Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

spatial variation Related Abstracts

6 Spatial Variation in Urbanization and Slum Development in India: Issues and Challenges in Urban Planning

Authors: Mala Mukherjee


Background: India is urbanizing very fast and urbanisation in India is treated as one of the most crucial components of economic growth. Though the pace of urbanisation (31.6 per cent in 2011) is however slower and lower than the average for Asia but the absolute number of people residing in cities and towns has increased substantially. Rapid urbanization leads to urban poverty and it is well represented in slums. Currently India has four metropolises and 53 million plus cities. All of them have significant slum population but the standard of living and success of slum development programmes varies across regions. Objectives: Objectives of the paper are to show how urbanisation and slum development varies across space; to show spatial variation in the standard of living in Indian slums; to analyse how the implementation of slum development policies like JNNURM, Rajiv Awas Yojana varies across cities and bring different results in different regions and what are the factors responsible for such variation. Data Sources and Methodology: Census 2011 data on urban population and slum households and amenities have been used for analysing the regional variation of urbanisation in 53 million plus cities of India. Special focus has been put on Kolkata Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques like z-score and PCA have been employed to work out Standard of Living Deprivation score for all the slums of 53 metropolises. ARC-GIS software is used for making maps. Standard of living has been measured in terms of access to basic amenities, infrastructure and assets like drinking water, sanitation, housing condition, bank account, and so on. Findings: 1. The first finding reveals that migration and urbanization is very high in Greater Mumbai, Delhi, Bangaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad and Kolkata; but slum population is high in Greater Mumbai (50% population live in slums), Meerut, Faridabad, Ludhiana, Nagpur, Kolkata etc. Though the rate of urbanization is high in southern and western states but the percentage of slum population is high in northern states (except Greater Mumbai). 2. Standard of Living also varies widely. Slums of Greater Mumbai and North Indian Cities score fairly high in the index indicating the fact that standard of living is high in those slums compare to the slums in eastern India (Dhanbad, Jamshedpur, Kolkata). Therefore, though Kolkata have relatively lesser percentage of slum population compare to north and south Indian cities but the standard of living in Kolkata’s slums is deplorable. 3. It is interesting to note that even within Kolkata Metropolitan Area slums located in the southern and eastern municipal towns like Rajpur-Sonarpur, Pujali, Diamond Harbour, Baduria and Dankuni have lower standard of living compare to the slums located in the Hooghly Industrial belt like Titagarh, Rishrah, Srerampore etc. Slums of the Hooghly Industrial Belt are older than the slums located in eastern and southern part of the urban agglomeration. 4. Therefore, urban development and emergence of slums should not be the only issue of urban governance but standard of living should be the main focus. Slums located in the main cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata get more attention from the urban planners and similarly, older slums in a city receives greater political attention compare to the slums of smaller cities and newly emerged slums of the peripheral parts.

Keywords: Urbanisation, India, slum, spatial variation

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5 Macroinvertebrate Variation of Endorheic Depression Wetlands within North West and Mpumalanga Provinces, South Africa

Authors: Lee-Ann Foster, Wynand Malherbe, Martin Ferriera, Johan Van Vuren


Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variability. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetlands. The objective of this study was to compare the spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages within endorheic depressions in Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Sampling was conducted over a period of two seasons during 2012 and 2013 at all sampling points to account for a wet and dry season. The identification of macroinvertebrate community samples resulted in 24 taxa for both provinces. Results showed similarities in the structure of communities in perennial endorheic depressions in both provinces with the exception of one or two species. Macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga depressions (locally called pans) were similar to those reported in previous studies completed in the area and most of the macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga and the North West are known to be commonly found in temporary habitats. The knowledge acquired can now be utilised to enhance the available literature on these systems. Long-term studies have to be implemented to better understand the ecological functioning of the pans in the North West Province.

Keywords: Aquatic, PANS, spatial variation, macroinvertebrate assemblages

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4 Application of Hydrological Model in Support of Streamflow Allocation in Arid Watersheds in Northwestern China

Authors: Chansheng He, Lanhui Zhang, Baoqing Zhang


Spatial heterogeneity of landscape significantly affects watershed hydrological processes, particularly in high elevation and cold mountainous watersheds such as the inland river (terminal lake) basins in Northwest China, where the upper reach mountainous areas are the main source of streamflow for the downstream agricultural oases and desert ecosystems. Thus, it is essential to take into account spatial variations of hydrological processes in streamflow allocation at the watershed scale. This paper adapts the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model (DLBRM) to the Heihe River Watershed, the second largest inland river with a drainage area of about 128,000 km2 in Northwest China, for understanding the transfer and partitioning mechanism among the glacier and snowmelt, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge among the upper, middle, and lower reaches in the study area. Results indicate that the upper reach Qilian Mountain area is the main source of streamflow for the middle reach agricultural oasis and downstream desert areas. Large withdrawals for agricultural irrigation in the middle reach had significantly depleted river flow for the lower reach desert ecosystems. Innovative conservation and enforcement programs need to be undertaken to ensure the successful implementation of water allocation plan of delivering 0.95 x 109 m3 of water downstream annually by the State Council in the Heihe River Watershed.

Keywords: spatial variation, water allocation, DLBRM, Northwestern China

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3 Spatial Variation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Contents of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Plants Grown in Greenhouses (Springs) in Elmali-Antalya Region

Authors: Namik Kemal Sonmez, Sahriye Sonmez, Hasan Rasit Turkkan, Hatice Tuba Selcuk


In this study, the spatial variation of plant and soil nutrition contents of tomato plants grown in greenhouses was investigated in Elmalı region of Antalya. For this purpose, total of 19 sampling points were determined. Coordinates of each sampling points were recorded by using a hand-held GPS device and were transferred to satellite data in GIS. Soil samples were collected from two different depths, 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and leaf were taken from different tomato greenhouses. The soil and plant samples were analyzed for N, P and K. Then, attribute tables were created with the analyses results by using GIS. Data were analyzed and semivariogram models and parameters (nugget, sill and range) of variables were determined by using GIS software. Kriged maps of variables were created by using nugget, sill and range values with geostatistical extension of ArcGIS software. Kriged maps of the N, P and K contents of plant and soil samples showed patchy or a relatively smooth distribution in the study areas. As a result, the N content of plants were sufficient approximately 66% portion of the tomato productions. It was determined that the P and K contents were sufficient of 70% and 80% portion of the areas, respectively. On the other hand, soil total K contents were generally adequate and available N and P contents were found to be highly good enough in two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) 90% portion of the areas.

Keywords: Nutrients, tomato, spatial variation, Elmali, springs greenhouses

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2 Optimization of Monitoring Networks for Air Quality Management in Urban Hotspots

Authors: Vethathirri Ramanujam Srinivasan, S. M. Shiva Nagendra


Air quality management in urban areas is a serious concern in both developed and developing countries. In this regard, more number of air quality monitoring stations are planned to mitigate air pollution in urban areas. In India, Central Pollution Control Board has set up 574 air quality monitoring stations across the country and proposed to set up another 500 stations in the next few years. The number of monitoring stations for each city has been decided based on population data. The setting up of ambient air quality monitoring stations and their operation and maintenance are highly expensive. Therefore, there is a need to optimize monitoring networks for air quality management. The present paper discusses the various methods such as Indian Standards (IS) method, US EPA method and European Union (EU) method to arrive at the minimum number of air quality monitoring stations. In addition, optimization of rain-gauge method and Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method using Geographical Information System (GIS) are also explored in the present work for the design of air quality network in Chennai city. In summary, additionally 18 stations are required for Chennai city, and the potential monitoring locations with their corresponding land use patterns are ranked and identified from the 1km x 1km sized grids.

Keywords: spatial variation, air quality monitoring network, inverse distance weighted method, population based method

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1 Spatial Disparity in Education and Medical Facilities: A Case Study of Barddhaman District, West Bengal, India

Authors: Amit Bhattacharyya


The economic scenario of any region does not show the real picture for the measurement of overall development. Therefore, economic development must be accompanied by social development to be able to make an assessment to measure the level of development. The spatial variation with respect to social development has been discussed taking into account the quality of functioning of a social system in a specific area. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the spatial distribution of social infrastructural facilities and analyze the magnitude of regional disparities at inter- block level in Barddhman district. It starts with the detailed account of the selection process of social infrastructure indicators and describes the methodology employed in the empirical analysis. Analyzing the block level data, this paper tries to identify the disparity among the blocks in the levels of social development. The results have been subsequently explained using both statistical analysis and geo spatial technique. The paper reveals that the social development is not going on at the same rate in every part of the district. Health facilities and educational facilities are concentrated at some selected point. So overall development activities come to be concentrated in a few centres and the disparity is seen over the blocks.

Keywords: Social Development, spatial variation, disparity, inter-block

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