Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Spatial analysis Related Abstracts

27 Spatial Analysis of the Impact of City Developments Degradation of Green Space in Urban Fringe Eastern City of Yogyakarta Year 2005-2010

Authors: Pebri Nurhayati, Rozanah Ahlam Fadiyah

Abstract:

In the development of the city often use rural areas that can not be separated from the change in land use that lead to the degradation of urban green space in the city fringe. In the long run, the degradation of green open space this can impact on the decline of ecological, psychological and public health. Therefore, this research aims to (1) determine the relationship between the parameters of the degradation rate of urban development with green space, (2) develop a spatial model of the impact of urban development on the degradation of green open space with remote sensing techniques and Geographical Information Systems in an integrated manner. This research is a descriptive research with data collection techniques of observation and secondary data . In the data analysis, to interpret the direction of urban development and degradation of green open space is required in 2005-2010 ASTER image with NDVI. Of interpretation will generate two maps, namely maps and map development built land degradation green open space. Secondary data related to the rate of population growth, the level of accessibility, and the main activities of each city map is processed into a population growth rate, the level of accessibility maps, and map the main activities of the town. Each map is used as a parameter to map the degradation of green space and analyzed by non-parametric statistical analysis using Crosstab thus obtained value of C (coefficient contingency). C values were then compared with the Cmaximum to determine the relationship. From this research will be obtained in the form of modeling spatial map of the City Development Impact Degradation Green Space in Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010. In addition, this research also generate statistical analysis of the test results of each parameter to the degradation of green open space in the Urban Fringe eastern city of Yogyakarta 2005-2010.

Keywords: Urban development, Spatial analysis, degradation of green space, urban fringe

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26 District Selection for Geotechnical Settlement Suitability Using GIS and Multi Criteria Decision Analysis: A Case Study in Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Erdal Akyol, Mutlu Alkan

Abstract:

Multi criteria decision analysis (MDCA) covers both data and experience. It is very common to solve the problems with many parameters and uncertainties. GIS supported solutions improve and speed up the decision process. Weighted grading as a MDCA method is employed for solving the geotechnical problems. In this study, geotechnical parameters namely soil type; SPT (N) blow number, shear wave velocity (Vs) and depth of underground water level (DUWL) have been engaged in MDCA and GIS. In terms of geotechnical aspects, the settlement suitability of the municipal area was analyzed by the method. MDCA results were compatible with the geotechnical observations and experience. The method can be employed in geotechnical oriented microzoning studies if the criteria are well evaluated.

Keywords: Geotechnics, GIS, Spatial analysis, multi criteria decision analysis

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25 Impact of Map Generalization in Spatial Analysis

Authors: Lin Li, P. G. R. N. I. Pussella

Abstract:

When representing spatial data and their attributes on different types of maps, the scale plays a key role in the process of map generalization. The process is consisted with two main operators such as selection and omission. Once some data were selected, they would undergo of several geometrical changing processes such as elimination, simplification, smoothing, exaggeration, displacement, aggregation and size reduction. As a result of these operations at different levels of data, the geometry of the spatial features such as length, sinuosity, orientation, perimeter and area would be altered. This would be worst in the case of preparation of small scale maps, since the cartographer has not enough space to represent all the features on the map. What the GIS users do is when they wanted to analyze a set of spatial data; they retrieve a data set and does the analysis part without considering very important characteristics such as the scale, the purpose of the map and the degree of generalization. Further, the GIS users use and compare different maps with different degrees of generalization. Sometimes, GIS users are going beyond the scale of the source map using zoom in facility and violate the basic cartographic rule 'it is not suitable to create a larger scale map using a smaller scale map'. In the study, the effect of map generalization for GIS analysis would be discussed as the main objective. It was used three digital maps with different scales such as 1:10000, 1:50000 and 1:250000 which were prepared by the Survey Department of Sri Lanka, the National Mapping Agency of Sri Lanka. It was used common features which were on above three maps and an overlay analysis was done by repeating the data with different combinations. Road data, River data and Land use data sets were used for the study. A simple model, to find the best place for a wild life park, was used to identify the effects. The results show remarkable effects on different degrees of generalization processes. It can see that different locations with different geometries were received as the outputs from this analysis. The study suggests that there should be reasonable methods to overcome this effect. It can be recommended that, as a solution, it would be very reasonable to take all the data sets into a common scale and do the analysis part.

Keywords: GIS, Spatial analysis, scales, Generalization

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24 Analysis of the Physical Behavior of Library Users in Reading Rooms through GIS: A Case Study of the Central Library of Tehran University

Authors: Roya Pournaghi

Abstract:

Measuring the extent of daily use of the libraries study space is of utmost significance in order to develop, re-organize and maintain the efficiency of the study space. The current study aimed to employ GIS in analyzing the study halls space of the document center and central library of Tehran University and determine the extent of use of the study chairs and desks by the students-intended users. This combination of survey methods - descriptive design system. In order to collect the required data and a description of the method, To implement and entering data into ArcGIS software. It also analyzes the data and displays the results on the library floor map design method were used. And spatial database design and plan has been done at the Central Library of Tehran University through the amount of space used by members of the Library and Information halls plans. Results showed that Biruni's hall is allocated the highest occupancy rate to tables and chairs compared to other halls. In the Hall of Science and Technology, with an average occupancy rate of 0.39 in the tables represents the lowest users and Rashid al-Dins hall, and Science and Technology’s hall with an average occupancy rate (0.40) represents the lowest users of seats. In this study, the comparison of the space is occupied at different period as a study’s hall in the morning, evenings, afternoons, and several months was performed through GIS. This system analyzed the space relationship effectively and efficiently. The output of this study can be used by administrators and librarians to determine the exact amount of using the Equipment of study halls and librarians can use the output map to design more efficient space at the library.

Keywords: Academic Libraries, Spatial analysis, geospatial information system, reading room, library’s user, central library of Tehran university

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23 Spatial Variability of Soil Metal Contamination to Detect Cancer Risk Zones in Coimbatore Region of India

Authors: Janani Selvaraj, M. Prashanthi Devi, P. B. Harathi, Aarthi Mariappan

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Anthropogenic modification of the urban environment has largely increased in the recent years in order to sustain the growing human population. Intense industrial activity, permanent and high traffic on the roads, a developed subterranean infrastructure network, land use patterns are just some specific characteristics. Every day, the urban environment is polluted by more or less toxic emissions, organic or metals wastes discharged from specific activities such as industrial, commercial, municipal. When these eventually deposit into the soil, the physical and chemical properties of the surrounding soil is changed, transforming it into a human exposure indicator. Metals are non-degradable and occur cumulative in soil due to regular deposits are a result of permanent human activity. Due to this, metals are a contaminant factor for soil when persistent over a long period of time and a possible danger for inhabitant’s health on prolonged exposure. Metals accumulated in contaminated soil may be transferred to humans directly, by inhaling the dust raised from top soil, or by ingesting, or by dermal contact and indirectly, through plants and animals grown on contaminated soil and used for food. Some metals, like Cu, Mn, Zn, are beneficial for human’s health and represent a danger only if their concentration is above permissible levels, but other metals, like Pb, As, Cd, Hg, are toxic even at trace level causing gastrointestinal and lung cancers. In urban areas, metals can be emitted from a wide variety of sources like industrial, residential, commercial activities. Our study interrogates the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soil in relation to their permissible levels and their association with the health risk to the urban population in Coimbatore, India. Coimbatore region is a high cancer risk zone and case records of gastro intestinal and respiratory cancer patients were collected from hospitals and geocoded in ArcGIS10.1. The data of patients pertaining to the urban limits were retained and checked for their diseases history based on their diagnosis and treatment. A disease map of cancer was prepared to show the disease distribution. It has been observed that in our study area Cr, Pb, As, Fe and Mg exceeded their permissible levels in the soil. Using spatial overlay analysis a relationship between environmental exposure to these potentially toxic elements in soil and cancer distribution in Coimbatore district was established to show areas of cancer risk. Through this, our study throws light on the impact of prolonged exposure to soil contamination in soil in the urban zones, thereby exploring the possibility to detect cancer risk zones and to create awareness among the exposed groups on cancer risk.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, India, Soil Contamination, Cancer Risk

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22 Using Data from Foursquare Web Service to Represent the Commercial Activity of a City

Authors: Leandro Tortosa, Taras Agryzkov, Almudena Nolasco-Cirugeda, Leticia Serrano-Estrada, Jose L. Oliver, Jose F. Vicent

Abstract:

This paper aims to represent the commercial activity of a city taking as source data the social network Foursquare. The city of Murcia is selected as case study, and the location-based social network Foursquare is the main source of information. After carrying out a reorganisation of the user-generated data extracted from Foursquare, it is possible to graphically display on a map the various city spaces and venues –especially those related to commercial, food and entertainment sector businesses. The obtained visualisation provides information about activity patterns in the city of Murcia according to the people`s interests and preferences and, moreover, interesting facts about certain characteristics of the town itself.

Keywords: Social Networks, Data Visualization, Spatial analysis, Geocomputation, Foursquare

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21 An Analysis on the Appropriateness and Effectiveness of CCTV Location for Crime Prevention

Authors: Tae-Heon Moon, Kwang-Woo Nam, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem, Sun-Young Heo

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This study aims to investigate the possibility of crime prevention through CCTV by analyzing the appropriateness of the CCTV location, whether it is installed in the hotspot of crime-prone areas, and exploring the crime prevention effect and transition effect. The real crime and CCTV locations of case city were converted into the spatial data by using GIS. The data was analyzed by hotspot analysis and weighted displacement quotient(WDQ). As study methods, it analyzed existing relevant studies for identifying the trends of CCTV and crime studies based on big data from 1800 to 2014 and understanding the relation between CCTV and crime. Second, it investigated the current situation of nationwide CCTVs and analyzed the guidelines of CCTV installation and operation to draw attention to the problems and indicating points of domestic CCTV use. Third, it investigated the crime occurrence in case areas and the current situation of CCTV installation in the spatial aspects, and analyzed the appropriateness and effectiveness of CCTV installation to suggest a rational installation of CCTV and the strategic direction of crime prevention. The results demonstrate that there was no significant effect in the installation of CCTV on crime prevention. This indicates that CCTV should be installed and managed in a more scientific way reflecting local crime situations. In terms of CCTV, the methods of spatial analysis such as GIS, which can evaluate the installation effect, and the methods of economic analysis like cost-benefit analysis should be developed. In addition, these methods should be distributed to local governments across the nation for the appropriate installation of CCTV and operation. This study intended to find a design guideline of the optimum CCTV installation. In this regard, this study is meaningful in that it will contribute to the creation of a safe city.

Keywords: Crime Prevention, Spatial analysis, CCTV, safe city

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20 Landscape Classification in North of Jordan by Integrated Approach of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems

Authors: Taleb Odeh, Nizar Abu-Jaber, Nour Khries

Abstract:

The southern part of Wadi Al Yarmouk catchment area covers north of Jordan. It locates within latitudes 32° 20’ to 32° 45’N and longitudes 35° 42’ to 36° 23’ E and has an area of about 1426 km2. However, it has high relief topography where the elevation varies between 50 to 1100 meter above sea level. The variations in the topography causes different units of landforms, climatic zones, land covers and plant species. As a results of these different landscapes units exists in that region. Spatial planning is a major challenge in such a vital area for Jordan which could not be achieved without determining landscape units. However, an integrated approach of remote sensing and geographic information Systems (GIS) is an optimized tool to investigate and map landscape units of such a complicated area. Remote sensing has the capability to collect different land surface data, of large landscape areas, accurately and in different time periods. GIS has the ability of storage these land surface data, analyzing them spatially and present them in form of professional maps. We generated a geo-land surface data that include land cover, rock units, soil units, plant species and digital elevation model using ASTER image and Google Earth while analyzing geo-data spatially were done by ArcGIS 10.2 software. We found that there are twenty two different landscape units in the study area which they have to be considered for any spatial planning in order to avoid and environmental problems.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Landscape, Spatial planning, GIS, Spatial analysis

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19 Multitemporal Satellite Images for Agriculture Change Detection in Al Jouf Region, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali A. Aldosari

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Change detection of Earth surface features is extremely important for better understanding of our environment in order to promote better decision making. Al-Jawf is remarkable for its abundant agricultural water where there is fertile agricultural land due largely to underground water. As result, this region has large areas of cultivation of dates, olives and fruits trees as well as other agricultural products such as Alfa Alfa and wheat. However this agricultural area was declined due to the reduction of government supports in the last decade. This reduction was not officially recorded or measured in this region at large scale or governorate level. Remote sensing data are primary sources extensively used for change detection in agriculture applications. This study is applied the technology of GIS and used the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which can be used to measure and analyze the spatial and temporal changes in the agriculture areas in the Aljouf region.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, Geographical Information System, change detection

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18 Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

Authors: Fatih Iscan, Ceren Yağci

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Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization are known as the most important factors of environment problems. Elimination and management of solid wastes are also within the most important environment problems. One of the main problems in solid waste management is the selection of the best site for elimination of solid wastes. Lately, Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for easing selection of landfill area. GIS has the ability of imitating necessary economical, environmental and political limitations. They play an important role for the site selection of landfill area as a decision support tool. In this study; map layers will be studied for minimum effect of environmental, social and cultural factors and maximum effect for engineering/economical factors for site selection of landfill areas and using GIS for an decision support mechanism in solid waste landfill areas site selection will be presented in Aksaray/TURKEY city, Güzelyurt district practice.

Keywords: Landfill, Solid Waste, GIS, Spatial analysis

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17 Urban Neighborhood Center Location Evaluating Method Based On UNA the GIS Spatial Analysis Tools: Kerman's Neighborhood in Tehran Case

Authors: Sepideh Jabbari Behnam, Elnaz Mohsenin, Shadabeh Gashtasbi Iraei, MohammadAli Aghajani

Abstract:

Urban neighborhoods, as important urban forming cells, play a key role in creating urban texture and integrated form. Nowadays, most of neighborhood divisions are based on urban management systems but without considering social issues and the other aspects of urban life. This can cause problems such as providing inappropriate services for city dwellers, the loss of local identity and etc. In this regard for regenerating of such neighborhoods, it is essential to locate neighborhood centers with appropriate access and services for all residents. The main objective of this article is reaching to the location of neighborhood centers in a way that, most of issues relating to the physical features (such as the form of access network and texture permeability and etc.) and other qualities such as land uses, densities and social and economic features can be done simultaneously. This paper attempts to use methods of spatial analysis in order to surveying spatial structure and space syntax of urban textures and Urban Network Analysis Systems. This can be done by one of GIS toolbars which is named UNA (Urban Network Analysis) with the use of its five functions (include: Reach, Betweenness, Gravity, Closeness, Straightness).These functions were written according to space syntax theory and offer its relating output. This paper tries to locate and evaluate the optimal location of neighborhood centers in order to create local centers. This is done through weighing of each of these functions and taking into account of spatial features.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, urban network, evaluate optimal location, Local centers, location of neighborhood centers

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16 The Applicability of Western Environmental Criminology Theories to the Arabic Context

Authors: Nawaf Alotaibi, Andy Evans, Alison Heppenstall, Nick Malleson

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Throughout the last two decades, motor vehicle theft (MVT) has accounted for the largest proportion of property crime incidents in Saudi Arabia (SA). However, to date, few studies have investigated SA’s MVT problem. Those that have are primarily focused on the characteristics of car thieves, and most have overlooked any spatial-temporal distribution of MVT incidents and the characteristics of victims. This paper represents the first step in understanding this problem by reviewing the existing MVT studies contextualised within the theoretical frameworks developed in environmental criminology theories – originating in the West – and exploring to what extent they are relevant to the SA context. To achieve this, the paper has identified a range of key features in SA that are different from typical Western contexts, that could limit the appropriateness and capability of applying existing environmental criminology theories. Furthermore, despite these Western studies reviewed so far having introduced a number of explanatory variables for MVT rates, a range of significant elements are apparently absent in the current literature and this requires further analysis. For example, almost no attempts have been made to quantify the associations between the locations of vehicle theft, recovery of stolen vehicles, joyriding and traffic volume.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Spatial analysis, environmental criminology theories, motor vehicle theft

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15 Possible Approach for Interlinking of Ponds to Mitigate Drought in Sivaganga Villages at Micro Level

Authors: Manikandan Sathianarayanan, Pernaidu Pasala

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This paper presents the results of our studies concerning the implementation and exploitation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) dedicated to the support and assistance of decisions requested by drought management. In this study on diverting of surplus water through canals, pond sand check dams in the study area was carried out. The remote sensing data and GIS data was used to identify the drought prone villages in sivaganga taluk and to generate present land use, drainage pattern as well as slope and contour. This analysis was carried out for diverting surplus water through proposed canal and pond. The results of the study indicate that if the surplus water from the ponds and streams are diverted to the drought villages in Sivaganga taluk, it will definitely improve the agricultural production due to availability of water in the ponds. The improvements in agricultural production will help to improve the economical condition of the farmers in the region.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, Spatial analysis, interlinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
14 Geographic Information System Based Multi-Criteria Subsea Pipeline Route Optimisation

Authors: James Brown, Stella Kortekaas, Ian Finnie, George Zhang, Christine Devine, Neil Healy

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The use of GIS as an analysis tool for engineering decision making is now best practice in the offshore industry. GIS enables multidisciplinary data integration, analysis and visualisation which allows the presentation of large and intricate datasets in a simple map-interface accessible to all project stakeholders. Presenting integrated geoscience and geotechnical data in GIS enables decision makers to be well-informed. This paper is a successful case study of how GIS spatial analysis techniques were applied to help select the most favourable pipeline route. Routing a pipeline through any natural environment has numerous obstacles, whether they be topographical, geological, engineering or financial. Where the pipeline is subjected to external hydrostatic water pressure and is carrying pressurised hydrocarbons, the requirement to safely route the pipeline through hazardous terrain becomes absolutely paramount. This study illustrates how the application of modern, GIS-based pipeline routing techniques enabled the identification of a single most-favourable pipeline route crossing of a challenging seabed terrain. Conventional approaches to pipeline route determination focus on manual avoidance of primary constraints whilst endeavouring to minimise route length. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective and is liable to bias towards the discipline and expertise that is involved in the routing process. For very short routes traversing benign seabed topography in shallow water this approach may be sufficient, but for deepwater geohazardous sites, the need for an automated, multi-criteria, and quantitative approach is essential. This study combined multiple routing constraints using modern least-cost-routing algorithms deployed in GIS, hitherto unachievable with conventional approaches. The least-cost-routing procedure begins with the assignment of geocost across the study area. Geocost is defined as a numerical penalty score representing hazard posed by each routing constraint (e.g. slope angle, rugosity, vulnerability to debris flows) to the pipeline. All geocosted routing constraints are combined to generate a composite geocost map that is used to compute the least geocost route between two defined terminals. The analyses were applied to select the most favourable pipeline route for a potential gas development in deep water. The study area is geologically complex with a series of incised, potentially active, canyons carved into a steep escarpment, with evidence of extensive debris flows. A similar debris flow in the future could cause significant damage to a poorly-placed pipeline. Protruding inter-canyon spurs offer lower-gradient options for ascending an escarpment but the vulnerability of periodic failure of these spurs is not well understood. Close collaboration between geoscientists, pipeline engineers, geotechnical engineers and of course the gas export pipeline operator guided the analyses and assignment of geocosts. Shorter route length, less severe slope angles, and geohazard avoidance were the primary drivers in identifying the most favourable route.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, Geohazard, geocost, pipeline route determination, pipeline route optimisation

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13 Mapping the Suitable Sites for Food Grain Crops Using Geographical Information System (GIS) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Authors: Md. Monjurul Islam, Tofael Ahamed, Ryozo Noguchi

Abstract:

Progress continues in the fight against hunger, yet an unacceptably large number of people still lack food they need for an active and healthy life. Bangladesh is one of the rising countries in the South-Asia but still lots of people are food insecure. In the last few years, Bangladesh has significant achievements in food grain production but still food security at national to individual levels remain a matter of major concern. Ensuring food security for all is one of the major challenges that Bangladesh faces today, especially production of rice in the flood and poverty prone areas. Northern part is more vulnerable than any other part of Bangladesh. To ensure food security, one of the best way is to increase domestic production. To increase production, it is necessary to secure lands for achieving optimum utilization of resources. One of the measures is to identify the vulnerable and potential areas using Land Suitability Assessment (LSA) to increase rice production in the poverty prone areas. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the suitable sites for food grain crop rice production in the poverty prone areas located at the northern part of Bangladesh. Lack of knowledge on the best combination of factors that suit production of rice has contributed to the low production. To fulfill the research objective, a multi-criteria analysis was done and produced a suitable map for crop production with the help of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). Primary and secondary data were collected from ground truth information and relevant offices. The suitability levels for each factor were ranked based on the structure of FAO land suitability classification as: Currently Not Suitable (N2), Presently Not Suitable (N1), Marginally Suitable (S3), Moderately Suitable (S2) and Highly Suitable (S1). The suitable sites were identified using spatial analysis and compared with the recent raster image from Google Earth Pro® to validate the reliability of suitability analysis. For producing a suitability map for rice farming using GIS and multi-criteria analysis tool, AHP was used to rank the relevant factors, and the resultant weights were used to create the suitability map using weighted sum overlay tool in ArcGIS 10.3®. Then, the suitability map for rice production in the study area was formed. The weighted overly was performed and found that 22.74 % (1337.02 km2) of the study area was highly suitable, while 28.54% (1678.04 km2) was moderately suitable, 14.86% (873.71 km2) was marginally suitable, and 1.19% (69.97 km2) was currently not suitable for rice farming. On the other hand, 32.67% (1920.87 km2) was permanently not suitable which occupied with settlements, rivers, water bodies and forests. This research provided information at local level that could be used by farmers to select suitable fields for rice production, and then it can be applied to other crops. It will also be helpful for the field workers and policy planner who serves in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: GIS, Spatial analysis, AHP, land suitability

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12 A Topological Study of an Urban Street Network and Its Use in Heritage Areas

Authors: Leandro Tortosa, Taras Agryzkov, Jose L. Oliver, Jose F. Vicent, Javier Santacruz

Abstract:

This paper aims to demonstrate how a topological study of an urban street network can be used as a tool to be applied to some heritage conservation areas in a city. In the last decades, we find different kinds of approaches in the discipline of Architecture and Urbanism based in the so-called Sciences of Complexity. In this context, this paper uses mathematics from the Network Theory. Hence, it proposes a methodology based in obtaining information from a graph, which is created from a network of urban streets. Then, it is used an algorithm that establishes a ranking of importance of the nodes of that network, from its topological point of view. The results are applied to a heritage area in a particular city, confronting the data obtained from the mathematical model, with the ones from the field work in the case study. As a result of this process, we may conclude the necessity of implementing some actions in the area, and where those actions would be more effective for the whole heritage site.

Keywords: Graphs, Spatial analysis, Urban Networks, heritage cities

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11 Hydrogeomatic System for the Economic Evaluation of Damage by Flooding in Mexico

Authors: Alondra Balbuena Medina, Carlos Diaz Delgado, Aleida Yadira Vilchis Fránces

Abstract:

In Mexico, each year news is disseminated about the ravages of floods, such as the total loss of housing, damage to the fields; the increase of the costs of the food, derived from the losses of the harvests, coupled with health problems such as skin infection, etc. In addition to social problems such as delinquency, damage in education institutions and the population in general. The flooding is a consequence of heavy rains, tropical storms and or hurricanes that generate excess water in drainage systems that exceed its capacity. In urban areas, heavy rains can be one of the main factors in causing flooding, in addition to excessive precipitation, dam breakage, and human activities, for example, excessive garbage in the strainers. In agricultural areas, these can hardly achieve large areas of cultivation. It should be mentioned that for both areas, one of the significant impacts of floods is that they can permanently affect the livelihoods of many families, cause damage, for example in their workplaces such as farmlands, commercial or industry areas and where services are provided. In recent years, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have had an accelerated development, being reflected in the growth and the exponential evolution of the innovation giving; as a result, the daily generation of new technologies, updates, and applications. Innovation in the development of Information Technology applications has impacted on all areas of human activity. They influence all the orders of life of individuals, reconfiguring the way of perceiving and analyzing the world such as, for instance, interrelating with people as individuals and as a society, in the economic, political, social, cultural, educational, environmental, etc. Therefore the present work describes the creation of a system of calculation of flood costs for housing areas, retail establishments and agricultural areas from the Mexican Republic, based on the use and application of geotechnical tools being able to be useful for the benefit of the sectors of public, education and private. To generate analysis of hydrometereologic affections and with the obtained results to realize the Geoinformatics tool was constructed from two different points of view: the geoinformatic (design and development of GIS software) and the methodology of flood damage validation in order to integrate a tool that provides the user the monetary estimate of the effects caused by the floods. With information from the period 2000-2014, the functionality of the application was corroborated. For the years 2000 to 2009 only the analysis of the agricultural and housing areas was carried out, incorporating for the commercial establishment's information of the period 2010 - 2014. The method proposed for the resolution of this research project is a fundamental contribution to society, in addition to the tool itself. Therefore, it can be summarized that the problems that are in the physical-geographical environment, conceiving them from the point of view of the spatial analysis, allow to offer different alternatives of solution and also to open up slopes towards academia and research.

Keywords: Technological innovation, floods, Spatial analysis, monetary estimation

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10 The Use of Indicators to Evaluate Minor Heritage Areas in a City

Authors: J. L. Oliver, T. Agryzkov, L. Tortosa, J. Santacruz, J. F. Vicent

Abstract:

This paper aims to demonstrate how a system of indicators can be used in order to evaluate some heritage areas which can be understood as minor ones. We mean by that those urban areas with high heritage interest from an academical point of view, but never properly valued. The reasons for this situation may be diverse, either they are not old enough, or they may show the modest architecture, the fact is these areas have not been considered deserving of protection, as the historical ones. As a result of this reality, they usually show now a very degraded urban space, which in addition contribute to accelerate a process of deterioration. Using a technic well known in urban design, we propose here a system of indicators for patrimonial purposes, as a tool to identify and quantify the heritage value of these kinds of areas. As a case study, we apply this system in some part of the City of Quito (El Ecuador).

Keywords: Spatial analysis, indicators, heritage cities, historic sites

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9 Spatial Analysis for Wind Risk Index Assessment

Authors: Ljiljana Seric, Vladimir Divic, Marin Bugaric

Abstract:

This paper presents methodology for spatial analysis of GIS data that is used for assessing the microlocation risk index from potential damages of high winds. The analysis is performed on freely available GIS data comprising information about wind load, terrain cover and topography of the area. The methodology utilizes the legislation of Eurocode norms for determination of wind load of buildings and constructions. The core of the methodology is adoption of the wind load parameters related to location on geographical spatial grid. Presented work is a part of the Wind Risk Project, supported by the European Commission under the Civil Protection Financial Instrument of the European Union (ECHO). The partners involved in Wind Risk project performed Wind Risk assessment and proposed action plan for three European countries – Slovenia, Croatia and Germany. The proposed method is implemented in GRASS GIS open source GIS software and demonstrated for Case study area of wider area of Split, Croatia. Obtained Wind Risk Index is visualized and correlated with critical infrastructures like buildings, roads and power lines. The results show good correlation between high Wind Risk Index with recent incidents related to wind.

Keywords: GIS, Spatial analysis, Eurocode norms, wind distribution, wind risk

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8 The Use of Geographically Weighted Regression for Deforestation Analysis: Case Study in Brazilian Cerrado

Authors: Ana Paula Camelo, Keila Sanches

Abstract:

The Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) was proposed in geography literature to allow relationship in a regression model to vary over space. In Brazil, the agricultural exploitation of the Cerrado Biome is the main cause of deforestation. In this study, we propose a methodology using geostatistical methods to characterize the spatial dependence of deforestation in the Cerrado based on agricultural production indicators. Therefore, it was used the set of exploratory spatial data analysis tools (ESDA) and confirmatory analysis using GWR. It was made the calibration a non-spatial model, evaluation the nature of the regression curve, election of the variables by stepwise process and multicollinearity analysis. After the evaluation of the non-spatial model was processed the spatial-regression model, statistic evaluation of the intercept and verification of its effect on calibration. In an analysis of Spearman’s correlation the results between deforestation and livestock was +0.783 and with soybeans +0.405. The model presented R²=0.936 and showed a strong spatial dependence of agricultural activity of soybeans associated to maize and cotton crops. The GWR is a very effective tool presenting results closer to the reality of deforestation in the Cerrado when compared with other analysis.

Keywords: Land Use, Deforestation, Spatial analysis, geographically weighted regression

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7 Subjective Mapping Methodologies: Mapping Local Perceptions with Geographic Information Systems

Authors: A. Llopis Alvarez, D. Muller-Eie

Abstract:

Participatory GIS (geographic information systems) are designed for community mapping exercises in order to produce spatial representations of local knowledge. Ideally, participatory GIS caters to public participation through the use of spatial data in order to increase community-led policy-and decision-making. Having defined a spatial object, such as a neighborhood, subjective mapping involves attaining a description of the spatial, physical, social and psychological characteristics of that spatial object. This paper highlights an emerging appreciation of the subjective component, particularly in spatial analyses. The beliefs, feelings, and behaviors associated with an urban area reflect its sense of place for an individual or a group. It is important therefore to understand what types of beliefs, emotions, and behavioral patterns are relevant to particular resident, groups and urban scales. In this sense, resident’s emotional attachment to their urban areas motivates civic engagement and facilitates awareness of its strengths and its problems. Similarly, subjective perceptions act in complex ways to influence the formation and maintenance of social identity and quality of life. This paper reports on findings from a case study of immigrant population in Norwegian cities, their residential conditions and their relationship to quality of urban life. Cognitive mapping methodologies are used in this study to understand local perceptions of urban qualities. Thus, measures to alleviate disadvantages and improve quality of urban life are more likely to be effective when they are informed by an understanding of a place as constructed by those who live in it, meaning their subjective perceptions about it.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, Public Participation, mapping methodologies, participatory GIS, perceptual maps, subjective perceptions

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6 Analysis of the Effects of Institutions on the Sub-National Distribution of Aid Using Geo-Referenced AidData

Authors: Savas Yildiz

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The article assesses the performance of international aid donors to determine the sub-national distribution of their aid projects dependent on recipient countries’ governance. The present paper extends the scope from a cross-country perspective to a more detailed analysis by looking at the effects of institutional qualities on the sub-national distribution of foreign aid. The analysis examines geo-referenced aid project in 37 countries and 404 regions at the first administrative division level in Sub-Saharan Africa from the World Bank (WB) and the African Development Bank (ADB) that were approved between the years 2000 and 2011. To measure the influence of institutional qualities on the distribution of aid the following measures are used: control of corruption, government effectiveness, regulatory quality and rule of law from the World Governance Indicators (WGI) and the corruption perception index from Transparency International. Furthermore, to assess the importance of ethnic heterogeneity on the sub-national distribution of aid projects, the study also includes interaction terms measuring ethnic fragmentation. The regression results indicate a general skew of aid projects towards regions which hold capital cities, however, being incumbent presidents’ birth region does not increase the allocation of aid projects significantly. Nevertheless, with increasing quality of institutions aid projects are less skewed towards capital regions and the previously estimated coefficients loose significance in most cases. Higher ethnic fragmentation also seems to impede the possibility to allocate aid projects mainly in capital city regions and presidents’ birth places. Additionally, to assess the performance of the WB based on its own proclaimed goal to aim the poor in a country, the study also includes sub-national wealth data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DSH), and finds that, even with better institutional qualities, regions with a larger share from the richest quintile receive significantly more aid than regions with a larger share of poor people. With increasing ethnic diversity, the allocation of aid projects towards regions where the richest citizens reside diminishes, but still remains high and significant. However, regions with a larger share of poor people still do not receive significantly more aid. This might imply that the sub-national distribution of aid projects increases in general with higher ethnic fragmentation, independent of the diverse regional needs. The results provide evidence that institutional qualities matter to undermine the influence of incumbent presidents on the allocation of aid projects towards their birth regions and capital regions. Moreover, even for countries with better institutional qualities the WB and the ADB do not seem to be able to aim the poor in a country with their aid projects. Even, if one considers need-based variables, such as infant mortality and child mortality rates, aid projects do not seem to be allocated in districts with a larger share of people in need. Therefore, the study provides further evidence using more detailed information on the sub-national distribution of aid projects that aid is not being allocated effectively towards regions with a larger share of poor people to alleviate poverty in recipient countries directly. Institutions do not have any significant influence on the sub-national distribution of aid towards the poor.

Keywords: Institutions, Spatial analysis, aid allocation, georeferenced data

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5 A Geographical Spatial Analysis on the Benefits of Using Wind Energy in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid AlOtaibi, Salman Hussain

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Wind energy is associated with many geographical factors including wind speed, climate change, surface topography, environmental impacts, and several economic factors, most notably the advancement of wind technology and energy prices. It is the fastest-growing and least economically expensive method for generating electricity. Wind energy generation is directly related to the characteristics of spatial wind. Therefore, the feasibility study for the wind energy conversion system is based on the value of the energy obtained relative to the initial investment and the cost of operation and maintenance. In Kuwait, wind energy is an appropriate choice as a source of energy generation. It can be used in groundwater extraction in agricultural areas such as Al-Abdali in the north and Al-Wafra in the south, or in fresh and brackish groundwater fields or remote and isolated locations such as border areas and projects away from conventional power electricity services, to take advantage of alternative energy, reduce pollutants, and reduce energy production costs. The study covers the State of Kuwait with an exception of metropolitan area. Climatic data were attained through the readings of eight distributed monitoring stations affiliated with Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). The data were used to assess the daily, monthly, quarterly, and annual available wind energy accessible for utilization. The researchers applied the Suitability Model to analyze the study by using the ArcGIS program. It is a model of spatial analysis that compares more than one location based on grading weights to choose the most suitable one. The study criteria are: the average annual wind speed, land use, topography of land, distance from the main road networks, urban areas. According to the previous criteria, the four proposed locations to establish wind farm projects are selected based on the weights of the degree of suitability (excellent, good, average, and poor). The percentage of areas that represents the most suitable locations with an excellent rank (4) is 8% of Kuwait’s area. It is relatively distributed as follows: Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdeba, Al-Salmi (5.22%), Al-Abdali (1.22%), Umm al-Hayman (0.70%), North Wafra and Al-Shaqeeq (0.86%). The study recommends to decision-makers to consider the proposed location (No.1), (Al-Shqaya, Al-Dabdaba, and Al-Salmi) as the most suitable location for future development of wind farms in Kuwait, this location is economically feasible.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Wind energy, Spatial analysis, Kuwait

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4 Assessing Spatial Associations of Mortality Patterns in Municipalities of the Czech Republic

Authors: Jitka Rychtarikova

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Regional differences in mortality in the Czech Republic (CR) may be moderate from a broader European perspective, but important discrepancies in life expectancy can be found between smaller territorial units. In this study territorial units are based on Administrative Districts of Municipalities with Extended Powers (MEP). This definition came into force January 1, 2003. There are 205 units and the city of Prague. MEP represents the smallest unit for which mortality patterns based on life tables can be investigated and the Czech Statistical Office has been calculating such life tables (every five-years) since 2004. MEP life tables from 2009-2013 for males and females allowed the investigation of three main life cycles with the use of temporary life expectancies between the exact ages of 0 and 35; 35 and 65; and the life expectancy at exact age 65. The results showed regional survival inequalities primarily in adult and older ages. Consequently, only mortality indicators for adult and elderly population were related to census 2011 unlinked data for the same age groups. The most relevant socio-economic factors taken from the census are: having a partner, educational level and unemployment rate. The unemployment rate was measured for adults aged 35-64 completed years. Exploratory spatial data analysis methods were used to detect regional patterns in spatially contiguous units of MEP. The presence of spatial non-stationarity (spatial autocorrelation) of mortality levels for male and female adults (35-64), and elderly males and females (65+) was tested using global Moran’s I. Spatial autocorrelation of mortality patterns was mapped using local Moran’s I with the intention to depict clusters of low or high mortality and spatial outliers for two age groups (35-64 and 65+). The highest Moran’s I was observed for male temporary life expectancy between exact ages 35 and 65 (0.52) and the lowest was among women with life expectancy of 65 (0.26). Generally, men showed stronger spatial autocorrelation compared to women. The relationship between mortality indicators such as life expectancies and socio-economic factors like the percentage of males/females having a partner; percentage of males/females with at least higher secondary education; and percentage of unemployed males/females from economically active population aged 35-64 years, was evaluated using multiple regression (OLS). The results were then compared to outputs from geographically weighted regression (GWR). In the Czech Republic, there are two broader territories North-West Bohemia (NWB) and North Moravia (NM), in which excess mortality is well established. Results of the t-test of spatial regression showed that for males aged 30-64 the association between mortality and unemployment (when adjusted for education and partnership) was stronger in NM compared to NWB, while educational level impacted the length of survival more in NWB. Geographic variation and relationships in mortality of the CR MEP will also be tested using the spatial Durbin approach. The calculations were conducted by means of ArcGIS 10.6 and SAS 9.4.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, Mortality, Municipality, Czech Republic, socio-economic factors

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3 A Two-Stage Bayesian Variable Selection Method with the Extension of Lasso for Geo-Referenced Data

Authors: Georgiana Onicescu, Yuqian Shen

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Due to the complex nature of geo-referenced data, multicollinearity of the risk factors in public health spatial studies is a commonly encountered issue, which leads to low parameter estimation accuracy because it inflates the variance in the regression analysis. To address this issue, we proposed a two-stage variable selection method by extending the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) to the Bayesian spatial setting, investigating the impact of risk factors to health outcomes. Specifically, in stage I, we performed the variable selection using Bayesian Lasso and several other variable selection approaches. Then, in stage II, we performed the model selection with only the selected variables from stage I and compared again the methods. To evaluate the performance of the two-stage variable selection methods, we conducted a simulation study with different distributions for the risk factors, using geo-referenced count data as the outcome and Michigan as the research region. We considered the cases when all candidate risk factors are independently normally distributed, or follow a multivariate normal distribution with different correlation levels. Two other Bayesian variable selection methods, Binary indicator, and the combination of Binary indicator and Lasso were considered and compared as alternative methods. The simulation results indicated that the proposed two-stage Bayesian Lasso variable selection method has the best performance for both independent and dependent cases considered. When compared with the one-stage approach, and the other two alternative methods, the two-stage Bayesian Lasso approach provides the highest estimation accuracy in all scenarios considered.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, Spatial analysis, LASSO, variable selection

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2 Empirical Modeling and Spatial Analysis of Heat-Related Morbidity in Maricopa County, Arizona

Authors: Chuyuan Wang, Nayan Khare, Lily Villa, Patricia Solis, Elizabeth A. Wentz

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Maricopa County, Arizona, has a semi-arid hot desert climate that is one of the hottest regions in the United States. The exacerbated urban heat island (UHI) effect caused by rapid urbanization has made the urban area even hotter than the rural surroundings. The Phoenix metropolitan area experiences extremely high temperatures in the summer from June to September that can reach the daily highest of 120 °F (48.9 °C). Morbidity and mortality due to the environmental heat is, therefore, a significant public health issue in Maricopa County, especially because it is largely preventable. Public records from the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) revealed that between 2012 and 2016, there were 10,825 incidents of heat-related morbidity incidents, 267 outdoor environmental heat deaths, and 173 indoor heat-related deaths. A lot of research has examined heat-related death and its contributing factors around the world, but little has been done regarding heat-related morbidity issues, especially for regions that are naturally hot in the summer. The objective of this study is to examine the demographic, socio-economic, housing, and environmental factors that contribute to heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. We obtained heat-related morbidity data between 2012 and 2016 at census tract level from MCDPH. Demographic, socio-economic, and housing variables were derived using 2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimate from the U.S. Census. Remotely sensed Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI satellite images and Level-1 products were acquired for all the summer months (June to September) from 2012 and 2016. The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2016 percent tree canopy and percent developed imperviousness data were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis to examine the empirical relationship between all the independent variables and heat-related morbidity rate. Results showed that higher morbidity rates are found in census tracts with higher values in population aged 65 and older, population under poverty, disability, no vehicle ownership, white non-Hispanic, population with less than high school degree, land surface temperature, and surface reflectance, but lower values in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and housing occupancy. The regression model can be used to explain up to 59.4% of total variation of heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. The multiscale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) technique was then used to examine the spatially varying relationships between heat-related morbidity rate and all the significant independent variables. The R-squared value of the MGWR model increased to 0.691, that shows a significant improvement in goodness-of-fit than the global OLS model, which means that spatial heterogeneity of some independent variables is another important factor that influences the relationship with heat-related morbidity in Maricopa County. Among these variables, population aged 65 and older, the Hispanic population, disability, vehicle ownership, and housing occupancy have much stronger local effects than other variables.

Keywords: Spatial analysis, Census, empirical modeling, heat-related morbidity

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1 Multi-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Change within High Contaminated Watersheds by Superfund Sites in Wisconsin

Authors: Punwath Prum

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Superfund site is recognized publicly to be a severe environmental problem to surrounding communities and biodiversity due to its hazardous chemical waste from industrial activities. It contaminates the soil and water but also is a leading potential point-source pollution affecting ecosystem in watershed areas from chemical substances. The risks of Superfund site on watershed can be effectively measured by utilizing publicly available data and geospatial analysis by free and open source application. This study analyzed the vegetation change within high risked contaminated watersheds in Wisconsin. The high risk watersheds were measured by which watershed contained high number Superfund sites. The study identified two potential risk watersheds in Lafayette and analyzed the temporal changes of vegetation within the areas based on Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) analysis. The raster statistic was used to compare the change of NDVI value over the period. The analysis results showed that the NDVI value within the Superfund sites’ boundary has a significant lower value than nearby surrounding and provides an analogy for environmental hazard affect by the chemical contamination in Superfund site.

Keywords: watershed, Spatial analysis, Soil Contamination

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