Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Spatial Related Abstracts

10 Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Modeling of Civic Facilities Using GIS Applications: A Case Study of F-11, Islamabad

Authors: Asma Shaheen Hashmi, Omer Riaz, Khalid Mahmood, Fahad Ullah, Tanveer Ahmad


The urban landscapes are being change with the population growth and advancements in new technologies. The urban sprawl pattern and utilizes are related to the local socioeconomic and physical condition. Urban policy decisions are executed mostly through spatial planning. A decision support system (DSS) is very powerful tool which provides flexible knowledge base method for urban planning. An application was developed using geographical information system (GIS) for urban planning. A scenario based DSS was developed to integrate the hierarchical muti-criteria data of different aspects of urban landscape. These were physical environment, the dumping site, spatial distribution of road network, gas and water supply lines, and urban watershed management, selection criteria for new residential, recreational, commercial and industrial sites. The model provided a framework to incorporate the sustainable future development. The data can be entered dynamically by planners according to the appropriate criteria for the management of urban landscapes.

Keywords: Urban, Spatial, GIS, criteria

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9 The Relationship between Metropolitan Space and Spatial Distribution of Main Innovative Actors: The Case of Yangtze Delta Metropolitan in China

Authors: Jun Zhou, Xingping Wang, Paul Milbourne


Evidences in the world shows that the industry and population have being greatly concentrated in metropolitan regions which is getting to be the most important area for the economic power and people living standard in the future. In the meanwhile, the relevant innovation theories of Agglomeration, New Industrial Geography and Modern Evolutionary innovation prove that the reason why the agglomeration in world-class city and metropolitan areas and also verify innovation is the key point for the development of metropolis. The primary purpose of this paper is to analyze the geographical spatial characteristics of innovative subjects which contain firm, university, research institution, government and intermediary organ in metropolis throughout the amount data analysis in Yangtze River Metropolis in China. The results show three main conclusions. The first is different subjects in different regions have different spatial characteristics. The second one is different structure and pattern between the subjects also can produce different innovative effect. The last but not the least is agglomeration of innovative subjects’ is not only influenced by the innovative network or local policies but also affected by the localized industry characteristics and culture which are getting to be the most important crucial factors.

Keywords: Spatial, China, metropolitan development, innovative subject, Yangtze River Metropolis

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8 An Assessment of Drainage Network System in Nigeria Urban Areas using Geographical Information Systems: A Case Study of Bida, Niger State

Authors: Yusuf Hussaini Atulukwu, Daramola Japheth, Tabitit S. Tabiti, Daramola Elizabeth Lara


In view of the recent limitations faced by the township concerning poorly constructed and in some cases non - existence of drainage facilities that resulted into incessant flooding in some parts of the community poses threat to life,property and the environment. The research seeks to address this issue by showing the spatial distribution of drainage network in Bida Urban using Geographic information System techniques. Relevant features were extracted from existing Bida based Map using un-screen digitization and x, y, z, data of existing drainages were acquired using handheld Global Positioning System (GPS). These data were uploaded into ArcGIS 9.2, software, and stored in the relational database structure that was used to produce the spatial data drainage network of the township. The result revealed that about 40 % of the drainages are blocked with sand and refuse, 35 % water-logged as a result of building across erosion channels and dilapidated bridges as a result of lack of drainage along major roads. The study thus concluded that drainage network systems in Bida community are not in good working condition and urgent measures must be initiated in order to avoid future disasters especially with the raining season setting in. Based on the above findings, the study therefore recommends that people within the locality should avoid dumping municipal waste within the drainage path while sand blocked or weed blocked drains should be clear by the authority concerned. In the same vein the authority should ensured that contract of drainage construction be awarded to professionals and all the natural drainages caused by erosion should be addressed to avoid future disasters.

Keywords: Waste, Spatial, Digitization, relational database, drainage network

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7 Socio-Demographic Factors and Testing Practices Are Associated with Spatial Patterns of Clostridium difficile Infection in the Australian Capital Territory, 2004-2014

Authors: Aparna Lal, Ashwin Swaminathan, Teisa Holani


Background: Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) have been on the rise globally. In Australia, rates of CDI in all States and Territories have increased significantly since mid-2011. Identifying risk factors for CDI in the community can help inform targeted interventions to reduce infection. Methods: We examine the role of neighbourhood socio-economic status, demography, testing practices and the number of residential aged care facilities on spatial patterns in CDI incidence in the Australian Capital Territory. Data on all tests conducted for CDI were obtained from ACT Pathology by postcode for the period 1st January 2004 through 31 December 2014. Distribution of age groups and the neighbourhood Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage Disadvantage (IRSAD) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 National Census data. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was fitted at the postcode level to quantify the relationship between CDI and socio-demographic factors. To identify CDI hotspots, exceedance probabilities were set at a threshold of twice the estimated relative risk. Results: CDI showed a positive spatial association with the number of tests (RR=1.01, 95% CI 1.00, 1.02) and the resident population over 65 years (RR=1.00, 95% CI 1.00, 1.01). The standardized index of relative socio-economic advantage disadvantage (IRSAD) was significantly negatively associated with CDI (RR=0.74, 95% CI 0.56, 0.94). We identified three postcodes with high probability (0.8-1.0) of excess risk. Conclusions: Here, we demonstrate geographic variations in CDI in the ACT with a positive association of CDI with socioeconomic disadvantage and identify areas with a high probability of elevated risk compared with surrounding communities. These findings highlight community-based risk factors for CDI.

Keywords: Infection, Spatial, socio-demographic, Clostridium difficile

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6 Big Data Analysis Approach for Comparison New York Taxi Drivers' Operation Patterns between Workdays and Weekends Focusing on the Revenue Aspect

Authors: Yongqi Dong, Zuo Zhang, Rui Fu, Li Li


The records generated by taxicabs which are equipped with GPS devices is of vital importance for studying human mobility behavior, however, here we are focusing on taxi drivers' operation strategies between workdays and weekends temporally and spatially. We identify a group of valuable characteristics through large scale drivers' behavior in a complex metropolis environment. Based on the daily operations of 31,000 taxi drivers in New York City, we classify drivers into top, ordinary and low-income groups according to their monthly working load, daily income, daily ranking and the variance of the daily rank. Then, we apply big data analysis and visualization methods to compare the different characteristics among top, ordinary and low income drivers in selecting of working time, working area as well as strategies between workdays and weekends. The results verify that top drivers do have special operation tactics to help themselves serve more passengers, travel faster thus make more money per unit time. This research provides new possibilities for fully utilizing the information obtained from urban taxicab data for estimating human behavior, which is not only very useful for individual taxicab driver but also to those policy-makers in city authorities.

Keywords: Big Data, Spatial, comparison, revenue, operation strategies, temporal

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5 Bayesian Prospective Detection of Small Area Health Anomalies Using Kullback Leibler Divergence

Authors: Chawarat Rotejanaprasert, Andrew Lawson


Early detection of unusual health events depends on the ability to detect rapidly any substantial changes in disease, thus facilitating timely public health interventions. To assist public health practitioners to make decisions, statistical methods are adopted to assess unusual events in real time. We introduce a surveillance Kullback-Leibler (SKL) measure for timely detection of disease outbreaks for small area health data. The detection methods are compared with the surveillance conditional predictive ordinate (SCPO) within the framework of Bayesian hierarchical Poisson modeling and applied to a case study of a group of respiratory system diseases observed weekly in South Carolina counties. Properties of the proposed surveillance techniques including timeliness and detection precision are investigated using a simulation study.

Keywords: Spatial, Surveillance, Bayesian, prospective, temporal

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4 Diffable’s Aspiration Dreams in Spatial Planning

Authors: Tety Widyaningrum, Sapnah Rahmawati, Abdulmuluk Attim


Space was a container that includes land space, sea space and air space, including space in the earth as a whole region, where humans and other living creatures, operate and maintain its survival. Whereas spatial planning was a form of the structure of space and spatial pattern. At this time, the arrangement of space became a matter of considerable concern because through spatial planning was what will determine how the future city hall, how the welfare of the population that is in it, and how space can be a comfortable space to live. This spatial arrangement became a subject that must be considered not only by the Government as policy makers but also of concern to the entire community in it. As a place to stay, this space should be able to ensure the safety and comfort of the whole community, even people with disabilities, though. For development and spatial planning in Indonesia. It was still very low which was still concerned about the disabled. The spatial arrangement made generalizations. This caused the right for disabled people was less fulfilled. In accordance with the Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities who explains that people with disabilities had the right to be able to facilitate their efforts to become self-sufficient or not depends on the other party. It was also strengthened by According to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 1997 on Persons with Disabilities; disabilities were part of the Indonesian people who had the status, rights, obligations and the same role with other Indonesian community in all aspects of life and livelihood. As observed, during the disabled were still used as objects that hadn’t been involved in the formulation of development planning of space in Indonesia, so the infrastructure space was still very far from the concept of friendly to the disabled. As an example of a sidewalk in Indonesia were still in bad condition, potholes, and uneven and don’t meet the eligibility standards. In addition, there were sidewalks that abused become a trade causing run down and chaotic atmosphere. In addition, pedestrians are also disturbed because the sidewalks were often still used as a parking lot or flowers to decorate the layout of the city, so the legroom was becoming increasingly limited. The development of infrastructure for pedestrians was also still concerned with aspects of aesthetic than functional. Therefore, the participation of disabled people must be involved in spatial planning exist. It aims to achieve spatial and environmentally friendly to the disabled. These dream space activities carried out by giving questionnaires and the dream images to the disabled about how the layout of the space they want what they want and what development was also in line with the principle of their convenience. This then will be taken into consideration for government in planning layout that was friendly to the whole community.

Keywords: Planning, Spatial, diffable, aspiration

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3 Application of Nonparametric Geographically Weighted Regression to Evaluate the Unemployment Rate in East Java

Authors: Sifriyani Sifriyani, I Nyoman Budiantara, Sri Haryatmi, Gunardi Gunardi


East Java Province has a first rank as a province that has the most counties and cities in Indonesia and has the largest population. In 2015, the population reached 38.847.561 million, this figure showed a very high population growth. High population growth is feared to lead to increase the levels of unemployment. In this study, the researchers mapped and modeled the unemployment rate with 6 variables that were supposed to influence. Modeling was done by nonparametric geographically weighted regression methods with truncated spline approach. This method was chosen because spline method is a flexible method, these models tend to look for its own estimation. In this modeling, there were point knots, the point that showed the changes of data. The selection of the optimum point knots was done by selecting the most minimun value of Generalized Cross Validation (GCV). Based on the research, 6 variables were declared to affect the level of unemployment in eastern Java. They were the percentage of population that is educated above high school, the rate of economic growth, the population density, the investment ratio of total labor force, the regional minimum wage and the ratio of the number of big industry and medium scale industry from the work force. The nonparametric geographically weighted regression models with truncated spline approach had a coefficient of determination 98.95% and the value of MSE equal to 0.0047.

Keywords: Spatial, east java, nonparametric geographically weighted regression, spline approach, unemployed rate

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2 Rural Water Supply Services in India: Developing a Composite Summary Score

Authors: Mimi Roy, Sriroop Chaudhuri


Sustainable water supply is among the basic needs for human development, especially in the rural areas of the developing nations where safe water supply and basic sanitation infrastructure is direly needed. In light of the above, we propose a simple methodology to develop a composite water sustainability index (WSI) to assess the collective performance of the existing rural water supply services (RWSS) in India over time. The WSI will be computed by summarizing the details of all the different varieties of water supply schemes presently available in India comprising of 40 liters per capita per day (lpcd), 55 lpcd, and piped water supply (PWS) per household. The WSI will be computed annually, between 2010 and 2016, to elucidate changes in holistic RWSS performances. Results will be integrated within a robust geospatial framework to identify the ‘hotspots’ (states/districts) which have persistent issues over adequate RWSS coverage and warrant spatially-optimized policy reforms in future to address sustainable human development. Dataset will be obtained from the National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP), operating under the aegis of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MoDWS), at state/district/block levels to offer the authorities a cross-sectional view of RWSS at different levels of administrative hierarchy. Due to simplistic design, complemented by spatio-temporal cartograms, similar approaches can also be adopted in other parts of the world where RWSS need a thorough appraisal.

Keywords: Sustainability, Spatial, drinking water, composite index, rural water supply services, piped water supply

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1 Single Cell and Spatial Transcriptomics: A Beginners Viewpoint from the Conceptual Pipeline

Authors: Leo Nnamdi Ozurumba-Dwight


Messenger ribooxynucleic acid (mRNA) molecules are compositional, protein-based. These proteins, encoding mRNA molecules (which collectively connote the transcriptome), when analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNAseq), unveils the nature of gene expression in the RNA. The obtained gene expression provides clues of cellular traits and their dynamics in presentations. These can be studied in relation to function and responses. RNAseq is a practical concept in Genomics as it enables detection and quantitative analysis of mRNA molecules. Single cell and spatial transcriptomics both present varying avenues for expositions in genomic characteristics of single cells and pooled cells in disease conditions such as cancer, auto-immune diseases, hematopoietic based diseases, among others, from investigated biological tissue samples. Single cell transcriptomics helps conduct a direct assessment of each building unit of tissues (the cell) during diagnosis and molecular gene expressional studies. A typical technique to achieve this is through the use of a single-cell RNA sequencer (scRNAseq), which helps in conducting high throughput genomic expressional studies. However, this technique generates expressional gene data for several cells which lack presentations on the cells’ positional coordinates within the tissue. As science is developmental, the use of complimentary pre-established tissue reference maps using molecular and bioinformatics techniques has innovatively sprung-forth and is now used to resolve this set back to produce both levels of data in one shot of scRNAseq analysis. This is an emerging conceptual approach in methodology for integrative and progressively dependable transcriptomics analysis. This can support in-situ fashioned analysis for better understanding of tissue functional organization, unveil new biomarkers for early-stage detection of diseases, biomarkers for therapeutic targets in drug development, and exposit nature of cell-to-cell interactions. Also, these are vital genomic signatures and characterizations of clinical applications. Over the past decades, RNAseq has generated a wide array of information that is igniting bespoke breakthroughs and innovations in Biomedicine. On the other side, spatial transcriptomics is tissue level based and utilized to study biological specimens having heterogeneous features. It exposits the gross identity of investigated mammalian tissues, which can then be used to study cell differentiation, track cell line trajectory patterns and behavior, and regulatory homeostasis in disease states. Also, it requires referenced positional analysis to make up of genomic signatures that will be sassed from the single cells in the tissue sample. Given these two presented approaches to RNA transcriptomics study in varying quantities of cell lines, with avenues for appropriate resolutions, both approaches have made the study of gene expression from mRNA molecules interesting, progressive, developmental, and helping to tackle health challenges head-on.

Keywords: Transcriptomics, Spatial, Gene expression, RNA Sequencing, single cell

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