Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

spatial transformations Related Abstracts

3 The Impact of Developing Tourism on the Spatial Pattern in Jordan

Authors: Khries Sawsan

Abstract:

the phenomenon of urbanization is considered as one of the most important tourism resources that differ from one country to another and from one region to another in the same country. Our concern in tourism accommodation is explained by the fact that their location is directly related to the movement to tourist sites .Besides, these constructions comport security considered as the most important motivation for tourists in their choice of any destination. Hotels are the most representative expression of tourism. This is due to their physical prominence in the landscape and being the sole urban component totally unique to tourism. This study sheds light on the impact of tourism development on the spatial pattern in Jordan. It describes the linkages between existing tourism development policies and the spatial development patterns that have occurred as a result throughout Jordan, particularly looking at the impact that tourism has had on the physical environment of major tourism destinations. It puts an illustrative plan of the impact of the augmentation of tourism accommodations in Jordan in the past 40 years ago. The findings of this study help us to understand better the operation of Jordan’ dynamic changes in the location An intensive analysis is then applied on a representative case study in three regions: Amman, Petra and Aqaba. The study proceeds from an historical perspective to, show the evolution of the current development patterns an increase of tourism’s impact on spatial, in the presence of factors as political and economic stability, is expected.

Keywords: Urbanisation, Tourism Planning, jordan, spatial patterns, spatial transformations

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2 Urban Design as a Tool in Disaster Resilience and Urban Hazard Mitigation: Case of Cochin, Kerala, India

Authors: Vinu Elias Jacob, Manoj Kumar Kini

Abstract:

Disasters of all types are occurring more frequently and are becoming more costly than ever due to various manmade factors including climate change. A better utilisation of the concept of governance and management within disaster risk reduction is inevitable and of utmost importance. There is a need to explore the role of pre- and post-disaster public policies. The role of urban planning/design in shaping the opportunities of households, individuals and collectively the settlements for achieving recovery has to be explored. Governance strategies that can better support the integration of disaster risk reduction and management has to be examined. The main aim is to thereby build the resilience of individuals and communities and thus, the states too. Resilience is a term that is usually linked to the fields of disaster management and mitigation, but today has become an integral part of planning and design of cities. Disaster resilience broadly describes the ability of an individual or community to 'bounce back' from disaster impacts, through improved mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. The growing population of the world has resulted in the inflow and use of resources, creating a pressure on the various natural systems and inequity in the distribution of resources. This makes cities vulnerable to multiple attacks by both natural and man-made disasters. Each urban area needs elaborate studies and study based strategies to proceed in the discussed direction. Cochin in Kerala is the fastest and largest growing city with a population of more than 26 lakhs. The main concern that has been looked into in this paper is making cities resilient by designing a framework of strategies based on urban design principles for an immediate response system especially focussing on the city of Cochin, Kerala, India. The paper discusses, understanding the spatial transformations due to disasters and the role of spatial planning in the context of significant disasters. The paper also aims in developing a model taking into consideration of various factors such as land use, open spaces, transportation networks, physical and social infrastructure, building design, and density and ecology that can be implemented in any city of any context. Guidelines are made for the smooth evacuation of people through hassle-free transport networks, protecting vulnerable areas in the city, providing adequate open spaces for shelters and gatherings, making available basic amenities to affected population within reachable distance, etc. by using the tool of urban design. Strategies at the city level and neighbourhood level have been developed with inferences from vulnerability analysis and case studies.

Keywords: Disaster Management, Resilience, Spatial planning, spatial transformations

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1 Medical Image Augmentation Using Spatial Transformations for Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Trupti Chavan, Ramachandra Guda, Kameshwar Rao

Abstract:

The lack of data is a pain problem in medical image analysis using a convolutional neural network (CNN). This work uses various spatial transformation techniques to address the medical image augmentation issue for knee detection and localization using an enhanced single shot detector (SSD) network. The spatial transforms like a negative, histogram equalization, power law, sharpening, averaging, gaussian blurring, etc. help to generate more samples, serve as pre-processing methods, and highlight the features of interest. The experimentation is done on the OpenKnee dataset which is a collection of knee images from the openly available online sources. The CNN called enhanced single shot detector (SSD) is utilized for the detection and localization of the knee joint from a given X-ray image. It is an enhanced version of the famous SSD network and is modified in such a way that it will reduce the number of prediction boxes at the output side. It consists of a classification network (VGGNET) and an auxiliary detection network. The performance is measured in mean average precision (mAP), and 99.96% mAP is achieved using the proposed enhanced SSD with spatial transformations. It is also seen that the localization boundary is comparatively more refined and closer to the ground truth in spatial augmentation and gives better detection and localization of knee joints.

Keywords: Medical Image Analysis, spatial transformations, data augmentation, enhanced SSD, knee detection and localization, openKnee

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