assessment techniques are used to validate a soil salinity spectral indices. Firstly, the spectral indices are validated locally by pixel. The second validation technique is made using a window of size 3x3 pixels. The results of the study indicated that the second technique provides getting a more accurate validation and the assessment has shown its limits when it comes to assess across the pixel. In addition, the EC values measured from field have a good correlation with some spectral indices derived from Landsat TM data and the best results show an r² of 0.88, 0.79 and 0.65 for Salinity Index (SI) in the three dates respectively. The results have shown the usefulness of spectral indices as an auxiliary variable in the spatial estimation and mapping salinity in irrigated land.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, soil salinity, spectral indices, irrigated land

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2 Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation

Authors: Tanwi Priya, Brijesh Kumar Mishra


Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.

Keywords: spectral indices, electrocoagulation, natural organic matter, aromatic fractions

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1 Multi-Temporal Urban Land Cover Mapping Using Spectral Indices

Authors: Mst Ilme Faridatul, Bo Wu


Multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is of paramount importance for monitoring urban sprawl and managing the ecological environment. For diversified urban activities, it is challenging to map land covers in a complex urban environment. Spectral indices have proved to be effective for mapping urban land covers. To improve multi-temporal urban land cover classification and mapping, we evaluate the performance of three spectral indices, e.g. modified normalized difference bare-land index (MNDBI), tasseled cap water and vegetation index (TCWVI) and shadow index (ShDI). The MNDBI is developed to evaluate its performance of enhancing urban impervious areas by separating bare lands. A tasseled cap index, TCWVI is developed to evaluate its competence to detect vegetation and water simultaneously. The ShDI is developed to maximize the spectral difference between shadows of skyscrapers and water and enhance water detection. First, this paper presents a comparative analysis of three spectral indices using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Second, optimized thresholds of the spectral indices are imputed to classify land covers, and finally, their performance of enhancing multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is assessed. The results indicate that the spectral indices are competent to enhance multi-temporal urban land cover mapping and achieves an overall classification accuracy of 93-96%.

Keywords: Mapping, Land Cover, spectral indices, multi-temporal

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